ArticlePDF Available

Smart production of spirulina (Spirulina platensis) using supernatant of digested rotten potato (Solanum tuberosum)

Authors:
  • Khulna Agricultural University

Abstract and Figures

The study was conducted to evaluate the culture and growth performance of spirulina (Spirulina platensis) in supernatant of three different amounts of digested rotten potato (DRP), and Kosaric medium (KM) as control in 16 days after 26 days digestion. Three different concentrations such as 20, 40 and 60% of DRP were used. Spirulina was inoculated in supernatant DRP along with 9.0 g/L NaHCO 3 and micronutrients, and KM for a period of 14 days. The cell weight of spirulina was attained a maximum of 12.42 ± 0.21 mg/L in KM followed by 8.352 ± 0.21, 6.256 ± 2.34 and 9.505 ± 0.43 mg/L in supernatant of 40, 20 and 60% DRP, respectively on the 10 th day of culture. Similar trend was also observed in the cases of optical density, chlorophyll a, total biomass, specific growth rates. Cell weight of spirulina grown in the media were highly significant (p<0.01) and correlated with the chlorophyll a content and total biomass. The growth performance of spirulina grown in supernatant of 60% DRP was significantly higher than that of spirulina grown in supernatant of 20 and 40% DRP. Therefore, mass culture of spirulina may be done in supernatant of 60% DRP.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Vol 2 No 1 March 2021 Pages 62-69 e-ISSN 2708-5694
Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment (JAFE)
Journal Homepage: http://journal.safebd.org/index.php/jafe
http://doi.org/10.47440/JAFE.2021.2111
Original Article
Smart production of spirulina (Spirulina platensis) using supernatant of digested
rotten potato (Solanum tuberosum)
M. A. A. Hossain1, M. H. Rahman2*, M. S. Hossain1, M. A. B. Habib1, M. A. Uddin3 AND F. Sarker4
1 Department of Aquaculture, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202
2* Department of Aquaculture, Khulna Agricultural University, Khulna-9100
3 Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Bangladesh
4 Department of Life Science, University of Tasmania, Hobart-7005, Australia
A B S T R A C T
Article History
Received: 02 March 2021
Revised: 20 March 2021
Accepted: 23 March 2021
Published online: 31 March 2021
*Corresponding Author
M. H. Rahman, E-mail:
hamidurbau@yahoo.com
Keywords
Spirulina, Potato, Growth, Kosaric medium,
Optical density.
The study was conducted to evaluate the culture and growth performance of
spirulina (Spirulina platensis) in supernatant of three different amounts of
digested rotten potato (DRP), and Kosaric medium (KM) as control in 16 days
after 26 days digestion. Three different concentrations such as 20, 40 and 60%
of DRP were used. Spirulina was inoculated in supernatant DRP along with 9.0
g/L NaHCO3 and micronutrients, and KM for a period of 14 days. The cell
weight of spirulina was attained a maximum of 12.42 ± 0.21 mg/L in KM
followed by 8.352 ± 0.21, 6.256 ± 2.34 and 9.505 ± 0.43 mg/L in supernatant of
40, 20 and 60% DRP, respectively on the 10th day of culture. Similar trend was
also observed in the cases of optical density, chlorophyll a, total biomass,
specific growth rates. Cell weight of spirulina grown in the media were highly
significant (p<0.01) and correlated with the chlorophyll a content and total
biomass. The growth performance of spirulina grown in supernatant of 60%
DRP was significantly higher than that of spirulina grown in supernatant of 20
and 40% DRP. Therefore, mass culture of spirulina may be done in supernatant
of 60% DRP.
© Society of Agriculture, Food and Environment (SAFE)
Introduction
Spirulina is a multi-celluar, blue-green algae. They are very
small and microscopic and 300-500µm in duration. Sizeable
amounts of phosphorous, magnesium, zinc and pepsin
discovered in spirulina. The cellular wall of Sizeable amounts
of phosphorous, magnesium, zinc and pepsin discovered in
spirulina. The cellular wall of spirulina includes
polysaccharide which has 86% digestibility and could be
easily absorbed in human body (Li., 1995). Many elements
are critical for the manufacturing of spirulina at huge scale of
which most critical are nutrient availability, temperature and
mild intensities. The filamentous cyanobacteria such as
spirulina are observed to be most well suited microorganisms
for the utilization of waste and waste water as they're capable
of produce big quantity of biomass and their harvesting is
likewise fantastically clean due to their shape. Also these
wastes reduce the fee of nutrient medium and act as a source
of cheap nutrient medium for cultivation of spirulina.
Business genesis of spirulina can be made price effective by
reducing the enter value with penny and effectively to be had
materials without sacrificing the manufacturing efficiency.
After taking 10g spirulina drugs per day for 4 weeks, woman
athletes showed increase in their homo chrome level, whereas
the male athletes did not show any obvious increase however
lung capacity of youth weight lifting and jujutsu athletes
become progressed. The spirulina pill had no effect on blood
pressure (Gerald et al., 1983). Spirulina could serve as an
auxiliary cure for many diseases which have shown by
clinical traits. Spirulina pill has improved the coalitions in
lowering blood lipid stage and in reducing white blood
corpuscles after radiotherapy and chemotherapy in addition
to reducing immunological feature (Ruan et al., 1990).
Spirulina (S. platensis) is a “super-food” among the most
plants and even good quality animal food Ronald et al.,
(1990). It has a rich, vibrant history and occupies an
intriguing biological and ecological niche in the plant
kingdom. Spirulina is a spiral-shaped, blue-green microalgae
that grows naturally in the wild in alkaline lakes, sea water
and saltwater. Its deep blue-green colour what gives the water
its greenish hues. For centuries, civilizations the world over
cultivated and cherished spirulina for its health-improving
benefits (Habib, 1998). It has been used last ten years as a
Hossain et al., 2021
J. Agric. Food Environ. 2(1): 62-69, 2021 63
model organism in many studies on outdoor cultivation of
algal biomass as a source of proteins and chemicals
(Richmond, 1988). Spirulina species not only contribute in
human health but also plays considerable role as animal feed.
It increases the yellowness and redness in broiler flesh when
spirulina fed with diet (Habib et al., 2008). With the
expansion of aquaculture in Bangladesh, there has been an
increasing trend in using chemicals in aquatic animal health
management (Uddin et al., 2020). Spirulina is very much
helpful for fish health. We can use spirulina rather than using
chemical in aquaculture. Spirulina has been consumed from a
very long term in lots of parts of the sector as a food
supplement for human as well as animals in diverse
paperwork like wholesome drink, drugs and powder so on.
Because of its alimentary value. The primary generation
biofuels basically produced from vegetation compete with
different meals crops for arable land and are these days
inclined as secure and reliable renewable energy sources. The
second generation biofuels made out of non-meals feed
stocks, specially being microalgae; had been paid increasing
interest to compare with the first era biofuels. There are a few
blessings for microalgae together with high productiveness,
much less land use, low requirement of water excellent,
environmental use (for wastewater treatment and carbon
dioxide (CO2) bio-mitigation), Wijffels et al. (2010).
Microalgae play a vital role in oxygen in addition to carbon
dioxide stability within the water. It acts not most effective
on agro-chemical but additionally animal wastes as nicely
through changing them into meals substances. As why
spirulina offers: approximately 60 percent complete
digestible protein, round 6-10 percent lipids, micro-vitamins,
macro-vitamins and lots of other hint factors. It contains
every essential amino acid, contains more carotenoids than
any other whole food and this is an excellent source of
vitamins A, K, B1, B2, B12 and iron, manganese, chromium
etc. (Becker 2007). Can be a higher source of gamma linoleic
acid (GLA) - an vital fatty acid, that is essential for human
fitness. It plays a treasured position in mind functions in
addition to normal growth and improvement. In food
industries it performs various capabilities as a thickener,
binder, disrupting agent, stabilizer, texture modifier, gelling
and a bulking agent, useful in the upkeep of canned and
frozen meals, in the system of syrups, essences 1423 and
drinks, in confectionery and bakery, snacks, backery and
mushroom lets in (Burrell et al., 2003). Therefore, to
accelerate the improvement of aquaculture industry, it's far
critical to way of life spirulina.
The closing purpose of this experiment turned into to expand
low fee media for huge scale manufacturing of spirulina.
Those rotten potatoes or spoiled potato are thrown as waste
material out of doors which decomposes and creates
environmental risks. However it carries excessive damaged
natural and inorganic vitamins, and high biological oxygen
call for (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), total
dissolved solids, general suspended solids, nitrate, phosphate
and additionally inorganic vitamins (Habib, 1998). Those
organic and inorganic nutrients rich in carbon can help to
develop S. platensis in supernatant after cardio or anaerobic
digestion of potatoes. Potato has the suitability and efficacy
as prebiotic compound on the growth performance and
survival rate of fish (Islam et al., 2020). Therefore, the
prevailing work was undertaken to take a look at the smart
production of spirulina by means of supernatant of digested
rotten potato (Solenum tuberosum) to measure the growth
performances of S. platensis in 3 exclusive concentration of
supernatant of digested rotten potato.
Materials and Methods
Study area
The study was performed inside the Laboratory of Fish
Nutrition, Department of Aquaculture, Water Quality
Laboratory within the department of Fisheries Management
and Genetics Laboratory in the department of Fisheries
Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Fisheries, Bangladesh
Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202.
Culture of microalgae, Spirulina
Collection of rotten potato
The rotten potato become selected as medium for S. platensis
culture because of presence of excessive natural in addition
to inorganic vitamins specifically carbohydrate. The rotten
potato becomes accrued from Seshmore market, BAU,
Mymensigh. It became reduce into portions and used to
digest in cardio circumstance, some element become dried,
floor, packed in polythene bag and kept in the laboratory for
future use.
Collection of spirulina (S. platensis)
Microalgae Spirulina platensis was collected from the stock
of the laboratory of Live Food Culture department of
Aquaculture, BAU, Mymensingh. For obtaining pure culture
of spirulina maintained hygiene stock Torzillo et al., (1986).
Maintenance of pure stock culture of spirulina
Pure stock culture of S. platensis was maintained in the
laboratory in Kosaric Medium (KM) (Modified after Zarrouk,
1996). Growth of S. platensis was monitored at every
alternative day and was checked under microscope to confirm
its purity following keys of Bold and Wynne (1978),
Vymazal (1995) and Phang and Chu (1999).
Preparation of supernatant of DRP and Kosaric Medium
(KM)
400 g/4.0 L wet rotten potato was allowed to decompose in
5.0 L glass bottle for 26 days under aerobic condition (Plate
1) in the laboratory of Animal Nutrition, BAU, Mymensingh.
Then a Light reddish white coloured supernatant from bottle
was screened through a net of 30 µm, mixed with 9.0 g/L
sodium bicarbonate and 0.20 ml/L micronutrient, then diluted
and made three concentrations at the rate of 20, 40 and 60%
of decomposed rotten potato (Table 1). Then the supernatant
of three different concentrations were taken in 2.0 L flask
with three replications. Simultaneously, Kosaric medium
(KM) was prepared for S. platensis culture as a control
(Table 2). Then the medium in flasks have been blended
properly and sterilized at 120°C for 15 minutes for 15
minutes with wet warmth with the aid of autoclave. After
autoclaving, the media were saved for 24 hours to make
certain approximately any infection loose earlier than
lifestyle of microalgae.
Hossain et al., 2021
J. Agric. Food Environ. 2(1): 62-69, 2021 64
Table 1. Experimental design for Spirulina platensis
culture using supernatant of three different
concentrations of digested rotten potato (DRP)
Treatments
Replications
Amounts of
rotten potato
(%)
Duration
of
culture
(days)
T1
3 (101,102
and 103)
20
14
T2
3 (201, 202,
203)
40
T3
3 (301, 302,
303)
60
T4
3(KM-1,
KM-2 and
KM-3)
-
For the preparation of Kosaric medium, the above-cited
quantity (Table 2) of substances from no. 1 to 8 turned into
weighed and took in a 1.0 L conical flask. Then 0.5 ml
micronutrient answer became pipetted within the flask and
distilled water changed into added to make the extent 1.0 L.
blending, autoclaving and cooling were carried out pursuing
the manner used all through the coaching of digested rotten
potato media.
Culture of spirulina (S. platensis) in supernatant of DRP
and KM
Four treatments, three from supernatant of digested rotten
potato for three different concentrations (20, 40 and 60%)
and one Kosaric medium (KM) as control each with three
replications were used to grow microalgae, S. platensis in 1.0
L volumetric flask. Spirulina was inoculated into each culture
flask to produce a culture containing 10% spirulina
suspension (Optical density at 620 nm = 0.20) (Habib, 1998).
Twenty ml of spirulina suspension needed for getting the
required density. All the flasks were kept under fluorescent
lights in light: dark (12h:12h) conditions in Live Food
Culture laboratory.
These culture flasks were constantly aerated the usage of
electric powered aerator. Four sub-sampling have been
executed at each alternative day from every flask to
document dry cellular weight and chlorophyll a content of
spirulina, and houses of subculture media. All the glassware
used inside the experiment becomes sterilized with dry heat
at 70oC overnight.
Estimation of cell weight (dry weight) of spirulina
(Clesceri et al., 1989)
Sample containing 20 ml spirulina suspension was filtered
through a Sartorius filter paper of mesh size 0.45 µm and
diameter 47 mm. The filter papers were dried in an oven for
24 hours or overnight at 70°C and weighed prior to filtration.
The filtered samples were washed three times to remove
insoluble salts.
Table 2. Composition of Kosaric medium (Modified after
Zarrouk, 1996) for Spirulina platensis culture
SL. No.
Chemicals/ compounds
Concentration in
stock solution g/L
1.
NaHCO3
9.0
2.
K2HPO4
0.250
3.
NaNO3
1.250
4.
K2SO4
0.50
5.
NaCl
0.50
6.
MgSO4.7H2O
0.10
7.
CaCl2
0.02
8.
FeSO4.2H2O
0.005
9.
A5 micronutrient solutiona
0.5ml/L
a) A5 micronutrient solution
G/L
i) H3BO4
2.86
ii) MnCl2.4H2O
1.81
iii) ZnSO4.7H2O
0.22
iv) CuSO4.5H2O
0.08
v) MoO3
0.01
vi) CoCl2.6H2O
0.01
After that the filter papers had been installed a glass petridish
and stored within the oven at 70°C over night time. For
cooling, petridish have been positioned into desiccator for 20
minutes and then clear out paper became weighed. The dry
weight of algae on the clear out paper turned into measured
using the subsequent equation:
Dry weight (mg/L),
100
(ml)filtrationfortakensampleofAmount
IFWFFW
W
Where,
W = Cell dry weight in mg/L;
FFW = Final filter paper weight in g; and
IFW = Initial filter paper weight in g.
Estimation of chlorophyll a of spirulina (Clesceri et al.,
1989)
The samples of S. platensis were collected in different times
and chlorophyll a content of S. platensis was estimated. Ten
ml of S. platensis sample was filtered with an electric
filtration unit using filter papers (Sartorius filter paper of 0.45
µm mesh size and 47 mm). These filtered samples together
with filter paper were taken into check tube and floor with
glass rod and ultimately blended with 10 ml of 100%
redistilled acetone. Every of the take a look at tubes turned
into wrapped with aluminum foil paper to inhibit the touch of
mild. The wrapped test tubes were kept right into a
refrigerator overnight. Then the refrigerated sample was
homogenized for 2 minutes followed by centrifugation at
4000 rpm for 10 minutes. After centrifugation the supernatant
was isolated and taken for chlorophyll a determination.
Optical densities of the samples were determined at 664 nm,
647 nm and 630 nm by using UV spectrophotometer
(Clesceri et al., 1989). A blank with 100% acetone was run
simultaneously. Chlorophyll a content was calculated by the
following formula:
Chlorophyll a (mg/L) = 11.85 (OD 664) 1.54 (OD 647)
0.08 (OD 630)
Total biomass of spirulina (S. platensis)
Total biomass was calculated using the following formula
given by Vonshak and Richmond (1988):
Total biomass = Chlorophyll a x 67
Hossain et al., 2021
J. Agric. Food Environ. 2(1): 62-69, 2021 65
Specific growth rate (SGR) on the basis of dry weight,
chlorophyll a content and total biomass of spirulina
(Clesceri et al., 1989)
Specific growth rate (µ/day) of cultured spirulina on the
basis of dry weight
SGR (µ/day) = In (X1-X2)/t1-t2
Where,
X1 = Dry weight of biomass concentration of the end of
selected time interval;
X2 = Dry weight biomass concentration at beginning of
selected time interval; and
t1-t2 =Elapsed time between selected time in the day.
Specific growth rate (µ/day) of cultured spirulina on the
basis of chlorophyll a
SGR (µ/day) = In (X1-X2)/t1-t2
Where,
X1 = Chlorophyll a at the end of selected time interval;
X2 = Chlorophyll a at the beginning of selected time interval;
and
t1-t2 = Elapsed time between selected time in the day.
Specific growth rate (µ/day) of cultured spirulina on the
basis of total biomass
SGR (µ/day) = In (X1-X2)/t1-t2
Where,
X1 = Total biomass at the end of selected time interval;
X2 = Total biomass at the beginning of selected time interval;
and
t1-t2 = Elapsed time between selected time in the day.
Statistical analysis
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of imply cell weight and
chlorophyll a of S. platensis cultured in exclusive media had
been carried out. To locate where there’s any great distinction
among treatment means turned into performed by means of
Duncan’s multiple range take a look at (DMRT) the usage of
statistical bundle following Zar (1984).
(a) (b)
Plate 1. (a) Suppling aeration for potato digestion in
SEBO248A aquarium pump with continuous electricity,
(b) Potato juice after filtration.
Plate 2. Preparing solutions with potato juice, urea,
micro-nutrient and sodium bicarbonate.
Results
Growth parameters of spirulina (S. platensis)
Optical density of media contained spirulina
Optical density (OD) of media contained spirulina was
discovered to elevated as much as 10th day of culture of all of
the media of digested rotten potato media (DRPM) and
Kosaric medium and then reduced up to 14th day of
experiment (Figure 1). However, OD of 20% DRPM
contained spirulina was 0.947 ± 0.12 g/L (Figure 1), where
highest OD of 40% DRPM contained spirulina was found
0.565±0.103 (Figure 1). The OD of supernatant of 60%
DRPM contained spirulina was 0.387 ± 0.062 g/L (Figure 1).
The highest optical density of Kosaric medium contained
spirulina was 2.61 ± 0.22 g/L (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Mean values of optical density of media
contained Spirulina platensis in supernatant of three
different digested rotten potato, and Kosaric medium.
Vertical bars represent standard errors.
Cell weight of spirulina
Cell weight (mg/L) of spirulina cultured in all the media was
found higher on 12th day of culture than other days (Figure
2). Cell weight of spirulina increased from initial day (first
day) up to 10th day (0.002 ± 0 mg/L) of culture of 20%
digested rotten potato media (DRPM) and then decreased up
to 12th day (6.256 ± 2.34 mg/L) of experiment (Figure 2).
However, the highest cell weight of spirulina was found to be
8.352 ± 0.21 mg/L when grown in 40% DRPM (Figure 2).
Cell weight of spirulina increased from initial day (first day)
up to 12th day (9.505 ± 0.43 mg/L) of culture of 60% DRPM
and then decreased up to 14th day 5.554 ± 0.45 mg/L of
experiment (Figure 2). Highest cell weight of Kosaric
medium contained spirulina was 12.42 ± 0.21 mg/L on 12th
day and then decreased up to 14th day of experiment (Figure
2).
Figure 2. Mean values of cell weight (mg/L) of Spirulina
platensis grown in supernatant of three different digested
rotten potato, and Kosaric medium. Vertical bars
represent standard errors.
Chlorophyll a of spirulina
Chlorophyll a of spirulina was found also higher on 12th day
of culture than other days of culture of all the media (Figure
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Optical density
Day
20% DRP
40% DRP
60% DRP
0
5
10
15
2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Cell weight (mg/L)
Day
20% DRP
40% DRP
60% DRP
Hossain et al., 2021
J. Agric. Food Environ. 2(1): 62-69, 2021 66
3). Chlorophyll a of spirulina increased from first day up to
4th day (5.14 ± 0.063 mg/L) of culture of 20% digested rotten
potato media (DRPM) and then decreased up to 14th day
(0.14 ± 0 mg/L) of experiment (Figure 3). However,
chlorophyll a of spirulina cultured in 40% DRPM was 6.072
± 0.004 mg/L on 6th day (Figure 3) and then decreased up to
10th day of culture. Chlorophyll a of spirulina grown in 60%
DRPM was 1.605 ± 0.053 mg/L on 4th day and then
decreased to 2nd day of experiment (Figure 3), where the
highest chlorophyll a of spirulina cultured in Kosaric medium
was 10.53 ± 0.15 mg/L on 10th day and decreased up to 14th
day (last day) of experiment (Figure 3).
Figure 3. Mean values of chlorophyll a (mg/L) of
Spirulina platensis grown in supernatant of three different
digested rotten potato, and Kosaric medium. Vertical
bars represent standard errors.
Total biomass of spirulina
Total biomass (mg/L) of spirulina (S. platensis) grown in all
the media was found to be higher on 10th day of culture than
other days of experiment (Figure 4). Total biomass of
spirulina was increased from initial day (first day) up to 12th
day (344.38 ± 6.02 mg/L) in the culture of 20% digested
rotten potato media (DRPM) and then decreased up to 14th
day (9.38 ± 0.1 mg/L) of experiment (Figure 4). However,
the highest total biomass of spirulina grown in the culture of
40% DRPM was recorded 406.82 ± 0.40 mg/L on 6th day of
culture and then decreased up to 10th day (0 ± 0.00 mg/L)
during the experiment (Figure 4). Again, total biomass of
spirulina cultured in the culture of 60% DRPM was increased
from first day up to 4th day (107.53± 3.56 mg/L) and then
decreased up to 12th day (22.91 ± 3.30 mg/L) of experiment
(Figure 4). The highest total biomass of spirulina cultured in
Kosaric medium was found to be 705.51 ± 9.45 mg/L on 14th
day and then increased up to 12th day (440.19 ± 4.42 mg/L)
during experiment (Figure 4).
Figure 4. Mean values of total biomass (mg/L) of
Spirulina platensis grown in supernatant of three different
digested rotten potato, and Kosaric medium. Vertical
bars represent standard errors.
Comparison of growth parameters of spirulina (Spirulina
platensis) of 10th day of culture
Optical density of media contained spirulina
Optical density of supernatant of 40% digested rotten potato
(DRPM) and Kosaric medium contained spirulina (S.
platensis) was significantly (p < 0.01) higher than that of two
other media (20% DRPM) and (60% DRPM) (Table 3).
There was no significant (p > 0.05) difference among optical
density of 20% DRPM and Kosaric medium, and among 40%
and 60% DRPM during the study.
Cell weight of spirulina
Highest cell weight (mg/L) of spirulina grown in Kosaric
medium was recorded (Table 3). Cell weight of spirulina
grown in Kosaric medium and supernatant of 40% DRPM
was varied significantly (p < 0.01) from that cultured in
supernatant of 20% and 60% DRPM (Table 3). However,
there was no significant (p > 0.01) difference of cell weight
of spirulina grown in 20% and 60% DRPM.
Chlorophyll a of spirulina
Chlorophyll a (mg/L) of spirulina grown in Kosaric medium
and supernatant of 40% digested rotten potato (DRPM) was
significantly (p < 0.01) higher than that of spirulina cultured
in 20% and 60% DRPM (Table 3). There was no significant
difference among the Chlorophyll a of spirulina grown in
Kosaric medium and supernatant of 40% DRPM, and among
the same of spirulina cultured in supernatant of 20% and 60%
DRPM.
Total biomass of spirulina (S. platensis)
Total biomass (mg/L) of spirulina cultured in Kosaric
medium and supernatant of 40% DRPM was significantly (p
< 0.01) higher than that of spirulina grown in supernatant of
20% and 60% DRPM (Table 3). There was no significant
difference found among the total biomass of spirulina
cultured in supernatant of 20% and 60% DRPM. The culture
of spirulina in supernatant of digested rotten potato in 2.0 L
flasks is presented in Plate 1(b), and culture in 4.0 L flasks on
10th day of experiment.
Table 3. Comparison of cell weight, chlorophyll a and
total biomass of Spirulina platensis grown in supernatant
of different digested rotten potato (DRP), and Kosaric
medium on 10th day of culture before stationary phase
Parameters
T1 (20%
DRP)
T2 (40%
DRP)
T3 (60%
DRP)
T4 (KM)
Optical
density
1.40±0.12b
2.35±0.15a
1.50±0.13b
2.65±0.22a
Cell weight
(mg/L)
7.9±0.20b
11.50±0.55a
9.50±0.45b
12.50±0.21a
Chlorophyll
a (mg/L)
7.35±0.12b
10.50±0.35a
7.50±0.20b
10.60±0.16a
Total
biomass
(mg/L)*
460.05±8.15c
675.05±9.32b
490.79±8.33c
700.50±9.50a
*Total biomass = Chlorophyll a x 67 (Vonshak and Richmond,
1988).Figures in common letters do not differ significantly at 5%
level of probability.
Correlation among the growth parameters of spirulina
Cell weight of spirulina (S. platensis) had highly significant
(p < 0.01) direct correlation with chlorophyll a (r = 0.993) of
spirulina grown in the supernatant of different digested rotten
media and Kosaric medium during the study (Figure 5).
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Chlorophyll a (mg/L)
Day
20% DRP
40% DRP
60% DRP
KM
0
200
400
600
800
2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Total biomass (mg/L)
Day
20% DRP
40% DRP
60% DRP
KM
Hossain et al., 2021
J. Agric. Food Environ. 2(1): 62-69, 2021 67
Similarly, total biomass of S. platensis was highly (p < 0.01)
and directly correlated with chlorophyll a (r = 0.989) of
spirulina cultured in the supernatant of various digested
rotten potato and Kosaric medium (Figure 6). Again, total
biomass of spirulina was found to be highly (p < 0.01) and
directly correlated with the cell weight (r = 0.925) of
spirulina grown in the supernatant of different digested rotten
potato and Kosaric medium (Figure 7).
Figure 5. Correlation coefficient (r) of cell weight (mg/L)
of Spirulina platensis with chlorophyll a (mg/L) of
spirulina grown in supernatant of three digested liquid
rice starch media and Kosaric medium.
Figure 6. Correlation coefficient (r) of total biomass
(mg/L) of Spirulina platensis with chlorophyll a (mg/L) of
Spirulina grown in supernatant of three digested liquid
rice starch media and Kosaric medium.
Figure 7. Correlation coefficient (r) of total biomass
(mg/L) of Spirulina platensis with cell weight (mg/L) of
spirulina grown in supernatant of three digested liquid
starch media and Kosaric medium.
Specific growth rates (SGRs) of spirulina (S. platensis)
SGR in respect to cell weight of sprulina
Specific growth rate (SGR) in respect to cell weight of
spirulina grown in Kosaric medium and supernatant of 40%
digested rotten potato media (DRPM) was significantly (p
<0.01) higher than that of spirulina cultured in the
supernatant of 20% and 60% DRPM (Table 4). There was no
significant (p > 0.01) difference among the SGR of cell
weight of spirulina grown in Kosaric medium and
supernatant of 40% DRPM, and among the same of spirulina
cultured in the supernatant of 20% and 60% DRPM.
SGR in respect to Chlorophyll a of spirulina (S. platensis)
The SGR in respect to Chlorophyll a of spirulina cultured in
Kosaric medium and supernatant of 40% digested rotten
potato media (DRPM) was significantly (p < 0.01) varied
from that of spirulina grown in the supernatant of 20% and
60% DRPM (Table 4). It had no significant difference when
spirulina grown in Kosaric medium and supernatant of 40%
DRPM, and similar thing happened when spirulina cultured
in the supernatant of 20% and 60% DRPM.
SGR in respect to total biomass of spirulina
The SGR in respect to total biomass of spirulina cultured in
Kosaric medium and supernatant of 40% digested rotten
potato media (DRPM) was significantly (P < 0.01) varied
from that of spirulina grown in the supernatant of 20% and
60% DRPM (Table 4). There was no significant (p < 0.01)
difference recorded among the SGRs on the basis of total
biomass of S. platensis grown in the supernatant of 40%
DRPM and Kosaric medium. Similarly, it had no significant
variation among the SGR on the basis of total biomass of
spirulina when cultured in the supernatant of 20% and 60%
DRPM.
Table 4. Specific growth rates (SGRs) on the basis of cell
weight, chlorophyll a and total biomass of Spirulina
platensis grown in supernatant of different digested rotten
potato media (DRPM), and Kosaric medium
Parameters
T1 (20%
DRPM)
T2 (40%
DRPM)
T3 (60%
DRPM)
T4 (KM)
SGR of cell
weight
0.26±0.021b
0.30±0.022a
0.27±0.014b
0.31±0.021a
SGR of
Chlorophyll
a
0.24±0.012b
0.28±0.014a
0.25±0.011b
0.29±0.014a
SGR of total
biomass
0.75±0.033b
0.80±0.026a
0.76±0.020b
0.81±0.023a
N.B. Figures in common letters in the same row do not differ
significantly at 5% level of probability.
Discussion
S. platensis was cultured in three different concentrations (20,
40 and 60%) of supernatant of digested rotten potato and KM
as control. The cell weight of S. platensis in supernatant of
digested rotten potato were found 0.002 to 6.2 mg/L in 20%
digested rotten potato media (DRPM), 0.0016 to 8.352 g/L in
40% DRPM, 0.0022 to 9.505 mg/L in 60% DRPM and
0.0023 to 12.42 mg/L in KM. The growth performance of S.
platensis in supernatant of 40% DRPM was found better than
20% and 60% DRPM. This transformation might be because
of the differences in nutrient concentrations and composition
of varied media. In controlled KM S. platensis confirmed the
very best boom overall performance. It may be befallen
because of suitability and availability of the vitamins for the
boom of the species. On the other hand 20% DRPM showed
lower growth performance of S. platensis in relation to 40%
and 60% DRPM. This might be due to higher dilution and
lower concentration of the nutrients in the media. The
concentration of 40% and 60% DRPM which are suitable and
favorable for the growth of S. platensis because of the
nutrient content. The comparative observe of growth
Hossain et al., 2021
J. Agric. Food Environ. 2(1): 62-69, 2021 68
performance S. platensis in one of a kind attention of the
media suggests better dilution followed lower awareness of
nutrients and lower growth overall performance. During
culture of S. platensis, the exponential phase was found up to
10th day from the beginning and then the cell weight
declined i.e. stationary phase started. During the culture
system the climate condition was more or less suitable and
less suitable and favorable for the growth of S. platensis.
Satter (2017) recorded the cell weight and chlorophyll a
content of S. platensis was significant (p <0.05) higher in 4.0
g/L digested poultry waste than other media where light
intensity, aeration and temperature played significant role to
the culture system. Similarly, Dey (2004) found that S.
platensis grown in mustard oil cake medium in the
concentration of 3.0, 4.0, 0.5 mg/L and KM. The maximum
growth was 451.0, 614.33, 403.4 and 719.0 mg/L,
respectively. These findings are more or less similar to the
present findings. These present findings are more or less
similar with the findings of Khan (2003) and Habib (1998).
In the present study, the initial cell weight was 0.0022 mg/L
which attained a maximum cell weight of 12.42 mg/L which
grown in KM and 6.256 mg/L in 20% DRPM, 8.352 mg/L in
40% DRPM, 9.505 mg/L in 60% DRPM on the 10th day of
the culture. The chlorophyll a content of inoculated S.
platensis was 0.0015 mg/L which attained a high content of
10.53 mg/L which cultured in KM and 6.072 mg/L in 40%
DRPM at the 12th day of culture. These findings are more or
less similar with the findings of Phang et al. (2000), Habib et
al. (2003), Satter (2017) and Habib et al. (2019). In the
present study, supernatant of digested rotten potato was used
as a media of three concentrations for the culture of S.
platensis. The supernatant of 60% digested rotten potato
showed maximum optical density on the 10th day of culture
comparing with KM which has the similarity with the
findings of Habib et al. (1997, 2003), Satter (2017).
Conclusion
This research was performed on culture and growth
performance of S. platensis in different concentration of
supernatant of digested rotten potato, and KM in which
growth is highest. S. platensis was cultured in supernatant of
various concentration viz., 20, 40 and 60% digested rotten
potato, and KM with three replications for each treatment
under fluorescent light in light: dark (12hr: 12hr) condition
for period of 14th days. Rotten potato may be used to grow
spirulina due to presence of organic carbon as carbohydrate
in potato. Spirulina grows well in supernatant of 60%
digested rotten potato which is equivalent to the growth of
spirulina in Kosaric medium. So, the supernatant of 60%
digested rotten potato should be used to grow spirulina.
Environment may be free from pollution due to use of rotten
potato. So, there is a huge chance of large scale rotten potato
may be used to commercial culture of spirulina and marketed
as live food for the good production and management of fish
health.
References
Becker BW (2007). Micro-algae as a source of protein.
Biotechnology Advances 25: 207-210.
Bold HC & Wynne MJ (1978). Introduction to the Algae:
Structure and Reproduction. 2nd edn., Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA. pp. 706.
Burrell MM & Copeland S (2003). Starch: the need for
improved quality or quantity- an overview. Journal of
Experimental Botany 54: 451-456.
Clesceri LS, Greenberg AE and Trussell RR (1989). Standard
Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste water.
American Public Health Association, American Water
Works Association and Water Pollution Control
Federation. 17th Edn., 1015 Washington D.C., USA. pp.
10-203.
Dey BK (2004). Culture and growth performance of
Spirulina platensis in various concentrations of mustard
oil cake medium, MS Thesis, Department of Aquaculture,
Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202,
Bangladesh. pp. 56.
Gerald R & Cysewski (1983). Hawaiian Spirulina: Super-
food for Super Health. Queen Kaahumanu Highway,
Suite 102, Kailua-Kona, HI 96740 USA. pp. 73-4460.
Habib MAB, Yusoff FM, Phang SM and Mohamed S (1997).
Nutritional values of chironomid larvae grown in palm oil
mill effluent and algal culture. Aquaculture 158:195-205.
Habib MAB (1998). Culture of selected microalgae in rubber
and palm oil effluents and their use in the production of
enriched rotifers. Doctoral Thesis, University of Putra.
Malaysia. pp. 532.
Habib MAB, Yusoff FM, Phang SM and Mohamed S (2003).
Growth and nutritional values of Moina micrura fed on
Chlorella vulgaris grown in digested palm oil mill
effluent. Asian Fisheries Science 16(1-2): 107-119.
Habib MAB, Parvin M, HuntingtonTC and Hasan MR
(2008). Global Review on Culture, Production and Use of
Spirulina as Food for Humans and Feed for Domestic
Animals and Fish. In: TC Huntington (Editor), Report
No. GF FIRID. RA2IP02000600. Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO) of United Nations, Rome, Italy.
pp.33.
Habib MAB, Munni MS and Ferdous Z (2019). Culture and
production of spirulina (Spirulina platensis) in
supernatant of digested rotten potato. Bangladesh Journal
of Fisheries 31(1): 55-64.
Islam MM, Rohani MF, Rahman MH, Tandra TS, Alam M
and Hossain MS (2020). Suitability and efficacy of potato
as prebiotic compound on the growth performance of
rohu (Labeo rohita). Journal of Agriculture, Food and
Environment 1(1): 20-25.
Khan ANMAI (2003). Culture of live food organisms in
sugarcane industry waste and their use as food for Clarias
batrachus fry, PhD. Thesis, Department of aquaculture,
Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh,
Bangladesh.
Li DM (1995). Spirulina as a health food. In: Spirulina.
Chinese Agro technology Publisher, Beijing, China. pp.
21-28.
Phang SM & Chu WL (1999). University of Malaya Algae
Culture Collection (UMACC). Catalogue of Strain.
Institute of Postgraduate Studies and Research, University
of Malaya, Kualalumpur, Malaysia. pp. 77.
Phang SM, Miah MS, Chu WL and Hashim H (2000).
Spirulina culture in digested sago starch factory waste
water. Journal of Applied Phycology 12: 395-400.
Richmond A (1988). Spirulina. In: Borowitzka, M.A.,
Borowitzka, L (eds.). Microalgal Biotechnology,
Cambridge U.P., Cambridge, UK. pp. 85-121.
Ronald H & Henson (1990). Spirulina Algae Improves
Japanese Fish Feeds. Aquaculture Magazine. pp. 38-43.
Ruan JS, Guo BJ and Shu LH (1990). Effect of Spirulina
polysaccharides on changes in white blood corpuscles
induced by radiation in mice. Journal of Radiation
Research Technology 8: 210-213.
Hossain et al., 2021
J. Agric. Food Environ. 2(1): 62-69, 2021 69
Satter A (2017). Culture and production of housefly larva and
Spirulina using poultry waste, and their use as food for
catfish post-larvae, PhD Thesis, Department of
Aquaculture, Bangladesh Agricultural University,
Mymensingh. pp.156.
Torzillo G & Pushparaj B (1986). A new procedure for
obtaining pure cultures of Spirulina platensis and
Spirulina maxima. Annales Microbiology 135: 165-173.
Uddin MA, Hassan R, Halim KMA, Aktar MNAS, Yeasmin
MF, Rahman MH, Ahmed MU & Ahmed GU (2020).
Effects of aqua drugs and chemicals on the farmed shrimp
(Penaeus monodon) in southern coastal region of
Bangladesh. Asian Journal of Medical and Biological
Research. 6(3):491-498.
Vonshak J & Richmond A (1988). Spirulina. In: Borowitzka,
M.A., Borowitzka, L (eds.). Microalgal Biotechnology,
Cambridge U.P., Cambridge, UK. pp. 85-121.
Vymazal J (1995). Algae and Element Cycling in Wetlands.
CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, USA. pp. 689.
Wijffels RH & Barbosa MJ (2010). “An outlook on
microalgal biofuels,” Science 329: 796799.
Zar JH (1984). Foraminifera as Environmental Condition
Indicators in Todos os Santos Bay. Biostatistics. Prentice-
Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA. pp. 718.
Zarrouk C (1996). Contribution al’etuded’unecyanobacterie:
influence de divers facteurs physiques et chimiquessur la
croissance et la photosynthese de Spirulina maxima
(Setchell et Gardner) Geitler. PhD thesis, University of
Paris, France.
... Microalgae also play an important function in oxygen further to carbon dioxide stability in the water. It acts not most effective on agrochemical but additionally animal wastes as nicely through changing them into meals substances (Hossain et al., 2021). At some point of huge manufacturing this molasses sometimes been being stored outside of the molasses tank because of lack of boxes, brought on environmental pollution. ...
Article
Full-text available
Microalga Chlorella vulgaris was cultured in different concentrations of normal molasses medium (NMM0.5 g/l, NMM1.0 g/l, and NMM1.5 g/l) to evaluate growth performance of the sugar mill byproduct as a low cost culture media and Bold basal medium (BBM) as control. Maximum growth of Chlorella vulgaris was found in NMM 1.0 g/l on 8th day of the culture followed by BBM, NMM 0.5 g/l and NMM 1.5 g/l. Similar findings were also observed in determining chlorophyll a content and optical density of C. vulgaris. Maximum cell growths 191.88 (Χ 105)/mL, chlorophyll a content 10.60 (mg/l) and optical density 2.15 were recorded in NMM1.0 g/l. Maximum SGR of cell was determined 0.56 (mg/day) grown in NMM1.0 g/l followed by 0.52, 0.52 and 0.48 (mg/day) in BBM, NMM0.5 g/l and NMM1.5 g/l, respectively. Chlorophyll a content and total biomass of Chlorella vulgaris followed the similar trend. Protein (46.49%) and lipid (14.18%) of C. vulgaris was detected significantly higher (P<0.01) in NMM1.0 g/l than that grown in BBM and other concentrations of NMM. The growth performance of the investigating molasses medium (NMM1.0 g/l) indicates that the molasses may be a good low cost culture medium ingredient source for C. vulgaris or any other microalga species.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to evaluate the suitability and efficacy of potato as prebiotic compound on the growth performance and survival rate ofCatla catla. The experiment was carried out under 4 different treatments (Tı, T₂, T₃ and T₄) each with 3 replications for 63 days. The diets of T1, T2, T3 and T4 contained 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% potato respectively. All four diets had a constant inclusion level of the following ingredients: fish meal 30%, rice bran 30%, mustard oil cake 12%, molasses 5%, soybean oil 4% and vitamin and mineral premix 1%.The final weight (g), weight gain (g), food conversion ratio (FCR), specific growth rate (%/day) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) were compared among the four treatments. Highest weight gain and specific growth rate were observed in T4 and lowest in T1. Highest FCR (6.18±0.10) was found in Tı and the lowest FCR (3.59±0.18) was found in T₄. Highest PER (0.90±0.009) was found in T₄ followed by T₃, T₂ and the lowest PER was found in Tı (0.55±0.005). Maximum gut microbiota was found in T4 (9.6×10 7)and T₂ (7.5×10 4) in case of TSA agar media and CFU/ml, respectively.The best growth performance of C. catla was obtained from 15% potato containing diet. The study suggests that potato may be a suitable prebiotic for C. catla.
Book
Full-text available
Spirulina are multicellular and filamentous blue-green microalgae belonging to two separate genera Spirulina and Arthrospira and consists of about 15 species. Of these, Arthrospira platensis is the most common and widely available spirulina and most of the published research and public health decision refers to this specific species. It grows in water, can be harvested and processed easily and has significantly high macro- and micronutrient contents. In many countries of Africa, it is used as human food as an important source of protein and is collected from natural water, dried and eaten. It has gained considerable popularity in the human health food industry and in many countries of Asia it is used as protein supplement and as human health food. Spirulina has been used as a complementary dietary ingredient of feed for poultry and increasingly as a protein and vitamin supplement to aquafeeds. Spirulina appears to have considerable potential for development, especially as a small-scale crop for nutritional enhancement, livelihood development and environmental mitigation. FAO fisheries statistics (FishStat) hint at the growing importance of this product. Production in China was first recorded at 19 080 tonnes in 2003 and rose sharply to 41 570 tonnes in 2004, worth around US$7.6 millions and US$16.6 millions, respectively. However, there are no apparent figures for production in the rest of the world. This suggests that despite the widespread publicity about spirulina and its benefits, it has not yet received the serious consideration it deserves as a potentially key crop in coastal and alkaline areas where traditional agriculture struggles, especially under the increasing influence of salination and water shortages. There is therefore a role for both national governments – as well as intergovernmental organizations – to re-evaluate the potential of spirulina to fulfill both their own food security needs as well as a tool for their overseas development and emergency response efforts. International organization(s) working with spirulina should consider preparing a practical guide to small-scale spirulina production that could be used as a basis for extension and development methodologies. This small-scale production should be orientated towards: (i) providing nutritional supplements for widespread use in rural and urban communities where the staple diet is poor or inadequate; (ii) allowing diversification from traditional crops in cases where land or water resources are limited; (iii) an integrated solution for waste water treatment, small-scale aquaculture production and other livestock feed supplement; and (iv) as a short- and medium-term solution to emergency situations where a sustainable supply of high protein/high vitamin foodstuffs is required. A second need is a better monitoring of global spirulina production and product flows. The current FishStat entry which only includes China is obviously inadequate and the reason why other countries are not included investigated. Furthermore, it would be beneficial if production was disaggregated into different scales of development, e.g. intensive, semi-intensive and extensive. This would allow a better understanding of the different participants involved and assist efforts to combine experience and knowledge for both the further development of spirulina production technologies and their replication in the field. A third need is to develop clear guidelines on food safety aspects of spirulina so that human health risks can be managed during production and processing. Finally, it would be useful to have some form of web-based resource that allows the compilation of scientifically robust information and statistics for public access. There are already a number of spirulina-related websites (e.g. www.spirulina.com, www.spirulinasource.com) – whilst useful resources, they lack the independent scientific credibility that is required.
Article
Full-text available
An experiment was conducted to evaluate culture and growth performance of spirulina (Spirulina platensis) in supernatant of three different amount of digested rotten potato (DRP), and Kosaric medium (KM) as control. Three different concentrations such as 25, 50 and 75% of DRP were digested under aeration and the reddish white coloured supernatant was collected. Spirulina was inoculated in supernatant of DRP with the addition of 9.0 g/L NaHCO3 and micronutrients, and KM for a period of 14 days. The cell weight of spirulina was attained a maximum of 11.48 ±1.25 mg/L in KM followed by 11.46±1.03, 9.16±0.84 and 8.13±0.73 mg/L in supernatant of 50, 25 and 75% DRP, respectively on the 10 th day of culture. Similar trend was also observed in the cases of optical density, chlorophyll a, total biomass, specific growth rates and total biomass of spirulina. Cell weight of spirulina grown in these media had highly significant (p<0.01) correlation with the chlorophyll a content and total biomass. The growth performance of spirulina grown in supernatant of 50% DRP was significantly higher than that of spirulina grown in supernatant of 25 and 75% DRP. The percentage of crude protein (55.15%) of spirulina grown in supernatant of DRP was little bit lower than that of spirulina cultured in KM (58.70%). The crude lipids (17.15%) of spirulina cultured in supernatant of 50% DRP was almost two and half times higher than that of spirulina grown in KM (6.33%). It indicates that for the production of spirulina with high lipid content, supernatant of DRP may be used. Therefore, mass culture of S. platensis may be done in supernatant of 50% DRP.
Article
Full-text available
The environmental quality of the marine area close to the Landulpho Alves Oil Refinery si- tuated in Todosos Santos Bay (Bahia, Brazil) was assessed by statistical methods on foramini- feral assemblages, with species tolerant to low continental influence such as Ammonia tepida, Elphidium excavatum, Pseudononion atlanticum and Quinqueloculina spp., and to high organic matter such as Buliminella elegantissima and Bulimina marginata. We have found that Bolivina pulchella, Pseudononion atlanticum, Fursenkoina pontoni, Buliminella elegantissima, Bolivina stria- tula, Bulimina marginata, Quinqueloculina spp., Ammonia tepida, and Elphidium excavatum are opportunistic and tolerant to high levels of accumulated organic matter, and are associated to stations 6, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, and 25, located mainly in the southern, outermost part of the Bay.
Article
Full-text available
Chironomid larvae were grown in nine 70-l tanks containing palm oil mill effluent (POME) and algal culture. The algal culture was obtained by inoculating 200 ml pure culture of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck initially in 20-l tap water containing inorganic fertilizer N:P:K (1:0.2:0.2). Each treatment was done in triplicate. Dissolved oxygen, pH, total nitrogen, total ammonia nitrogen, ortho-phosphate, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids and total dissolved solids of the media in each tank were analyzed. Protein, lipid, ash, amino acids, fatty acids, total carotene and minerals were determined for POME, chironomid larvae, and algae. The culture was terminated after 25 days and chironomid production was determined. The production of chironomid larvae was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in POME tanks (580 g/20 l POME) than in algal culture (35 g/20 l algal culture). Raw palm oil mill effluents contained significantly higher (P < 0.05) arginine, methionine, isoleucine and phenylalanine than algae grown in fertilizer. The essential amino acids of chironomid larvae grown in POME such as histidine, arginine, methionine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and lysine were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in chironomid larvae grown on algal culture. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with the exception of ϒ-linolenic acid (18:3n − 6), were higher in chironomid larvae grown in POME than those grown on algal culture. Twenty seven minerals were detected by electron microscope but 23 minerals were analyzed and quantified in POME, algae, and chironomid larvae grown in POME and algal culture. The quantity of sulfur was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in POME than algae, which probably induced the synthesis of methionine, a S-containing essential amino acid in chironomid larvae cultured in POME. Experiments showed that POME did not only induce high production of chironomid larvae, but also produced high quality live food for the aquaculture industry.
Article
Full-text available
Starch is one of the most important plant products to man. It is an essential component of food providing a large proportion of the daily calorific intake and is important in non‐food uses such as in adhesives. However, while much is known about the chemistry and pathways of synthesis for starch, there are major gaps in this knowledge so that it is not possible to modify the quantity or quality of starch produced by plants in a predictable way. While yield has improved markedly over the last century it is no longer improving faster than the growth in population and, at the same time, farmers’ incomes in Europe have been falling, especially in the UK. Thus, production, even in Europe, is not much greater than demand. In the western world an increasing amount of the harvested crop is processed and, therefore, the quality of the raw product becomes an increasingly important issue. There is, therefore, an increasing need to combine the modern mathematical modelling tools with modern biochemical tools and the modern science of genomics.