PreprintPDF Available
Preprints and early-stage research may not have been peer reviewed yet.

Abstract and Figures

Nutraceutical potential of Oyster
Content may be subject to copyright.
© STM Journals 2021. All Rights Reserved
1
ISSN: 2278-2249 (Online)
ISSN: 2321-6468 (Print)
Volume 10, Issue 1, 2021
DOI (Journal): 10.37591/RRJoFST
STM JOURNALS
Research & Reviews: Journal of
Food Science & Technology
http://sciencejournals.stmjournals.in/index.php/RRJoFST/index
Review
RRJoFST
Nutraceutical potential of Oyster
Neelesh Kumar Maurya*
Keywords: Aphrodisiac, immune system, oyster, potassium, vitamin B12
INTRODUCTION
Oyster is notable for the distinct sacred seawater molluscs present in marine or salty living spaces.
In certain species, the valves and many others are unstable as an instrument. There are many, but not
all, shellfishes in the superfamily [1]. Oysters are bivalve (two shells) molluscs that syphon water
through their system and isolate small life forms from the surrounding waters [2, 3]. They grow close
to the base and attach themselves to hard surfaces or shells in groups. Have certified beachfront
waters that are strictly regulated to ensure the well-being of the specimen. Buyers continue to
consume raw shellfish [4], which is important in Eastern medicines for the purging of the liver and
sexual function of males [5, 6]. Over the decades that have gone by, oyster insight into miniaturized
scale supplements. The study of zinc in natural human chemistry over the last 50 years has expanded
the use of clam concentration in human food [7]. There are 200 species of shellfish in the world,
except for feeding [8, 9]. Most species are too dispersed or too small to allow food production, fragile
and wing-shaped, intricate shells. As early as the critical century B.C., the Romans were the first to
develop an important strategy for the selection and cultivation of food seeds [10]. The Japanese have
developed cultivation techniques that have yielded excellent results, depths of the ocean, a delicacy in
the USA, Europe, Japan, and so on. There is a rising interest in clam meat in parts of India. ‘Oyster’ is
the most common marine creature [11, 12]. It is one of the most widely recognized species to be
aware of the enormous potential for improving the development of clams in the tropics later on.
Genuine attempts are being made to bring about change under tropical conditions [13]. Forms and
agricultural items in the United States, Eastern
Crassostrea, and Pacific Crassostrea gigas [14].
There are remarkable variations within each species,
from one region to another; the form, the shade and
the taste of the process technique. Its local shellfish.
Cultivated production or aquaculture may use
structures and offices to help improve and motivate
the production of selected clam areas, especially on
the beachfront. Both methodologies rely on daily
shifts in marine waters [15, 16]. As shellfish feeds by
separating the surrounding waters, the taste can
change (e.g., salty, hearty, etc.). The novel state of
*Author for Correspondence
Neelesh Kumar Maurya
E-mail: neeleshkumar.maurya@gmail.com
Research Scholar, Department of Food and Nutrition,
Institute of Home Science, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi,
Uttar Pradesh, India
Received Date: Dec-08-2020
Accepted Date: Dec-10-2020
Published Date: April-14-2021
Citation: Neelesh Kumar Maurya. Nutraceutical Potential
of Oyster. Research & Reviews: Journal of Food Science &
Technology. 2021; 10(1): 16p.
Nutraceutical potential of Oyster Neelesh Kumar Maurya
© STM Journals 2021. All Rights Reserved
2
the waters in which they live and harvest. As a result, with names unique to their field of production
or location. In the United States, for example, along the eastern Atlantic coast and the Gulf of Mexico,
the species will behave as Wellfleet Oysters (from Cape Cod), Blue Point Oysters (from New York
and Connecticut), Chesapeake Bay Oysters (from Maryland and Virginia), Apalachicola Bay Oysters
(from Florida) and SW Allow Oysters (from Louisiana). Like Fanny Bay Oysters (from British
Columbia), Willapa Oysters (from Washington), Umpqua Oysters (from Oregon) and Hog Island
Oysters (from California) [11].
Nutritional Value of Oyster
Oysters are high-protein fish options with higher than normal amounts of stimulating minerals such
as selenium, zinc, iron and magnesium, and B nutrients [17]. Shellfish are outstanding with zinc,
calcium and selenium, Vitamin B-12 and some good dietary quality, such as low sugar clam, with 7 g
of protein per 100 g of clams. The shellfish contains sex hormone, which is used in the nutritional
industry for sexual enhancement, sex hormone enhancement, and increased sexual exposure. [17, 18].
Nutrition facts label for raw eastern wild mollusks are oyster given in Table 1.
Table 1. Nutrition facts label for raw eastern wild Mollusks Oyster.
Nutrients
Amount/100 g
Calories
69 Kcal
Protein
7 g
Fat
25 g
Monounsaturated fatty acid
0.3 g
Polyunsaturated fatty acid
1.0 g
Saturated fatty acid
1.0 g
Omega 3 fatty acid
672 mg
Omega 6 fatty acid
58 mg
Cholesterol
53 mg
Minerals
Calcium
45.0 mg
Iron
6.7 mg
Magnesium
47 mg
Phosphorus
135 mg
Potassium
156 mg
Sodium
211 mg
Zinc
90.8 mg
Copper
4.5 mg
Selenium
63.7 mg
Vitamin
Vitamin A
100 IU
Vitamin C
3.7 mg
Vitamin D
320 IU
Vitamin E
0.9 mg
Vitamin K
0.1 mg
Thiamine
0.1 mg
Riboflavin
0.1 mg
Niacin
1.4 mg
Vitamin B6
0.1 mg
Folate
10 mcg
Vitamin B12
19.5 mcg
Choline
65 mg
NUTRACEUTICAL BENEFITS OF OYSTERS
Research & Reviews: Journal of Food Science & Technology
Volume 10, Issue 1
ISSN: 2278-2249 (Online), ISSN: 2321-6468 (Print)
© STM Journals 2021. All Rights Reserved
3
Aphrodisiacs
Aphrodisiac properties, clams may help promote sexual execution, particularly in men. The zinc
content is excellent [5]. They contain 1500 of the daily requirements for this important mineral in a
single serving. Zinc has sexual fragility in men, while ineptitude and erectile zinc deficiency in men.
In this way, eating them will restore the sexual edge of men and increase feelings of vitality [19].
Help for Reducing Weight Loss
Most healthy pressed foods with the lowest calories per serving size [20]. This ensures that
individuals who wish to shed their pounds keep their bodies packed with the nutrients they need to
reduce weight. An equal amount of chicken, clams have a significant portion of calories and low-
calorie, protein-rich dinners. Shellfish are very prevalent in this region, but they have high sodium
content [21].
The High Content of Protein
Proteins are a vital part of the oyster diet, and clams are the enzymatic activity of the body [6] and
are then regenerated into functional human proteins in all parts of the body. It ensures sufficient
metabolic operation, tissue regeneration, cell development, muscle strength and a wide range of
important human well-being. The role of protein in the eating routine in a single serving of shellfish
gives a pre-condition of about 1/3 of a day per day [19, 20].
Beneficial in Heart Disease
Oysters may have a deciding impact on the being of the heart in different ways, but large quantities
of omega-3 unsaturated fats versus omega-6 unsaturated fats make cholesterol so extraordinary [20,
21]. Omega-3 unsaturated fats as “healthy” forms of cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) and the high
proportion of “poor” to “awful” (LDL cholesterol) (omega-6 unsaturated fat) make them a major
factor in decreasing the substance of terrible cholesterol in the circulatory system and preventing it
from being authoritative to veins and corridors William disease [22]. Also, the high potassium and
magnesium content of clams can help lower blood pressure, loosen veins, increase blood flow and
oxygenation, and reduce the strain of the cardiovascular system [23, 24]. Nutrient E in shellfish
increases the stability and adaptability of the cell layers, which is the third level of protection against
dangerous heart disease [20].
Rejuvenation
Shellfish, (the American Dietary Group), has an exceptional amount of zinc. This resulted in a
variety of medical advantages, including recovery rates for snappier injuries and an invulnerable
structure against different contaminations and organisms. Zinc, as a fundamental mineral, is also
important to the legitimate development and advancement of young people and adults, as is the
promotion of a considerable capacity for individuals to consider all things [25].
Beneficial for Skin, Hair and Nails
They use the oyster powder for preparing collagen, elastin and keratin for fair skin, hair and nails.
The obstructive structure of collagen and free amino acids requires the treatment of chemicals, cancer
prevention agents, and essential proteins such as keratin thin, fragile skin, dull hair, and broken
powder [26]. Oyster powder-associated deficiency has been scientifically shown to raise vitality levels
and improve the body’s synthesis of Glutathione and SOD [27].
Nutraceutical potential of Oyster Neelesh Kumar Maurya
© STM Journals 2021. All Rights Reserved
4
Boosting Immunity System
Contain a natural zinc compound to promote the transmission of the thymus gland. T-cells and T4
support cells vital to the body’s mechanism and important Zinc Association: Zinc insufficiency seems
to have caused many conditions related to exhaustion due to low sexual well-being, premature
maturation, prostate disorders, reduced resistance, macular degeneration, and more, the oyster powder
also has major zinc co-factors, such as manganese, copper, selenium, strontium, and more. They are
engaged in reactions that affect everything from how we look and sound to support deep
invulnerability and great sexual well-being [28].
Service Methods and Consumer Advice
Whole clams (shell stock) have two shells unblemished to evacuate raw meat for cooking: half-café
or bar as a natural choice or as a cooked item with unique fixings. Shucked meat is a bit of shell and
sold in pints, gallons, plates, or various compartments. The meats can a fixing in plans, soups, and
stuffing, or they can for frying. In solidified form. Swarmed production conditions on characteristic
clam beds or production rehearsals can determine the thickness, quality of the size, and depth of the
shells or level moulded. Health experts have induced high-risk individuals, like young children,
elderly adults, pregnant women, and those with a weakened protection system usually linked to liver
disease, drug abuse, chemotherapy, steroid use, AIDS, diabetes, or even regular use of stomach
sedation agents not to eat raw creatures such as beef, seafood, and shellfish. An exceptional warning
notice is essential for up business ‘asserted’ waters, and purchasers should contact local experts to
identify the areas and properties in question. Executives and Sustainability Oyster is a sustainable
commodity. The preservation of existing shellfish beds and new aquaculture rehearsals ensures a
continuous stock in the United States. Safe beachfront waters may be subject to strict gauges for
permitted harvesting, and common shellfish disease. Shellfish are a significant piece of a solid
biological system because their dynamic separating can help improve or keep up water
quality. [29, 30].
CONCLUSION
Oysters have an excellent nutritional profile, which is only equivalent to that of organ meat. With
such B12, vitamin D, selenium, copper, and zinc, like oysters in the oyster diet, can benefit many.
Present pollutants and toxins for some time. These contaminants cause of failure the vital organs. The
oyster culture site should be free from heavy metals, toxic algae, bacteria, and other toxins harmful to
human health.
REFERENCES
1. Chooseangjaew S, Tanyaros S, Jumrusthanasan S, Getlekha N, Tanomtong A. Karyological
analysis and nucleolar organizer region of tropical oyster, Crassostrea iredalei (Ostreoida,
Ostreidae) in Thailand. Cytologia. 2018; 83(2): 129132p.
2. Dauphin Y, Ball AD, Castillo-Michel H, Chevallard C, Cuif JP, Farre B,... Salomé M. In situ
distribution and characterization of the organic content of the oyster shell Crassostrea gigas
(Mollusca, Bivalvia). Micron. 2013; 44: 373383p.
3. Dauphin Y, Ball AD, Castillo-Michel H, Chevallard C, Cuif JP, Farre B,... Salomé M. (2013). In
situ distribution and characterization of the organic content of the oyster shell Crassostrea gigas
(Mollusca, Bivalvia). Micron, 44, 373-383.
4. Bryan FL. Risks associated with vehicles of foodborne pathogens and toxins. J Food Protect.
1988; 51(6): 498508p.
Research & Reviews: Journal of Food Science & Technology
Volume 10, Issue 1
ISSN: 2278-2249 (Online), ISSN: 2321-6468 (Print)
© STM Journals 2021. All Rights Reserved
5
5. Buffum J. Pharmacosexology: the effects of drugs on sexual functiona review. J Psychoact
Drugs. 1982; 14(1-2): 544p.
6. Zhang C, Li X, Jing X, Zhang B, Zhang Q, Niu Q,... Tian Z. Protective effects of oyster extract
against hepatic tissue injury in alcoholic liver diseases. J Ocean Uni China. 2014; 13(2): 262
270p.
7. Prasad AS. Lessons Learned from Experimental Human Model of Zinc Deficiency. J Immunol
Res. 2020; 2020: 92072799207279p.
8. Du J. Research on functionality sports nutrition and health food security issues based on
Circulation. Open Cybernet Syst J. 2015; 9(1): 19451949p.
9. Hitchner RB. More Italy than proVince? Archaeology, texts, and culture change in Roman
Provence. Trans Am Philolog Assoc. 1999; (1974-), 129: 375379p.
10. Botta R, Asche F, Borsum JS, Camp EV. A review of global oyster aquaculture production and
consumption. Mar Policy. 2020; 117: 103952.
11. So MK, Taniyasu S, Lam PKS, Zheng GJ, Giesy JP, Yamashita N. Alkaline digestion and solid
phase extraction method for perfluorinated compounds in mussels and oysters from south China
and Japan. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2006; 50(2): 240248p.
12. Patterson J, Jeyasanta KI, Sathish N, Booth AM, Edward JP. Profiling microplastics in the Indian
edible oyster, Magallana bilineata collected from the Tuticorin coast, Gulf of Mannar,
Southeastern India. Sci Total Environ. 2019; 691: 727735p.
13. Kripa, V. and Mohammed Salih, K.Y., 1999. Oyster resources of Ashtamudi Lake, south west
coast of India. Available at: http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/id/eprint/7363. 367-369p.
14. Jonathan MP, Muñoz-Sevilla NP, Góngora-Gómez AM, Varela RGL, Sujitha SB, Escobedo-
Urías DC,... Villegas LEC. Bioaccumulation of trace metals in farmed pacific oysters Crassostrea
gigas from SW Gulf of California coast, Mexico. Chemosphere. 2017; 187: 311319p.
15. Gallardi D. Effects of Bivalve Aquaculture on the Environment and Their Possible Mitigation: A
Review. Fish Aquac J. 2014; 5(105): 2. DOI: 10.4172/ 2150-3508.1000106.
16. Seafood Health Facts: Making Smart choices Balancing the Benefits and Risks of Seafood
Consumption Resources for Healthcare Providers and Consumers., 2020. Available at:
https://www.seafoodhealthfacts.org/description-top-commercial-seafood-items/oysters (assessed
on 4 December 2020).
17. Tonkin E, Kennedy D, Hanieh S, Biggs BA, Kearns T, Gondarra V,... Brimblecombe J. Dietary
intake of Aboriginal Australian children aged 636 months in a remote community: a cross-
sectional study. Nutr J. 2020; 19: 112p.
18. Jillian Kubala, MS, RD. [March 8, 2019] Healthline Media. Are Oysters Good for You? Benefits
and Dangers. [online] Available at: https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/oysters#protein
(assessed on 4 December 2020).
19. Benjamas D. Value added product development for oyster farmers’ group in Kung Krabaen Bay
Royal Development Study Center, Chanthaburi. Interdi Res Rev. 2020; 15(1): 5457p.
20. Shereen Lehman, MS. Oyster Nutrition Facts and Health Benefits. [September 03, 2020].
Available at: https://www.verywellfit.com/heres-why-you-should-be-eating-oysters-2507012
(assessed on 4 December 2020).
21. Nettleton JA, Exler J. Nutrients in wild and farmed fish and shellfish. J Food Sci. 1992; 57(2):
257260p.
22. DiNicolantonio J, Mercola J. Superfuel: Ketogenic Keys to Unlock the Secrets of Good Fats, Bad
Fats, and Great Health. Hay House, Inc, 2018.
23. Swenor BK, Bressler S, Caulfield L, West SK. The impact of fish and shellfish consumption on
age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology. 2010; 117(12): 23952401p.
24. Chen J, Shearer GC, Chen Q, Healy CL, Beyer AJ, Nareddy VB,... Wang D. Omega-3 fatty acids
prevent pressure overloadinduced cardiac fibrosis through activation of cyclic GMP/protein
kinase G signaling in cardiac fibroblasts. Circulation. 2011; 123(6): 584593p.
25. Mares-Perlman JA, Subar AFBlock G, Greger JL, Luby MH. Zinc intake and sources in the US
adult population: 1976-1980. J Am College Nutr. 1995; 14(4): 349357p.
Nutraceutical potential of Oyster Neelesh Kumar Maurya
© STM Journals 2021. All Rights Reserved
6
26. Aguirre-Cruz G, León-López A, Cruz-Gómez V, Jiménez-Alvarado R, Aguirre-Álvarez G.
Collagen Hydrolysates for Skin Protection: Oral Administration and Topical Formulation.
Antioxidants. 2020; 9(2): 181188p.
27. But P, Chang C. Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of asthma and allergies. Clin Rev
Allerg Immu. 1996; 14(3): 253269p.
28. Reggiani PC, Morel GR, Cónsole GM, Barbeito CG, Rodriguez SS, Brown OA,... Goya RG. The
thymusneuroendocrine axis: physiology, molecular biology, and therapeutic potential of the
thymic peptide thymulin. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009; 1153: 98p.
29. Hicks DT. Seafood Safety and Quality: The Consumer's Role. Foods (Basel, Switzerland). 2016;
5(4). 71p
30. Nutrient data. Mollusks, oyster, eastern, wild, raw Nutrition facts and Calories. Available at:
https://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/finfish-and-shellfish-products/4189/2 (assessed on 4 December
2020).
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Scarce literature comprehensively captures the transition to solid foods for children in remote Aboriginal Australian communities, a population expected to be especially vulnerable to nutritional inadequacy for largely socio-economic reasons. This study describes the dietary intake of children aged 6-36 months in a remote Aboriginal community during the years of solids introduction and establishment. Specifically, we aimed to explore milk feeding practices, major sources of nutrition and traditional food consumption, dietary patterns and nutrient and food group intakes, and compare these to national and international recommendations. Methods: This dietary assessment was conducted as part of an observational, cross-sectional Child Health and Nutrition study. Three 24-h dietary recalls were completed with the parent/care-giver of each participant over 2-4 weeks, capturing a pay-week, non-pay-week and weekend day from October 2017-February 2018. Additional information collected included sociodemographic data, food security status, usual cooking practices, and attendance at playgroup. Results: Diet histories for 40 children were included in the analysis (~ 40% of the population). Breast feeding rates were high (85%), with mothers exclusively feeding on demand. Very few participants met recommended intakes for wholegrains (n = 4, 10%), vegetables (n = 7, 18%), dairy (n = 5, 18%) and fruit (n = 13, 33%), while more children met the guidelines for meat (n = 19, 48%) and discretionary food intake (n = 28, 70%). Traditional foods were always nutritionally dense and consumed frequently (n = 22, 55% of children). Statistically significant pay-cycle differences in intakes of all macro-, and numerous micro-nutrients were observed. Conclusions: Many positive early feeding practices are currently enacted in remote Aboriginal communities including responsive and long duration breastfeeding, and nutrient-dense traditional food consumption from earliest solids introduction. However, the non-pay-week/pay-week cycle is impacting the quality and quantity of children's diets at a time of rapid growth and development.
Article
Full-text available
Antioxidants are molecules that delay or inhibit the oxidation of other molecules. Its use significantly increased in recent years in the diet of people. Natural antioxidants are replacing the use of synthetic antioxidant ingredients due to their safety, nutritional, and therapeutic values. Hydrolyzed collagen (HC) is a popular ingredient considered to be an antioxidant. This low molecular weight protein has been widely utilized due to its excellent biocompatibility, easy biodegradability, and weak antigenicity. It is a safe cosmetic biomaterial with good moisturizing properties on the skin. The antioxidant properties of HC are conditioned to the size of the molecule: the lower the molecular weight of peptides, the greater the ability to donate an electron or hydrogen to stabilize radicals. The antioxidant capacity of HC is mostly due to the presence of hydrophobic amino acids in the peptide. The exact mechanism of peptides acting as antioxidants is not clearly known but some aromatic amino acids and histidine are reported to play an important role in the antioxidant activity. Oral ingestion of HC increases the levels of collagen-derived peptides in the blood torrent and improves the skin properties such as elasticity, skin moisture, and transepidermal water loss. Additionally, daily intakes of HC protect the skin against UV melasma, enhances the fibroblast production and extracellular matrix of the skin. HC has been identified as a safe cosmetic ingredient for topical formulations with good moisturizing properties at the stratum corneum layer of the skin. It reduces the effects of skin aging (dryness, laxity, and wrinkles). The use of HC as a principal ingredient in safe formulations for skin protection was reviewed and compared when it is used by topical and/or oral administration.
Article
Full-text available
Zinc is an essential element for humans, and its deficiency was documented in 1963. Nutritional zinc deficiency is now known to affect over two billion subjects in the developing world. Conditioned deficiency of zinc in many diseases has also been observed. In zinc-deficient dwarfs from the Middle East, we reported growth retardation, delayed sexual development, susceptibility to infections, poor appetite, and mental lethargy. We never found a zinc-deficient dwarf who survived beyond the age of 25 y. In an experimental model of human mild zinc deficiency, we reported decreased thymulin (a thymopoietic hormone) activity in Th1 cells, decreased mRNAs of IL-2 and IFN-gamma genes, and decreased activity of natural killer cells (NK) and T cytotoxic T cells. The effect of zinc deficiency on thymulin activity and IL-2 mRNA was seen within eight to twelve weeks of the institution of zinc-deficient diet in human volunteers, whereas lymphocyte zinc decreased in 20 weeks and plasma zinc decreased in 24 weeks after instituting zinc-deficient diet. We hypothesized that decreased thymulin activity, which is known to proliferate Th1 cells, decreased the proliferation differentiation of Th1 cells. This resulted in decreased generation of IL-2 and IFN-gamma. We observed no effect in Th2 cell function; thus, zinc deficiency resulted in an imbalance of Th1 to Th2 function resulting in decreased cell-mediated immunity. Zinc therapy may be very useful in many chronic diseases. Zinc supplementation improves cell-mediated immunity, decreases oxidative stress, and decreases generation of chronic inflammatory cytokines in humans. Development of sensitive immunological biomarkers may be more sensitive than an assay of zinc in plasma and peripheral blood cells for diagnosis of marginal zinc deficiency in human.
Article
Full-text available
All the good news about seafood—the health and nutritional benefits, the wide varieties and flavors—has had a positive effect on consumption: people are eating more seafood (http://www.seagrant.sunysb.edu/seafood/pdfs/SeafoodSavvy.pdf). Yet consumers want to be assured that seafood is as safe as, or safer to eat than, other foods. When you hear “seafood safety”, think of a safety net designed to protect you, the consumer, from food-borne illness. Every facet of the seafood industry, from harvester to consumer, plays a role in holding up the safety net. The role of state and federal agencies, fishermen, aquaculturists, retailers, processors, restaurants, and scientists is to provide, update, and carry out the necessary handling, processing, and inspection procedures to give consumers the safest seafood possible. The consumer’s responsibility is to follow through with proper handling techniques, from purchase to preparation. It doesn’t matter how many regulations and inspection procedures are set up; the final edge of the safety net is held by the consumer. This article will give you the information you need to educate yourself and be assured that the fish and shellfish you consume are safe. The most common food-borne illnesses are caused by a combination of bacteria naturally present in our environment and food handling errors made in commercial settings, food service institutions, or at home.
Article
Oyster farming is one of the oldest forms of aquaculture and oysters are farmed around the globe. As with aquaculture in general, oyster aquaculture production has increased rapidly in recent decades. Despite this, global trends in this production and its markets have received limited attention. This paper presents an overview of global oyster aquaculture production at a country-scale, as well as factors influencing the observed trends. Currently, global oyster aquaculture production is dominated by China, who accounted for 86% of global production by weight in 2016. Beyond China, production is stagnant, and is limited by disease, parasites, and regulatory issues, depending on the country. There appears to be increasing demand for farmed oysters that producers are not able to exploit due to the supply side issues that have limited total production. Additionally, a test for market integration found that there is no global market. Hence, while the increasing prices in some markets provides an opportunity, this is exploited only to a limited extent with Canadian exports to the United States as the best example.
Article
The objective of this study is to quantify the extent of microplastic (MP) contamination in the Indian edible oyster (Magallana bilineata) and to understand how this relates to the MP contamination in its surrounding marine environment. Samples of water, sediment and oysters of different sizes were collected from three sites along Tuticorin coast in Gulf of Mannar in Southeast India. The mean abundance of MP in oysters was found to be 6.9 ± 3.84 items/individual and the mean concentration to be 0.81 ± 0.45 items/g of tissue. Polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) fibers were the dominant MP types in oysters (92% and 4%, respectively) and in seawater (75% and 25%, respectively), with PE fibers, ranging from 0.25 to 0.5 mm, being the most common. Both PE and PP are low-density polymers which are slow to sediment to the seafloor. This increases the potential of their availability in the environment and ingestion by the oysters. The largest oysters (14-16 cm) contained the highest abundance and concentrations of MP, suggesting a greater proportion of MP in the water column is ingested with increasing size. The calculated microplastic index (0.02 to 0.99) also indicates that MP bioavailability increases with increasing size of oysters. The distribution patterns of MP abundance, shape and size in oysters more closely resemble those in water than in sediment. The surface morphology of the MPs reveals the characteristic pits and cracks which result from partial degradation through the weathering processes. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis shows the presence of Ni and Fe in association with MP, and this probably indicates the fly-ash pollution and the petroleum-related activities in the surrounding area. Being sessile animals the oysters are good candidates for use as sentinel organisms for monitoring MP in specific marine environments.
Article
Conventional karyotyping and detection of nucleolar organizer region (NOR) were performed on a tropical oyster, Crassostrea iredalei from Nakhon Si Thammarat province, Thailand. Chromosome preparations were made from gill tissues. Conventional Giemsas staining and Ag-NOR banding were performed. The results revealed that the chromosome number was 2n=20 and fundamental number (NF) was 40, the karyotype consisting of 12 large metacentric and eight medium metacentric chromosomes. The NORs were located terminally on the long arms of the chromosome pair 10.
Article
A review of foodborne disease surveillance data from the United States for the years 1977 through 1984 was made to ascertain the relative importance of various foods as vehicles; 1,586 incidents were tabulated. Data are given for all outbreaks and for individual diseases. Foods were classified by category, class and item. Seafoods, meats, poultry and salads were the most frequently implicated categories. The most frequently implicated items were roast beef, ham, turkey, chicken and raw clams. Chinese foods, usually fried rice and Mexican-style foods usually ground or shredded meat or pinto beans were also commonly implicated. Of the salads, potato and chicken salads were identified more frequently than other salads. Mahi-mahi was the most common vehicle of scombrotoxin; amberjack/jack was the most common vehicle of ciguatoxin; roast beef and turkey were the most common vehicles of C. perfringens and salmonellae; ham was the most common vehicle of staphylococcal enterotoxin; potato salad was the most common vehicle of shigellae; peppers were the most common vehicle of botulinum toxin; and fried rice was the most common vehicle of B. cereus toxins. Relative risk for each food is discussed in reference to assessing hazards and setting food safety priorities.
Article
With the continuous improvement of people's living standards in recent years, after The 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and In august 2009 the State Council promulgated the “Regulations of national fitness”, nationwide fitness programming in China increasingly active, and more and more groups participate in physical exercise. Thus sports health food demand is increasing year by year. But facing wide variety of health foods on the market and wall-to-wall advertising, people often don't know how to choice sports nutrition and health food. Safety of health foods has attracted the attention of governments and internation alorganizations highly. So strengthening the health management of food hygiene is an important topic on the health aspects of food safety in China.