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Desho grass is indigenous grass to Ethiopia and belonging to the family of Poaceae and has high biomass production potential. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate dry matter yield and chemical composition of four desho (Pennisetum pedicellatum)grass varieties in 2017 and 2018 cropping years at on- station of Jinka Agricultural Research Center under rain fed condition in randomized complete block design with three replications per tested variety. The data on dry matter yield, plant height, tillers per plant, leaf to stem ratio and chemical composition were analyzed using the General Linear Model procedures of SAS. The Areka-DZF#590 gave highest (P>0.001) dry matter yield (27.99t/ha) and whereas the, Kindo kisha-DZF#589 variety gave the lower dry matter yield (14.15t/ha). Likewise, higher (P>0.05) Crude protein (140.12g/Kg, DM) recorded for Areka-DZF#590 and whereas, significantly lowest (P<0.05) Crude protein (90.57g/Kg, DM) obtained for Kindo kasha-DZF#589 variety. Based on this finding, we concluded that farmers who live in comparable agro- ecologies to areas where this stu
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Evaluation of Desho (Pennisetum pedicellatum)
Grass Varieties for Dry Matter Yield and
Chemical Composition in South Omo Zone, South
Western Ethiopia
Denbela Hidosa1*, Berako Belachew2 and Sintayehu Kibiret1
1Livestock Research Directorate, Jinka Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia
2Department of Biology, Jinka University, Ethiopia
Submission: September 01, 2020; Published: September 23, 2020
*Corresponding author: Denbela Hidosa, Livestock Research Directorate, Jinka Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia
Agri Res & Tech: Open Access J 25(2): ARTOAJ.MS.ID.556294 (2020) 001
Research Article
Volume 25 Issue 2 - September 2020
DOI: 10.19080/ARTOAJ.2020.25.556294
Agri Res & Tech: Open Access J
Copyright © All rights are reserved by Denbela Hidosa
Introduction
Ethiopia has largest livestock population in Africa possessing
60.39 million of cattle, 31.30 million sheep, 32.74 million goats,
2.01 million horses, 8.85 million donkeys, 0.46 million mules,
1.42 million camels and 56.06 million of poultry [1]. However, the
overall production and productivity performances of livestock
in Ethiopia are generally low due to many livestock production
determinants [2]. The poor feed quality and inadequate feed
supply is one of top urgent determinants that lead to low livestock
production performances in Ethiopia [2]. On the other hand,
the demand for livestock products by consumers in country

of consumer under such conditions unless urgent measure will
be taken. Likewise, in study region the livestock feeding system
is completely natural pasture based [3,4]. It is obvious that the
       
feed supply and nutritional dynamics of pasture forages [2, 5].
        
requirement of animals particularly in the dry season and the
supply of these feed resources is inconsistently distributed over
the seasons into study district. Furthermore, these feed resources
         

they barely satisfy even the maintenance requirements. This is
triggering to increase high mortality, longer calving intervals and
substantial weight loss [3,6,8,9] and will be made the communities
      
this respect, it is not imagined the surplus production from the
livestock unless the immediate action is undertaken in improving
dry matter supply and feed quality issues into study area [5].
Therefore, testing locally adaptable and producing adequate
quality forages to supplement pasture roughage-based feeding
system is only way to overwhelm feed shortage into study area
[3,10]. Among the locally adaptable forage species, Desho grass is
Abstract
     
this study was initiated to evaluate dry matter yield and chemical composition of four desho (Pennisetum pedicellatum) grass varieties in 2017
and 2018 cropping years at on- station of Jinka Agricultural Research Center under rain fed condition in randomized complete block design with
three replications per tested variety. The data on dry matter yield, plant height, tillers per plant, leaf to stem ratio and chemical composition

 


Omo and other areas could plant Areka -DZF#590 variety for higher dry matter yield and crude protein content.
Keywords: Dry matter yield; Desho grass verity; Crude protein
002
Agricultural Research & Technology: Open Access Journal
How to cite this article: Denbela H, Berako B, Sintayehu K. Evaluation of Desho (Pennisetum pedicellatum) Grass Varieties for Dry Matter Yield and
Chemical Composition in South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia. Agri Res & Tech: Open Access J. 2020; 25 (2): 556294.
DOI: 10.19080/ARTOAJ.2020.25.556294

[11] and it is a perennial grass which has an extensive root system
that anchors well with the soil and has high biomass production
potential. Currently different desho grass varieties had been
registered at country level for their biomass production potential
[12]. The dry matter yield of desho grass varieties in irrigated
condition in central Ethiopia were 28.35, 26.52, 23.37 and 21.95
t/ha dry matter yield respectively, for Areka-DZF#590, Kulumsa-
DZF#592, Kindokosha DZF#589 and Kindo kosha-DZF#590
[12]. Moreover, [13] had reported 28.74t/ha, 26.14t/ha 23.59t/
ha dry matter yield for Areka-DZF#590, Kulumsa-DZF#592 and
Kindo kisha-DZF#591 varieties respectively. Moreover, currently
the grass being utilized as means of soil conservation practices,
rehabilitate degraded land, as animal feeds and provides a small
business opportunity in Ethiopia [11,14,15-18]. Moreover, report
by [14] had demonstrated that increasing the proportion of desho
      
improved DM intake, digestibility of nutrients, daily weight gain
       
potential desho grass variety, currently released desho grass
     
their chemical composition for the study regions. Therefore, this
study was initiated with objective of identifying the dry matter
yield and chemical composition of desho grass variety.
Material and Methods
Description of Study Site
         
Agricultural Research Center’s research in South Omo Zone,
      
        
        
Addis Ababa at geographical coordinate of 360 33’-370 67’E and
50 46’-6057’N with an altitude of 1450m above sea level. The
rainfall distribution of the area is bimodal with main rainy season
extends from March to May and the second cropping season, from
July to October. The average annual rainfall of the area in the last
ten years was 1326.7mm the average annual temperatures of
22.4oC. The soil of the experimental site is loamy soil with organic
 
exchange capacity of 32.40cmol kg-1, available phosphorus content
of 3.41 mgkg-1and soil pH of 6.41 [19].
Experimental Design and Treatments
The currently released desho grass varieties such as Areka-
DZF#590, Kulumsa-DZF#592, Kindo Kisha DZF#589 and Kindo
Kisha-DZF#591 desho grass varieties were planted in randomized
complete block design with three replications per variety. A total
        
were used. Each treatment groups was assigned randomly and
independently to each experimental block. The root split was
planted in 3m × 4m = 12m2 plot and splits were planted in four
rows per plot with 50cm between row and 30cm between plant
with 1m between plots [15].
Land preparation
Land preparation, planting, weeding and harvesting was done
according to the recommendations [11].
Data Collection
          
          
three-month age by harvesting samples from 50cm by 50cm area
by using hand shears. In order to measure dry matter yield, the
         
weight balance and 500g subsample per plot was brought to Jinka
Agricultural Research Center and chopped in to pieces and 300g
sampled sample was placed to oven dried at 105oC for overnight
         
      ×
××
   
of subsample in grams, HA = Harvest plot area in square meters

height was measured using a steel tape from the ground level to
the highest height at forage harvesting stage and mean height
         
plot. In order to measure leaf to stem ration, the morphological
parts were separately weighed to know their sample fresh weight,
oven dried for 24 hours at a temperature of 105oC and separately
weighed to estimate the proportions of these morphological parts.
Accordingly, leaves were separated from stems and the leaf to
    
each component.
Chemical Composition Measurements
A 500g partially dried sample from the previously harvested
sample was taken and kept in a pre-weighed separate /individual
cloth bags and sent to Debre Birehan Agricultural Research
Center. The dried samples ground to pass 1-mm for use in

determined procedures of [21]. The NDF content was determined
according to procedure of [22] and whereas, ADF determined by
procedure of [23].
Data Analysis
The data such as plant height, leaf to stem ratio, dry matter
yield, tillers per plant and chemical composition were subjected
   
       
 
   0.05 and means were separated using Duncan’s
μ
μ = overall
 
How to cite this article: Denbela H, Berako B, Sintayehu K. Evaluation of Desho (Pennisetum pedicellatum) Grass Varieties for Dry Matter Yield and
Chemical Composition in South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia. Agri Res & Tech: Open Access J. 2020; 25 (2): 556294.
DOI: 10.19080/ARTOAJ.2020.25.556294
003
Agricultural Research & Technology: Open Access Journal
   
error.
Results and Discussion
Dry matter yield, plant height, tiller per plant and LTSR
of desho grass variety
The effects of desho grass varieties under rain fed condition
in on-station of Jinka Agricultural Research Center on dry matter
yield, plant height, tillers per plant and LTSR are illustrated in
Table 1. The results revealed that the Areka-DZF#590 variety
        
per plant at harvesting stage than Kulimisa-DZF#590, Kindo
Kisha-DZF#591 and Kindo Kisha-DZF#589 desho grass varieties.
  
  
Kindo Kisha-DZF#589 desho grass varieties. Likewise, the Areka-
       
yield than Kulimisa-DZF#590, Kindo Kisha-DZF#590 and Kindo
      

varieties. On the other hand, result from this study revealed that
       
desho grass varieties for LTSR. The higher dry matter yield and
taller plant height for Areka- DZF#590 desho grass variety from
this study is due to high genetic potential of variety to adapt the
tested agro-ecology.The previous studies reported by different
scholars were demonstrated that the wider range of dry matter
yield difference between desho grass varieties could be attributed
due to differences in genetic potential of varieties [12-14]. The
result obtained on dry matter yield from this study for Areka-
DZ#F590 variety is comparable to previously reported values of
28.35 and 28.74t/ha by [12] and [13] respectively. However, the
lower dry matter yield obtained from this study for Kulumsa-
DZF#592, Kindo Kisha-DZF# 591 and Kindo Kisha-DZF#589
as compared to previously reported values of 26.52, 23.37
and 21.95 t/ha by [12] and 26.14 23.59 and 20.30 t/ha by [13]

was higher for Areka-DZ#F590 and Kulimsa-DZF#591 but slightly
comparable for Kindo Kisha-DZF#591 and Kindo Kisha-DZF#589
varieties to previously reported values which ranged from 71.27-
96.30cm by [13] and [12] respectively. The tillering performance
is an important morphological characteristic to be considered
during selection of appropriate forage crops to improve dry matter
yield production. The difference in tillers produced per plant
among the tested varieties of desho grass from our study could
be attributed to genetic variations among the varieties to adapt
given environment. The variation in tiller number among different
varieties of desho grass was also observed by different scholars
in Ethiopia [12-14]. The leaf to stem fractions were affected by
tillering performance, plant height and age of harvesting. The leaf

      
than stems [24]. The previous study reported by [25] indicated
that the leaf fraction is an important factor affecting diet selection,
quality and intake of forage. The leaf fraction is associated with
high nutritive value of the forage because leaf is generally of higher
nutritive value [26] and the performance of animals is closely
related to the amount of leaf in the diet. The result for leaf to
stem fraction for tested desho grass varieties from our study was
higher than reported values by [12,13]. Generally, inconsistency
in dry matter yield, plant height, tillers and leaf to stem ratio
from our study as compared to previously reported studies by
different scholars for same tested desho varieties might be due
to difference in soil parameters, harvesting age, management and

Table 1: The dry matter yield, plant height, tillers per plant and leaf to stem ratio of desho grass varieties under rain fed condition at Jinka Agricul-
tural Research Center in South Omo.
Tested Varieties Dry Matter Yield(t/ha) Plant Height(cm) Tiller per Plant LT S R
Kulumsa-DZF#592 20.77b116.06b51.83b1.09
Areka-DZF#590 27.99a161.32a78.5a1.27
Kindo Kisha-DZF#591 15.45c98.19b43.83b0.93
Kindo Kisha-DZF#589 14.15c89.78b45.17b1.03
F-value 15.18 9.29 7.57 1.55
 0.001 0.001 0.003 0.245
SEM 2.28 14.81 8.3 0.16
LSD 4.89 31.77 17.82 0.35
(Means with the same letter (a, b, c) in across column for dry matter yield, plant height, tillers per plant and LTSR at 50% owering stage are not
signicantly dierent (p>.001). SEM = Standard error of mean; LSD = Least Signicance dierence).
Effect of years on dry matter yield, plant height, tillers
per plant and leaf to stem ratio
The effect of testing years on dry matter yield, plant height,
tillers per plant and leaf to stem ratio are listed in Table 2. The
       
higher dry matter yield and plant height were observed in cropping
        
          

004
Agricultural Research & Technology: Open Access Journal
How to cite this article: Denbela H, Berako B, Sintayehu K. Evaluation of Desho (Pennisetum pedicellatum) Grass Varieties for Dry Matter Yield and
Chemical Composition in South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia. Agri Res & Tech: Open Access J. 2020; 25 (2): 556294.
DOI: 10.19080/ARTOAJ.2020.25.556294
was obtained from cropping year2. The higher dry matter yield,
plant height, tillers per plant and Leaf to stem ratio were observed
         
in cropping year2 than cropping year1 which is displayed in
         
faster plant growth and triggered more tiller per plats which are
   
from our study the previous study reported by different scholars
had demonstrated that dry matter yield of forage species is greatly
       
and precipitations [27-29].
Figure1: Map of study area in South Omo Zone, Jinka town, Alga kebele.
Table 2: The dry matter yield, plant height, tillers per plant and LTSR of desho grass varieties aected by Cropping years at on-station of Jinka
Agricultural Research Center in 2017 and 2018 main cropping years.
Parameters Measured
Cropping Years
  Mean LSD
 14.74b24.44a19.59 3.5
 89.33b143.34a116.3 22.5
Tillers per plant 48.67 61 54.83 12.6
Leaf to stem ratio 1.11 1.04 1.07 0.25
(Means with the dierent letter (a, b) in across row for dry matter yield, plant height, tillers per plant and leaf stem ratio at 50% owering stage are
signicant each other); LSD= Least signicant dierence).
        
height, tillers per plant and leaf to stem ratio;
The interaction effect of planting year and variety on dry
matter yield, plant height, tillers per plant and leaf to stem ratio
are presented in Table 3. The results from this study on dry
matter, plant height, tillers per plant and leaf to stem ration were
       
to planting year1. Accordingly, the Areka- DZF#590 desho grass

Kulimisa-DZFf#590, Kindo Kisha-DZF#591 and Kindo Kisha-
DZF#589 varieties by keeping planting year constant. However,

       
Kulimisa-DZF#590 and Kindo Kisha-DZF#591 in planting year2.
       

and Kindo Kisha-DZF#589 varieties but, it was comparable
       
for all varieties obtained in planting year2 than planting year1
from this study indicated that the genetic make-up of varieties

different varieties have differential response to different planting
years. The previous study reported by [30] had demonstrated that
relatively warmer climatic condition and better rainfall condition
are the major reasons for getting better dry matter yield in forage
species.
Chemical composition of desho grass varieties
The chemical compositions of tested varieties are presented
          
How to cite this article: Denbela H, Berako B, Sintayehu K. Evaluation of Desho (Pennisetum pedicellatum) Grass Varieties for Dry Matter Yield and
Chemical Composition in South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia. Agri Res & Tech: Open Access J. 2020; 25 (2): 556294.
DOI: 10.19080/ARTOAJ.2020.25.556294
005
Agricultural Research & Technology: Open Access Journal
      
Areka-DZF#590 and Kulumisa-DZF#590 but, it was comparable
to Kindo Kisha-DZF#589. However, the Areka-DZF#590 variety
         
        
contents. The similarity in crude protein and NDF for all tested
varieties is due to similarity in genetic make-up of varieties to
accumulate similar nitrogen contents in a given environments.
           
varieties were higher than previously reported values by different
     
       
         
different agro-ecologies. The NDF and ADF are frequently used
as standard for forage quality testing. The NDF approximates the
total cell wall constituents and is used to predict intake potential
in livestock and whereas, ADF primarily represents cellulose and
lignin and is often used to calculate digestibility of feeds [33]. The
value obtained from our study for NDF was lower than previously
        
was relatively comparable to values reported by [32] which ranged
        
study was higher than the previous reported values by [31] which
       
 
          
          
  

Table 3: The year by variety interaction eect on dry matter yield, plant height, tillers per plant and LTSR of desho grass varieties at Jinka Agricul-
tural Research Center during 2017 and 2018 main cropping years.
Tested Desho Grass Varieties Testing Years
Parameters Measured
  Tillers per plant Leaf to stem ratio
Kulumsa-DZF#592
2017 16.71cd 82.33cd 55b1.25ab
2018 24.83b149.78ab 48.67b0.92bc
Areka-DZF#590
2017 21.38bc 134.33b60.33b1.01bc
2018 34.59a188.31a96.67a1.53a
Kindo Kisha-DZF#591
2017 6.78e80.67cd 38.67b1.10abc
2018 24.12b115.71bc 49b0.74c
Kindo Kisha-DZF#589
2017 14.07d60d40.67b1.08abc
2018 14.22d119.56bc 49.67b0.98bc
 6.92 44.93 25.2 0.5
Means with the dierent letter (a, b, c, d, e) in across column for dry matter yield (DMY), plant height (PH), tillers per plant and leaf stem ratio at
50% owering stage are signicant each other); LSD= Least signicant dierence.
Table 4:
Tested Varieties DM% Ash% CP NDF ADF
Kulumisa-DZF#592 89.67 7.33b11.84 57.73 44.63ab
Areka-DZF#590 89.33 7.29b14.12 55.12 43.62b
Kindokisha-DZF#592 90 10.22a13.39 56.7 47.23ab
Kindokisha-DZF#589 90.33 7.85ab 9.57 63.42 50.23a
F-value 0.12 3.08 1.6 1.89 2.71
 0.95 0.09 0.26 0.21 0.11
SEM 2.17 1.36 2.74 4.56 3.11
LSD 4.2 2.57 5.18 5.58 5.86
(Means with the same letter (a, b) in across column for DM%, Ash, CP, NDF and ADF at 50% owering stage are not signicantly dierent (p>.05).
DM%= dry matter percent, CP = Crude protein; Ash%= Ash percentage; NDF= Neutral detergent ber; ADF= Acid detergent ber; SEM= Standard
error of mean; LSD: Least Signicance dierence).
006
Agricultural Research & Technology: Open Access Journal
How to cite this article: Denbela H, Berako B, Sintayehu K. Evaluation of Desho (Pennisetum pedicellatum) Grass Varieties for Dry Matter Yield and
Chemical Composition in South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia. Agri Res & Tech: Open Access J. 2020; 25 (2): 556294.
DOI: 10.19080/ARTOAJ.2020.25.556294
Figure 2: Cumulative amount of rain fall (mm) into study area during trial periods.
Figure 3: The mean temperature (Temp (Co)) and cumulative precipitation (mm) in to study area during trial years.
Conclusion
The Areka-DZF#590 variety gave highest dry matter
yield, plant height and tillers per plant whereas, the Kindo-
KishaDZF#589 variety gave the lowest dry matter yield, plant
height and tillers per plant. Likewise, the Areka-DZF#590 variety

         
from this study we concluded that farmers who live in comparable
agro ecology to which this study was made in South Omo Zone and
other areas having comparable agro-ecology could plant Areka
DZF#590 desho grass variety for higher dry matter yield and
crude protein content.
Acknowledgement
This study was made possible with funding from Regional
       
Research Centre for the enhancing the pastoral livelihoods in
South Omo Zone through improving livestock feed and feeding.
        
fully fund support for research activity. Finally, we are grateful to
acknowledge the Jinka Agricultural Research Center at Jinka, in
South Omo Zone for providing logistical support and Debre Zeit
Agricultural Research Center for provision of planting material

Conict of interest
        

raw data and all the necessary materials are based on the interest
of the publisher.
References
1.   
      
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2. 
           
         

How to cite this article: Denbela H, Berako B, Sintayehu K. Evaluation of Desho (Pennisetum pedicellatum) Grass Varieties for Dry Matter Yield and
Chemical Composition in South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia. Agri Res & Tech: Open Access J. 2020; 25 (2): 556294.
DOI: 10.19080/ARTOAJ.2020.25.556294
007
Agricultural Research & Technology: Open Access Journal
3.       
       
         

4. Berhanu, Tekleyohannes Girma Abebe, Jameroen Thingtham, Sayan
       
resources for goats in pastoral and agro-pastoral districts of south omo

154-160.
5.          


6.           
         


7.    
native alfalfa ecotypes. Online Journal of Biological Sciences 2: 494-
498.
8.        
rangeland management practices and community perceptions towards
rangeland degradation in South Omo zone of Southern Ethiopia.
Livestock Research for Rural Development.
9. Berhanu, Tekleyohannes Girma Abebe, Jameroen Thingtham, Sayan
       
for goats in pastoral and agro-pastoral districts of south omo zone,

160.
10.           

11.          
         
management on small-scale farms. NBDC Brief 11, International

12. 



13.  
        
adaptability at mechara research station, eastern oromia Ethiopia

14.        
        

15.          
    

American Journal of Agricultural Research 2:8.
16.          
evaluation of different multipurpose grass species for graded soil bund
          

17.           
forage development: Empirical evidence from Alaba Special District,

18.        
searchable catalogue of grass and forage legumes. FAO, Rome, Italy.
19.          
    


20.           
Napier grass with leguminous shrubs in contour hedgerows controls
soil erosion without competing with crops. Agroforestry Systems 74:
37-49.
21.   
Analysis, 15th

22.           
   
relation to animal nutrition. J Dairy Sci 74: 3583-3597.
23.           


24.       
       
        

25.       
and chemical properties of acidic soils in Tsegede highlands, Northern
Ethiopia. Open J Soil Sci 2: 19-21.
26.    
         
stage. 20: Article #89. Retrieved August 9, 2015, from http://www.lrrd.
org/lrrd20/6/feyi20089.htm.
27.        
       
Guji Zone, Bore, Ethiopia Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare
      

28. Kebede Gezahagn, Fekede Feyissa, Getnet Assefa, Alemayehu Mengistu,
         

      
173.
29.         
ALA/01/129.Strenthening of Livestock Services project.
30.       
      
quality of oats-vetch mixtures at different harvesting stage under
residual moisture in Fogera District, Ethiopi, Agric & Food Secur 7:88.
31. Bimrew Asmare, Solomon Demeke, Taye Tolemariam, Firew Tegegne,

morphological characteristics, yield and nutritive value of desho grass
   
Resources 51: 148-153.
32.   
       
characteristics, yieldmand chemical composition under irrigation in
Northwestern Ethiopi, Journal of Agriculture and Environment for

33.         nd edition.

34. 
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Agricultural Research & Technology: Open Access Journal
How to cite this article: Denbela H, Berako B, Sintayehu K. Evaluation of Desho (Pennisetum pedicellatum) Grass Varieties for Dry Matter Yield and
Chemical Composition in South Omo Zone, South Western Ethiopia. Agri Res & Tech: Open Access J. 2020; 25 (2): 556294.
DOI: 10.19080/ARTOAJ.2020.25.556294
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DOI:10.19080/ARTOAJ.2020.25.556294
... A total of 12 plots were used in the experiment with three replications in which each of the plots having an area of a 4m x 3m = (12 m 2 ). Each plot had 4 rows with the spacing between rows and plants within a row being 1meter and 0.5 m, respectively (Denbela Hidosa et al., 2020). The spacing between plots was 1 meter and the total area of the experimental site was 13 x 16 m (208 m 2 ). ...
... The higher dry matter yield for Areka-DZF#590 variety from this study is due to the higher genetic potential of the variety to adapt to the tested environment than the other varieties. The previous studies reported by different scholars were demonstrated that the wider range of dry matter yield difference between Desho grass varieties could be attributed due to differences in genetic potential of varieties (Tekalegn Yirgu et al., 2017;Gadisa Birmaduma et al., 2019;Bimrew Asmare et al, 2016;Denbela Hidosa et al., 2020). The result obtained on dry matter yield from this study for Areka-DZ#F590 variety is higher than previously reported values of 27.99, 28.35 and 28.74t ha -1 by Denbela Hidosa et al. (2020), Tekalegn Yirgu et al. (2017) and Gadisa Birmaduma et al. (2019), respectively. ...
... The previous studies reported by different scholars were demonstrated that the wider range of dry matter yield difference between Desho grass varieties could be attributed due to differences in genetic potential of varieties (Tekalegn Yirgu et al., 2017;Gadisa Birmaduma et al., 2019;Bimrew Asmare et al, 2016;Denbela Hidosa et al., 2020). The result obtained on dry matter yield from this study for Areka-DZ#F590 variety is higher than previously reported values of 27.99, 28.35 and 28.74t ha -1 by Denbela Hidosa et al. (2020), Tekalegn Yirgu et al. (2017) and Gadisa Birmaduma et al. (2019), respectively. However, the dry matter yield obtained from this study for Kulumsa-DZF#590 and KindoKisha-DZF#591 was higher than reported value of (20.77 and 15 t ha -1 ) by Denbela Hidosa et al. (2020), respectively under rain fed condition but relatively similar to previously reported values of (26.52 and 23.37 t ha -1 ) by Tekalegn Yirgu et al. (2017) and 26.14 and 23.59t/ha by (Gadisa Birmaduma et al. (2019). ...
Article
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Background: Productivity and reproductive performances of livestock in Ethiopia is low mainly due to scarcity and quality of feed. The Desho grass is indigenous to Ethiopia and belongs to the family Poaceae and has high biomass production potential that could be used to tackle the problem of scarcity and quality of feed. Objectives: This study was initiated to evaluate dry matter yield and chemical composition of four Desho grass varieties grown in irrigated lowland of Dassench and Hamer districts of South Omo Zone in southwestern Ethiopia. Material and Methods: The Sermemiret Kebele from Dassench District and Eribore Kebele from Hamer district were selected for a participatory on-farm experimental trial with active involvements of district pastoral office experts and Kebele development agents. Four Desho grass varieties, namely, Areka-DZF#590, Kulumisa-DZF#590, Kindokisha-DZF#591 and Areka local were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications per variety. Data on dry matter yield (DMY), cutting height, number of tillers per plant (NTPP) and leaf to stem ratio (LTSR) were analyzed using the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) procedures of SAS. Results: The highest (P < 0.05) dry matter yield (35.09 t ha-1) and Crude protein (CP) (129.50g kg-1 , DM) were recorded for Areka-DZF#590 whereas the lowest dry matter yield (16.96 t ha-1) and CP (90.60g kg-1 , DM) were obtained from Areka local check. Conclusion and Implication: We conclude that Areka-DZF#590 Desho grass variety was found to be the highest in dry matter and crude protein production. Pastoralists, agro-pastoralists, and farmers in the area could enhance feed availability for increased livestock production.
... Herbage dry matter yield of desho grass and forage legumes in the intercropped system is indicated in Table 3. The grass-legume mixture produced more yield in comparison with the grass only (Denbela et al., 2020). The dry matter yield of sole Areka, Kulumsa and Kindo-kosha desho grass varieties were 27.99 t ha -1 , 20.77 t ha -1 and 15.45 t ha -1 , respectively, in the intercropped system. ...
... In the current study, the highest overall mean dry matter yield was observed for Kulumsa (37.33 t ha -1 ) variety, followed by Areka (32.24 t ha -1 ) and kindo-kosha (31.61 t ha -1 ). Intercropping of Areka, Kulumsa and kindo-kosha with desmodium give around 5-16 t ha -1 dry matter yield advantage when compared to the report of Denbela et al. (2020). This finding is in agreement with the study of Sturludottir et al. (2013), who reported that on average, the legume-grass mixture plots had more dry matter yield than the most productive monoculture. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Results of Livestock Research Activities Completed During 2020
... Genotypes viz., IG-15-10, IG-15-9 and IG-15-15 having good biomass yield, tall height, medium maturity and moderate tolerance to leaf blight disease needs to be tested for biomass production potential at multi-location for release as variety. High biomass producing accessions of Dinanath grass were also identified by Hidosa et al. (2020);Gadisha et al. (2019) and Yirgu et al. (2017). Donors for various traits in different crops were identified for enhance utilization of conserved germplasm in breeding programme (Kaur et al., 2018;Singh et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Dinanath grass is a drought tolerant multipurpose species with high potential for quality fodder in tropical regions. In India, it is distributed in eastern and southern parts. The gap in collection and exploitation of genetic diversity exists in Dinanath grass. Therefore, genetic diversity of Dinanath grass was collected and evaluated for utilization in genetic improvement of Pennisetum species for future fodder security. Methodology: A total 28 accessions of Dinanath grass were collected from western and southern regions of Karnataka. Collected accessions were grown under rainfed conditions and evaluated for six qualitative and ten quantitative traits and response to leaf blight reaction. The evaluated accessions were analyzed by using different univariate and multivariate statistical tools. Results: Dinanath accessions were categorized as per qualitative traits. Quantitative traits exhibited low (7.43%) to high (62.88%) coefficient of variation. Dry matter yield showed positive association with plant height, leaf area and tillers per plant. Cluster analysis classified Dinanath accessions into four distinct groups. The first five principal components explained >85% of the total variation. Three accessions viz., IG-15-26, IG-15-30, IG-15-4 were identified as resistant against leaf blight disease; and donor accessions for agronomic traits were selected. Interpretation: The indigenous Dinanath grass collection from Western Karnataka has ample diversity with reference to qualitative and biomass contributing traits; and resistance against leaf bight disease. The information generated on collected germplasm will assist the researchers in designing the Pennisetum genetic improvement programme.
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Participatory field experiment was conducted at Kako and Chali peasant associations of Bena Tsemay woreda, South Omo Zone in the 2012 to 2013 main cropping seasons under rain fed conditions using the forage legume species to identify adaptable and high biomass yielding forage legume species. The field experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design /RCBD/ with three replications where trial Agro pastoralists were considered as replications. The forage species used were Lablab intoritum, Lablab purepureus and Cow pea Legume. Each legume was planted in a single plot area of 3 m x 4 m = 12 m 2. Dry matter production potential of the tested species in kako peasant association is 4.5, 5.6 and 5.20 t/ha and 3.4, 5.0, and 3.68 t/ ha for cropping year one and two respectively and where as the dry matter production potential of tested forage species trial location (Chali) is 5.2, 4.4 and 10 t/ha and 4, 3.2 and 5t/ha in year 2012 and 2013 respectively for Labalab purpureus, Lablab intoritum Cow pea. The result of for dry matter yield (DMY) revealed that there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed among the tested forage legume species in the 2012 cropping season in Kako peasant association however, there was significant difference (P < 0.05) declared between Lablab purepureus and Lablab intoritum and Lablab intortum and Cow pea in the second cropping season. Out of the tested forge species over two years, the one which gave consistently the maximum dry matter yield was Lablab intoritum, which gave (10 tones ha-1), in the first cropping season and (5 tones ha-1) in the second cropping season is advisable for the study areas and their vicinities. Hence, use of the best performing forage species is important in the test community even though further testing is important by including their feeding value under different intervention and chemical composition to put the recommendation on strong basis.
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This experiment was undertaken at Wondogenet Agricultural Research center. The aim of the research was to determine the herbage yield and quality of four ecotypes of Desho grass (Pennisetum pedicellatum) to develop promising ecotypes as registered varieties for wider use among livestock producer communities. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications was employed. The result revealed that, the agronomic performance of height, vigor, dry matter ratio, dry matter yield in ton per hectare and dry matter leaf to stem ratio were not differ significantly (P>0.05) between four Desho grass ecotypes. Even though, the dry matter yield in ton per hectare was not differ significantly (P>0.05) between harvest, large amount of dry matter yield in ton per hectare of 28.83±2.66 was produced during second harvest. Moreover, numerically high dry matter in ton per hectare was produced by the grass lines of Areka-DZF#590 (28.35 ±3.77) and Kulumsa-DZF#592 (26.52±3.77). Therefore, all lines of Desho grasses were well adapted and performed good under Wondogenet condition and in similar environments elsewhere in Ethiopia.
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This experiment was under taken at Mechara Agricultural Research center of on-station site for two consecutive years of 2016 and 2017 cropping season. The aim of the research was to identify the best adaptable and high biomass and dry matter yielders from four ecotype of Desho grass (Pennisetum pedicellatum) to demonstrate promising ecotypes for livestock producer's community in the study area. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications was employed to evaluate the ecotypes. The result revealed that the agronomic performance of regeneration percentage, plot cover, plant vigor and leaf to stem ratio were not shown significant difference (P>0.05) between Desho grass lines. However, significantly difference (P<0.05) were observed in plant height and dry matter yield between four Desho grass lines. The highest dry matter yield were produced from Areka-DZF # 590 (28.74 t/ha), Kulumsa-DZF#592 (26.14 t/ha) and KK1-DZF # 591(23.59 t/ha) lines and produced 0.71, 0.66 and 0.59 leaf to stem ratio, respectively. The mean value of dry matter yield, biomass (herbage) yield and leaf to stem ratio was increased from first to second harvesting year. The dry matter yield had strongly positive correlation with morphological parameters of leaf to stem ratio (r=0.8; P<0.01), plant height (r=0.62; P<0.05), plot cover (r=75; P<0.05), and low correlation with biomass yield (r=0.2). Based on the result, Areka-DZF#590, Kulumsa-DZF-#592, and KK1-DZF#591 lines were well adapted and performed from Desho grass lines evaluated in this experiment. Therefore, these selected Desho grass lines should be further demonstrated and scaled-up at around Mechara Agricultural Research station and similar agro-ecologies of Hararghe areas.
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Background This study was conducted in Fogera District, north western Ethiopia, to evaluate the effect of harvesting stages on biomass yield and nutritive value of oat–vetch mixtures under residual moisture. The experimental plots were prepared thoroughly by plowing the land before sowing. The experiment was conducted using randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement having two factors with three replications. The first factor, factor A, comprises a four combinations of two forage species (oats and vetches) having two varieties each. The two oats varieties used were CI-8237 and CI-8251, represented as (O1) and (O2) and the two vetch varieties, Vicia villosa and Vicia dasycarpa, represented as V1 and V2, respectively. The second factor, harvesting stage, had three levels which follows the three physiological stages of oat varieties as flag leaf stage (HS1), milk stage (HS2) and dough stage (HS3) in the mixtures. Agronomic performance and forage biomass yield were recorded. Chemical compositions of the forage such as crude protein (CP), ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose were determined. Data were analyzed with general linear model procedure of SAS (version 9.1; 2008). Results Results indicated that harvesting stages significantly (P < 0.001) affected most of the agronomic parameters in oats varieties, whereas plant height and number of branches were significant (P < 0.05) in vetch varieties. Significantly higher (P < 0.001) plant height, number of leaves per plant and leaf to stem ratio) were obtained in variety oats CI-8237. Dry matter yield (DMY) and chemical compositions of the forage were significantly affected (P < 0.001) by harvesting stages. More vigor and higher number of branches were recorded in V. villosa, but higher plant height was obtained in V. dasycarpa. The highest mean DMY (4.99 t/ha) and CP yield (0.81 t/ha) were recorded at harvesting stage two (HS2). However, the lowest DMY (3.42 t/ha) was obtained at harvesting stage one. Relatively, the optimum DMY (6.16 t/ha) with maximum CP yield (0.92 t/ha) was recorded from mixture of CI-8237 + V. villosa at harvesting stage two. The fiber components were increased with advanced stage of growth, but CP and ash contents were decreased as the age of the plant matures. Conclusions Production of CI-8237 + V. villosa mixture harvested at harvesting stage two would be more beneficial to produce optimum yield and nutritive value and could be recommended in the study area.
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The study was carried out in Maale Woreda, in South Western Ethiopia aimed to assess feed resource, feed resource availability and feed production constraints. Six Kebeles per Woreda were selected and one focus group discussion which comprised 12 pastoralists per kebele were identified and interviewed. For the key informants’ interview, two livestock production experts from Woreda Livestock and Fisher Resource development Office and six livestock developmental agents from representative kebeles were interviewed. The focus group discussion and key informants interview was used to collect primary data on feed resource, feed resource availability, feed conservation practices and feed resources utilization and major livestock feed constraints. The study results shown that grass from the open grazing land, indigenous browse species and crop residues were major feed resources for the livestock in to study area. The open grazing land had poorly managed and the biomass productivity generated from open grazing land has been retreated. The major livestock feeding system was free grazing and Agro pastoral communities had no trends of conserved feed and provided concentrate supplements to the livestock. There were lack of low quality feed improvement and trends of growing the cultivated fodder species production practices. The 83,783.60 tons of dry matter was produced from different feed resources in the Maale Woreda with deficit of 623,333.40 tons of dry matter per year. The climate change, expansion of cropping land, increments in human populations, lack of inputs and training were identified as livestock feed production constraints in to study area. The migration, supplementations and purchasing available feed were important coping strategies toward feed shortage in to study area. Generally, the results from this study demonstrated that the total dry matter produced from different feed resources in to the study area was not enough to satisfy the dry matter requirement of livestock to support the profitable livestock production in to the study area, which suggest that the primary focus needs to be improving the existing feed resources through rehabilitation of degraded grazing areas, introduction adaptable fodder production, improving feed utilization practices and introduce and promote the crop residue feed improvement technologies.
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The study was undertaken to assess and analyze the existing Oats (Avena sativa) production and utilization systems followed by launching possible intervention options and scaling up of the feasible intervention in north Shewa zone of the Oromiya regional state. The assessment result indicated that rough estimate of farm households who grow Oats for food and/or feed in the zone was close to 20,748 out of the total 216,000 farm households during the study. But the grain productivity was very low because the farmers used only the forage type of Oats for both feed and food purposes. During the second phase, two forage types and two grain types of Oats varieties with local check were selected to evaluate their agronomic performances under farmers fields. The result showed that the selected Oats varieties varied significantly (P<0.05) for plant height, DM yield and seed yield across locations and years. The tested Oats varieties showed that yield and yield component advantage in terms of vigor (11.1 and 21.2%), plant height (15.4 and 19.2%), DM yield (11.8 and 50.0%) and seed yield (17.0 and 81.3%) were recorded at Girar-Jarso when compared to Jida and Wuchale, respectively. The combined analysis showed that Lampton gave the highest DM yield (6.2 t ha-1) followed by CI-8237 (5.9 t ha-1) while the lowest DM yield (3.9 t ha-1) was recorded for local variety. The result indicated that Lampton and CI-8237 gave 59.0 and 51.3% DM yield advantage over the local variety. The combined analysis also indicated that Coker SR res 80SA130 produced the highest seed yield (2810 kg ha-1) followed by SRCP X 80 Ab 2252 (2320 kg ha-1) and the varieties showed 57.0 and 29.6% seed yield advantage over the local variety respectively. Though, the cultivation of Oats was limited/banned by both zonal and regional officials especially for grain production since 2012 cropping season, Lampton and Coker SR res 80SA130 varieties were recommended for forage and grain production respectively. Therefore, the observed controversial issues with regard to Oats production and utilization should be resolved with all concerned bodies in order to fix its future use in the study areas.
Article
A survey was conducted in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay pastoral and agro-pastoral districts of South Omo zone, south western Ethiopia in between January to May 2011 with the objective to describe availability of feed resource for goats. Data were collected from the two districts by informal and formal survey methods using focused group discussion and semi-structured questionnaire administered to 250 households. Natural pastures from rangelands are major feed sources for goats. Higher feed availability is reported in March to April (during the main rainy season). However, availability of feed extends up to October in Bena-Tsemay district due to the higher rainfall in the district. In both districts, the hot dry season (November to February) is the period of feed scarcity and during which high mortality of goats have been reported. Crop residues and some food left over are also available for supplementing animals especially in the agro-pastoral areas. The efficiency of goat production in the studied districts could be increased by optimizing goats breeding season with the availability of feed resources.