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The Ancient History of the Near East

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A study of the geographical environment, natural resources and historical road linking the South Caucasus to the Middle East shows that the extension policy of the Urartian State in the South Caucasus was linked by the use of their fertile soils and natural resources of the region. As a result of the occupation of the Urartian kings, the fertile lands of the Araxes Oasis fell under the control of the Urartian State and they built such royal cities as Erebuni, Teyşebaini, and Argiştihinili there. On the basis of research, it can be said that Urartians from these cities organized campaigns to other countries of the South Caucasus and met with their resistance. The information preserved in Urartian sources related to the trips of the regions of Georgia Kulha and Gurania confirms this. In view of the fact that the country Kulha resisted the Urartians, they burned even people. Assyrian sources claim that the Urartians suffered defeats in the country of Gurania. Research and written sources claim that some countries of the South Caucasus, including Etiuni with the condition of filing tributes, maintained their independence. The inscription that is perserved in Sisian near Nakhchivan also claims that there was an agreement between Etiuni and Urartian and the region was in control. In Nakhchivan, Urartu also met with resistance. This includes one side seen of Scythians here and on the other hand to the location of Etiuni tribes in the nearby region. In the resistance of Oğlankale against foreign invaders, including Urartu, Scythians and the Etiuni tribal union played a special role, which on the shore of Lake Gekce against Urartu formed an alliance. Probably, the city Oğlankale and the surrounding territories under it’s against in Nakhchivan the foreign invaders fought together by their allies. The inscription on Ilandag and the rock signs of Agsal refer only to the Urartian king’s trips organized to the region. They were coming from Nakhchivan to Pluadi. It can be said that Urartians only in the first years of their rule organized trips to Nakhchivan, and then the resistance of local peoples prevented them from organizing new trips. Research shows that Oğlankale was the capital of a small state in the Sharur region. We can say that Urartians never conquered this country.
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It is the full issue of the January Issue 2020 of the Journal International Journal of Tamil Language and Literary Studies
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Among the most important results of philological research in recent years is the decipherment of the Hittite language by Dr. Friedrich Hrozný, Professor of Semitic Languages in the University of Vienna. Hrozný's account of his work is contained in the Mitteilungen der deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft (No. 15), and at the suggestion of my friend—now, alas, the late—Professor James Hope Moulton, I have summarized Hrozný's interim report for English readers.
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