ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Improving employee performance always receives researchers and organisational managers' attention as this factor contributes directly to the organisational competitive advantage. Therefore, academic researches, as well as practices, focus on the factors affecting employee performance. However, employer attractiveness, primarily defined as the benefits of an organisation perceived by potential candidates, has not received sufficient attention. Studies regarding employer attractiveness have emphasised on the potential candidates, rather than current employees. Therefore, this study focuses on discovering a new direction - the impact of employer attractiveness on current employees, namely, employee performance. The research method used in this study is the mixed method, especially PLS-SEM analysis tool. Research data is collected from 937 employees from 37 organisations and enterprises in Vietnam. Research results discover the statistically significant relationship between employer attractiveness and employee performance. The results have helped confirm and develop the employer attractiveness factor; especially the new safety value factor.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Employer Attractiveness and Employee Performance:
An Exploratory Study
Minh Ha Nguyen1, Nguyen Vinh Luan1, Bui Thanh Khoa2
1Ho Chi Minh City Open University, Vietnam
2Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; (corresponding author);
Abstract. Improving employee performance always receives researchers and
organisational managers' attention as this factor contributes directly to the
organisational competitive advantage. Therefore, academic researches, as well as
practices, focus on the factors affecting employee performance. However,
employer attractiveness, primarily defined as the benefits of an organisation
perceived by potential candidates, has not received sufficient attention. Studies
regarding employer attractiveness have emphasised on the potential candidates,
rather than current employees. Therefore, this study focuses on discovering a new
direction - the impact of employer attractiveness on current employees, namely,
employee performance. The research method used in this study is the mixed
method, especially PLS-SEM analysis tool. Research data is collected from 937
employees from 37 organisations and enterprises in Vietnam. Research results
discover the statistically significant relationship between employer attractiveness
and employee performance. The results have helped confirm and develop the
employer attractiveness factor; especially the new safety value factor.
Keywords: Employer attractiveness, employee performance, employer
ISSN 1816-6075 (Print), 1818-0523 (Online)
Journal of System and Management Sciences
Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
Nguyen et al. / Journal of System and Management Sciences Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
1. Introduction
In addition to market size and customer loyalty (Khoa at el., 2020), business success
is also measured by corporate management's success, especially in human resource
management. Employee performance, how an employee performs their tasks, is
measured by comparing the task performance to job requirements including the
actual performance (leadership, time management, labour productivity) (Betaubun
et al., 2015). In other words, employee performance is the value chain of the
employee's contribution to the organisation's goal, regardless of whether the
contribution is positive or negative (Harwiki, 2016; Nguyen & Khoa, 2020).
According to Sok and O'Cass (2011), employee's contributions are quantified to
comprise other relevant factors. That employee performance is defined as the
organisation's ability to perform the skills (quality, efficiency and other related
factors at work). It is an especially important and necessary factor because of each
employee's ability to task performance (Masakure, 2016). In the more detailed
approach, Welbourne et al. (1998) assumed that employee performance depends on
the five key employee roles: job, career, innovator, team and organisation; in which:
job refers to job implementation description for each individual, career refers to the
skill implementation essential in organisational progress, innovator refers to work
creativity and innovation, the team demonstrates working ability among other
colleagues and team members to achieve the company's success, organisation
implies how the employee cares about the organisation's goals. Besides, Nguyen
and Ngo (2020) also discovered the positive impact of psychological capital on
employees' work performance. Moreover, Nguyen et al. (2019) also studied the
impact of job crafting on work engagement and work performance.
Unlike employee performance, employer attractiveness is differently defined as
follows. First, employer branding is marketing-like branding for a product or
company (Ambler & Barrow, 1996) or a communication form (Bergstrom et al.,
2002) or management process (Gatewood et al., 1993) or psychology (Jurgensen,
1978; Collin & Steven, 2002) or about employee behaviour (Soutar & Clarke, 1983).
The current widely accepted and used concept is developed by Berthon et al. (2005):
Employer attractiveness, the benefits of an organisation perceived by potential
candidates as the best place to work, includes five dimensions: interesting value,
economic value, social value, developmental value and application value. Following
the definition of Berthon et al. (2005), employer attractiveness has also been
extended to the existing employee object. Employer attractiveness is the perceived
level of both potential employees and current employees about the organisation's
competitive advantages; in which, the organisation is seen as the best place to work.
It will create a long-term and sustainable competitive advantage for enterprises
(Jiang & lle, 2011). Employer attractiveness is divided into Internal employer
attractiveness as the extent to which current employees feel attracted to the
organisation they are working for whereas External employer attractiveness shows
Nguyen et al. / Journal of System and Management Sciences Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
how attractive the organisation is to potential candidates (Pingle & Sharma, 2013).
In terms of the research stream of the employer attractiveness, employer
attractiveness focuses on a potential employee, rather than the current employee.
Some studies on the impact of employer attractiveness on potential candidates'
applying intentions are listed as Sivertzen et al., 2013; Ha & Luan, 2018). Besides,
the effect of employer attractiveness is studied on organisational satisfaction and
identity (Bodderas et al., 2011). The completely different study is performed on
understanding the branding factors of employers in SMEs (Tumasjan et al., 2011).
The number of studies on the effect of employer attractiveness on current
employees is very limited. Therefore, this study aimed to explore in-depth to clarify
the impact of employer attractiveness on employee performance.
2. Literature Review
The person - organisation fit theory, developed by Kristof (1996), deals with
antecedents and consequences for the organisation and the organisational
individuals. This theory affirms that: to achieve a high level of person - organisation
fit through recruitment and socialisation maintains a flexible condition in the
organisation's difficult situations. This theory aims to clarify and distinguish
between supplementary and complementary fit. The supplementary fit occurs when
a person has 'supplements, embellishes, or possesses characteristics' or other
characteristics similar to another individual in the working environment. This is
different from the complementary fit; a person's personality is 'made whole' on the
environment (Muchinsky & Monahan, 1987). In another explanation, the person-
organisation fit is provided from needs-supplies and demands-abilities (Edwards,
1991). If the analysis from the needs-supplies perspective, the person-organisation
fit will occur when the organisation satisfies the individual's needs and expectations.
On the contrary, the person-organisation fit will occur from the demand-abilities
direction when an individual meets its working capacity requirements.
Employer branding theory is based on the combination of marketing principles
and human management. This concept is seen as the package of both economic and
psychological benefits provided to employees from their organisations (Ambler &
Barrow, 1996). Wally (1989) identifies that employer brand is the first way to create
an organisation's organisational culture and inner spirit in the previous different
approach. These results increase the motivation of the entire organisation to connect
with the employee. Besides, the organisation's reputation will be created for all
stakeholders (Hlavsa et al., 2015). Another foundation of the employer branding
theory is the psychological contract theory that deals with the relationship between
the organisation and employees. According to Hendry and Jenkins (1997), the
psychological contract concept between employees and companies in the traditional
view is the exchange of benefits between the two sides. Accordingly, the employee
will commit to being loyal to the company in return for job safety. However, the
Nguyen et al. / Journal of System and Management Sciences Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
changing trends in the current period (downsizing, outsourcing and flexibility,
psychological contracts) transformed in a new form. Specifically, the company will
provide the employee with the necessary working skills through training and
development in return for their efforts (Baruch, 2004). In additionally, in terms of
newcomers' negative perceptions, the company can use employer branding to
promote the benefits they can provide to the employee (training, career path and
personal development). In other words, once a company has trouble finding an
employee's solution, the employer branding strategy can be designed to change
company perceptions (Newell & Dopson, 1996; Hendry & Jenkins, 1997).
According to the original concept of employer branding, Ambler and Barrow
(1996) defined three dimensions as employer identity: psychological, functional and
economical. Based on this background, Berthon et al.(2005) researched to develop
three dimensions of employer attractiveness into five dimensions: interest value,
social value, development value, application value and economic value. Economic
benefits represent the economic value, while the psychological benefits are
separated into interest value and social value. Besides, functional benefits are
broken down into development value and application value. It showed that,
according to the reflective model, the employer attractiveness would have a positive
impact on each of its dimensions. Following that, Arachchige and Robertson (2013)
based on previous research and survey results of business students and employees
who worked for businesses in Sri Lankan, developed eight dimensions of employer
attractiveness includes Job structure, Social commitment, Social environment,
Relationships, Personal growth, Organisational Dynamism, Enjoyment, and
Corporate environment. The research results showed a strong similarity between the
perception of the two groups of students and the experienced employee about the
attributes of the employer attractiveness. Job structure and Enjoyment have content
similar to interest value; Social commitment is similar to economic value, social
environment will be similar to application value, relationships, personal growth and
corporate environment factors like social value, organisational dynamism will be
similar to the development value (Berthon et al., 2005). In another study, Roy (2008)
developed additional employer attractiveness dimensions in India's research context.
Accordingly, there are two content that this author added is ethical value and career
opportunity. Specifically, Roy (2008) developed the employer attractiveness scale
including eight factors: Application Value, Interest Value, Ethical Value, Economic
Value, Social Value, Psychological Value, Career Opportunities, and Development
Meanwhile, Gadibadi (2020) developed two more interesting dimensions related
to startup cases, which are entrepreneurial and Challenge. The dimension
"entrepreneurial" shows development opportunities based on performance
evaluation, taking on different roles, and building a knowledge base through startup
activities. Particularly dimension "challenge" shows challenging, attractive jobs and
Nguyen et al. / Journal of System and Management Sciences Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
high level of responsibility and authorisation. Besides, through qualitative and
quantitative research to develop and confirm the employer attractiveness scale, this
study added a dimension, safety value. This factor reflects the extent to which an
individual is attracted to job security (Berthon et al., 2005). According to Lazorko
(2019), job security is an important factor that can be communicated to attract
employees. In other words, employer attractiveness will have a positive impact on
safety in an organisation.
Furthermore, Herman and Gioia (2001) also argued that one employer branding
criterion is safety value. Employer attractiveness will have a positive impact on the
safety value of businesses' operations. In summary, the five dimensions model of
employer attractiveness by Berthon et al.(2005) and safety value (added dimension)
has been widely used in studies on employer branding (Roy, 2008; Reis & Braga,
2016; Sivertzen et al., 2013; Biswas & Suar, 2013; Kaur et al., 2015; Arachchige &
Robertson, 2011; Ha and Luan, 2018). Therefore, employer attractiveness was
identified, including the following five factors: social value, development value,
application value, safety value and economic value.
For employee performance, there are many definitions and scales of these factors,
including measures of leadership, time management, productivity (Betaubun et al.,
2015), behaviour (Harwiki, 2016), quality, effectiveness and other relevant effects
(Sok & O'Cass, 2011). However, this study used key elements of Welbourne et
al.(1998) to build key employee performance dimensions, including teamwork,
innovator and job. First, for teamwork, Borman & Motowidlo (1997) and Campbell
(1990) argue that many studies on performance models have teamwork factor as an
important component. Many researchers have confirmed that awareness of the role
of teamwork and its use in organisations has increased in recent years (Stevens &
Campion, 1994). Furthermore, the compensation theory has clearly shown the
importance of teamwork in the organisation through gainsharing plans. The
implementation of gainsharing is seen as the activity of distributing financial
benefits of the business to the entire organisation. Studies have shown that
gainsharing plans and team-related rewards help align members to an organisation
(Welbourne & Cable, 1995). In other words, the payroll system encourages
cooperation among members and between teams. Therefore, the teamwork factor is
very important when evaluating an employee's performance. Secondly, dimension
innovator is also an element of employee performance. A company can only
maintain its competitiveness once its employees can be creative in their overall
operations (Schein, 1980; Khoa & Thai, 2021). People need to have an innovative
methodology to apply in their work and contribute to business performance (Van
Maanen & Scheiri, 1979; Khoa, 2020). In summary, the innovator is important not
only for large firms but also for small firms (Gomez-Mejia & Balkin, 1992). Finally,
the job factor is also a very important component. In the previous studies, the job
and organisation roles were defined as a dimension of work performance. From a
Nguyen et al. / Journal of System and Management Sciences Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
traditional perspective, the job is seen as a component of employee performance.
Alternatively, in other words, each member's role in an organisation must be similar
to those associated with organisational citizenship behaviours (Organ, 1988).
Besides, Welbourne and Cable (1995) have proven the jobholder role and each
member's role in the organisation. The employee needs to implement both roles in
the working organisation. Furthermore, the job role is supported by the
compensation system. Thus, it can be seen that the job is an essential component of
employee performance. Based on the above, this research has built employee
performance components, including the following three dimensions: Teamwork,
Innovator and Job.
3. Hypothesis and the research model
3.1. Hypothesis
According to Berthon et al. (2005), social value factors attracting employees that
organisations can perform are a happy working environment, fun, friendliness and
teamwork spirit. According to person-organisation fit theory (Kristof, 1996),
companies can provide employees with their needs, including finance, physic,
psychology, and development opportunities. On the contrary, the employee will
provide their values to the company, including effort, commitment, time and
knowledge. Therefore, this is a harmonious relationship. Combining this theory
with the concept of social value by Berthon et al. (2005), the company will provide
social values to attract employees (a friendly, funny, happy and good teamwork
environment). According to the person-organisation fit theory, these values are
similar to psychological factors (Kristof, 1996). When the employer meets the
employee's needs, harmonious relationship-improving employee performance will
be created. Therefore, the social value of employer attractiveness positively impacts
employee performance because the work environment is an important factor in
employee productivity. A good environment will allow employees to work in the
best way with willingness, interaction, creative cooperation, and employees'
satisfaction (Gonzalez, 1999) to improve employee work efficiency (McGuire &
McLaren, 2007). If an organisation maintains a good working environment, the
employee's productivity will increase. In summary, environmental factors and social
value play a very important role in the organisation. Labour productivity or
performance will be increased due to the working environment (Awan & Tahir,
Developmental value reflects that a potential candidate is attracted by the
recognition, confidence and working experience underpinning career development
(Berthon et al., 2005). According to person-organisation fit theory (Kristof, 1996),
the relationship between employer and employee depends on harmonious standards.
The employee contributes to the company once he is provided with resources
(salary, bonus and perspective). Concurrently, the employee will contribute to the
Nguyen et al. / Journal of System and Management Sciences Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
employer's values (knowledge, skills, and experience). Employee's contribution
action will create the employee's working efficiency. In other words, the higher the
harmonious relationship between employer and employees reaches, the better the
effect of the impact on the work performance of the organisation becomes.
According to Tziner (1987), the person-organisation fit leaves a long-term impact
on employees' work efficiency, whereas Berthon at el. (2005) believes that
developmental value will give the employees opportunities to create confidence and
experience for future development to attract employees. This developmental value
is similar to the employer's resources to the employees in the person-organisation fit
theory (Kristof, 1996). Hence, developmental value has a positive impact on
employee performance. Awan & Tahir (2015) also argued that the employer
providing training and skill development programs and recognising employee
contributions helps build a good working environment, leading to a positive impact
on employees' efficiency and labour productivity. When the employees get a
quality-training program, they will improve assigned tasks (labour productivity,
working efficiency) (Farooq & Khan, 2011). Besides, Muzaffar et al. (2012)
demonstrated that staff training and development activities, as intangible assets of
each organisation, contribute to improving the employee's multiple skills and
maintaining the employee and its competency systems. Besides, activities create
harmony and uniformity between individuals and organisations to maintain diverse
human resources skills and work efficiency. Based on the above theories and studies,
developmental value is concluded to impact employee performance positively.
Application value shows that potential candidates are attracted by the
opportunities to apply their knowledge to work and teach others, reflecting
humanistic and customer-focused orientation (Berthon et al., 2005). According to
person-organisation fit theory (Kristof, 1996), the relationship between employer
and employee is mutually supportive. In particular, employees need to provide their
values (experience, knowledge, time, effort, commitment and abilities such as tasks,
interpersonal) to the employer. In contrast, the employer will provide employees
with employer resources (financial, physical, and psychological, task-related,
interpersonal and development opportunities). When the communication achieves
the level of harmony, it is known as achieving the person-organisation fit state. The
benefit of the person-organisation fit state is improving employee performance
(Tziner, 1987). Besides, application value includes creating opportunities for
employees to apply their knowledge to work and teaching colleagues (Berthon et al.,
2005). This value's content is similar to that of interpersonal in the person-
organisation fit theory (Kristof, 1996). If combining the theory and definition of
application value, application value positively impacts employee performance.
Furthermore, each member's knowledge management will positively impact
employee productivity (Drucker, 1998; Drucker, 1999). According to knowledge-
employee productivity theory, to improve labour productivity, an organisation can
Nguyen et al. / Journal of System and Management Sciences Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
implement the following solutions to continuously training, teaching employees,
authorising work, working with requirements that demand both quantity and quality,
awareness of knowledge as an asset, job/tasks based on knowledge. Besides,
knowledge-employee productivity theory comprises knowledge management
systems, knowledge management processes, knowledge management infrastructure
and other related things (Kianto et al., 2016; Kivipõld, 2015; Tseng & Fan, 2011).
In short, knowledge management will have a positive impact on the creativity of the
organisation. The employee can create and use knowledge effectively bypassing
engagement with the organisation's knowledge management implementation.
Accordingly, employees can use knowledge to create benefits when performing jobs
in the most creative, efficient and fast manner (Tseng & Fan, 2011; Nonaka, 1994).
Furthermore, Tseng and Fan (2011) also demonstrated that knowledge management
impacts job performance. Application value is implied to have a positive impact on
employee performance.
According to Berthon et al.(2005), the safety value factor shows that the
organisation's job security attracts an employee. Kartikasari (2017) found the impact
of OSH security facilities on employee performance. In particular, safety factor,
considered a good factor, protects employee in case employee has an accident,
illness or a dangerous problem at work and life. Several companies have used a
hospital or healthcare centre's service to support this activity to feel more confident
in unexpected situations. Simultaneously, once employees feel more secure at work,
they will focus more on their work and ensure work efficiency is more guaranteed.
Sharing this view, Hasibuan (2008) argued that all direct corporate efforts would
help maximise employee performance. Besides, Permanasari (2014) discover that
job safety factor will positively impact employee performance. Brown and Leigh
(1996) find that psychological safety helps improve job involvement and
performance. Because psychological safety will ensure that the company's work
environment is where employees can interact freely and reliably, this favourable
condition is for employees to share their ideas without fear of punishment or
criticism (West, 1990). Indeed, once employees have a good and safe working
environment, they implement proposals, develop and present new ideas, increase
their ability to learn and foster creativity, and create positive work behaviours,
leading to better working efficiency. This result has received much support and
agreement from other researchers. When an organisation provides psychological
safety for the employee, it will receive better working efficiency. Safety is
important at the individual level and at the team and organisation level (Thamhain,
2003; Baer & Frese, 2003; May et al., 2004; Janssen, 2004). Furthermore, recent
empirical studies have shown that high-level psychological safety enhances
employees' creativity, learning and engagement (Lyu, 2016; Edmondson, 1999;
West & Andersen, 1996).
The economic value indicates the degree to which organisations provide potential
Nguyen et al. / Journal of System and Management Sciences Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
candidates with higher wages, benefits, insurance and promotion opportunities to
attract them to work (Berthon et al., 2005). According to the person - organisation
fit theory (Kristof, 1996), the relationship between employer and employee is a
harmonious one based on fairness. Accordingly, the employer will provide
employees with resources, including values related to financial and economic
factors. On the contrary, the employee will give the employer back values (time,
effort, commitment, experience and capabilities, including tasks, interpersonal);
therefore, leading to increased employee performance. Moreover, financial and
economic values will positively impact employee performance (Tziner, 1987). In
another aspect, employee satisfaction is considered one important factor in
increasing employee's motivation to work. Next, their work motivation will directly
affect their work effort. Work motivation includes both internal and external factors
(Herzberg et al., 1959), in which salary and bonus is the oldest and most important
factor as an effective tool to help employees and their families stabilise their life.
Therefore, managers need to ensure that excellent employees are rewarded in the
form of increased salary. Employee motivation will benefit the company by
bringing about changes and helping the business grow. The management of
compensation is a function of personnel management about salary and bonuses that
employees will receive when performing team duties (Ivancevich, 2003). Salary and
bonuses will help change an employee's work effort (Milkovich & Newman, 1999).
In other words, compensation is a way of distributing economic benefits to
employees' work efforts (Bhattacharyya, 2007). Compensation is provided to the
employee to improve work efficiency and ensure this benefit is controlled at a
reasonable cost (Cassandro, 2008). In summary, the theory and previous studies can
imply that economic value is one explanatory variable for employee performance
(Sajuyigbe et al., 2013; Ojokuku & Sajuyigbe, 2009; Peretomode & Peretomode,
Based on the above reasons, the hypothesis is proposed as following:
H1: Employer attractiveness has a positive impact on employee performance.
3.2. The research model
According to the concept and scale of employer attractiveness factor developed by
Berthon et al. (2005) and those of employee performance developed by Welbourne
et al.(1998), the study builds the model measurement from the resulting model
(Reflective, Mode A). Besides, according to the research hypothesis, employer
attractiveness is expected to impact employee performance positively. Therefore,
the proposed research model, according to Figure 1, is as follows:
Nguyen et al. / Journal of System and Management Sciences Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
Figure 1. The research model
Fig. 1: The research model.
4. Research Methodology
This research used was a mixed method of qualitative research and quantitative
research. Firstly, the scale adjustment and development is conducted by qualitative
research method. Next, to evaluate the scale's reliability, validity and test research
hypotheses, this study used quantitative research methods. The data collection
methods were used in qualitative research, including expert interviews and focus
group discussion. The expert interview was conducted with four lecturers with a
deep understanding of marketing and human resource management. At the same
time, these professionals also have much experience in corporate management
activities. In focus group discussions, the participants will include employees who
have worked for at least five years to understand the company's employer branding
activities to contribute opinion about the survey questionnaire scales. For the
quantitative research method, the study uses SPPS and PLS-SEM software.
Analytical phases assess the measurement model and the structural model. Data
collection is performed through the survey questionnaires sent directly to the
respondents. After being answered and collected from the respondents, the survey
data will be screened and reviewed to choose which questionnaires meet the
research requirements. The number of respondents who answered the research
satisfactory was 937 people from 37 enterprises and Vietnam organisations. Table 1
shows the demographic information of the sample.
Nguyen et al. / Journal of System and Management Sciences Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
Table 1: Descriptive statistics results
Percentage (%)
Married Status
From 18 to 30
From 31 to 40
From 40 to 50
From 50 to 60
Back Office
The scale of all research concepts in this study was based on the previous studies
and qualitative research results. The scales used the 5-pointed Likert scale from (1)
Total disagree to (5) Total agree. In which, employer attractiveness scale was based
on the scale of Berthon et al.(2005) including five factors (social value,
developmental value, application value, safety value, and economic value) and the
scale of employee performance was based on the scale of Welbourne et al.(1998),
including three factors (teamwork, innovator, and job).
5. Data Analysis
5.1. Scale reliability and validity
This research tested the reliability of employer attractiveness, employee
performance scale measurement through Cronbach's Alpha (CA). Simultaneously,
the internal consistency standard of these scales is tested by exploring factor
analysis (EFA). In table 2, all scales met the analytical criteria as follows:
Cronbach's Alpha of all constructs of employer attractiveness and employee
Nguyen et al. / Journal of System and Management Sciences Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
performance were greater than 0.8. Based on this result, all items will be kept in
these two scales. The KMO values of employer attractiveness and employee
performance were 0.948 and 0.931, respectively. Besides, the significant in
Bartlett's test of these scales have a value of 0.000 (< 0.05), proving that these
scales meet the standard of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) (Hair et al., 2017). For
Total Variance Explained index of the employer attractiveness and employee
performance scales, the values of 71.583% and 65.385% are respectively greater
than 50% as prescribed. Therefore, this criterion of both scales is satisfactory
(Gerbing and Anderson, 1988). The eigenvalue of the employer attractiveness
concept (hereafter EA) was 1.024, which showed that the factors include social
value (hereafter SOC), developmental value (hereafter DEV), application value
(hereafter APP), safety value (hereafter SAF) and economic value (hereafter ECO).
The eigenvalue of employee performance concept (hereafter EP) was 1.233, which
shows that the factors on this scale, including teamwork (hereafter TEA), innovator
(hereafter INO) and job (hereafter JOB). That both of these eigenvalue values were
greater than 1.0; hence, the scale meets the standard (Gerbing and Anderson, 1988).
Moreover, two scales have a Composite Reliability (CR) value of greater than
0.70 and an Average Variance Extracted (AVE) value greater than 0.50, and all the
employer attractiveness items' outer loading values have a value from 0.688 to
0.913 as well as employee performance has a value from 0.706 to 0.906, each with a
value greater than 0.708 (Hair et al.,2016). The criteria prove that both scales meet
convergent validity.
Table 2: Results of scale reliability and convergent validity
Explore Factor Analysis (EFA)
Test of
Cumulative %
Employer attractiveness (Outer loading: 0,688 0,913)
Employee performance (Outer loading: 0,706 0,906)
Nguyen et al. / Journal of System and Management Sciences Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
One discriminant validity among the latent variables of employer attractiveness is
the Heterotrait - Monotrait (HTMT) standard. Table 3 shows the HTMT values of
all observed variables in the matrix. That all values of HTMT are smaller than 0.85;
hence, the research variables in the model have quite a good discriminant. 2.5% and
97.5% of columns show the low and high 95% confidence interval (the difference
between the calibration and cumulative). The confidence interval does not include 1.
These values proved that the employer attractiveness scales achieved discriminant
Table 3: HTMT of Employer attractiveness
The study examines the discriminant value among the latent variables of
employee performance. Table 4 shows the HTMT for all pairs of variables studied
in a matrix means that all values of HTMT are much smaller than 0.85. The low and
high limit of the 95% confidence interval (the difference between the calibration
and cumulative) of all groups of research variables does not contain 1.0. These
values assert that employee performance scales achieve discriminant validity.
Table 4: HTMT of Employee performance
All groups of scale variables of employer attractiveness (including SOC, DEV,
APP, SAF and ECO latent variables) and employee performance scale (including
TEA, INO and JOB latent variables) achieve internal consistency reliability,
convergent validity and discriminant validity.
5.2. Structural model assessment
The first criterion in evaluating a structural model is the Multi-collinearity test: This
phenomenon occurs when the correlation degree is high among the independent
variables in the linear measurement model., the variance inflation factor (VIF) is
applied to measure this phenomenon (Akinwande et al., 2015). All VIF values of all
Nguyen et al. / Journal of System and Management Sciences Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
endogenous variables and the corresponding exogenous variables were 1, which
were less than 2; therefore, multi-collinearity does not occur in research models.
R2 coefficient is used to measure the research model's appropriateness. The
higher value of R2 is, the higher the predictability of the research model becomes.
Besides, in multiple regression models, the studies often use adjusted R2 value to
avoid the deviation caused by complex models. The values R2 and adjusted R2 for
the employee performance are 0.13 and 0.10, respectively. With these adjusted R2
values, the research model's explanation and prediction levels are low. However,
according to Hair et al. (2017), R2 value at 0.2 may be considered high for
behavioural studies. Therefore, this value is acceptable due to employee behaviour,
although this relationship's adjusted R2 value is relatively low.
Also, to evaluate the R2 value of all endogenous variables, the change in the R2
value (when a particular exogenous variable is omitted from the model) can be used
to evaluate whether the omitted variable affects significantly up to endogenous
variables or not. This measurement is called the impact factor f2. By the standard, f2
with values of 0.02, 0.15, and 0.35 would represent small, medium, and large
effects; respectively (Cohen, 1988). f2 value is less than 0.02 demonstrates no effect.
Table 5 shows that EA has an average effect of 0.115 on EP; it showed that EA has
an only medium impact on EP.
Table 5: Effect size
In additionally, the Q2 value is used to assess the importance of R2 values to
assess the accuracy of the prediction, (Geisser, 1974 and Stone, 1974) as an
indicator of the out-of-sample predictive power.
Table 6: Q2 value
Nguyen et al. / Journal of System and Management Sciences Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
When PLS-SEM exhibits the predictive relevance, data that is not used in model
estimation can be correctly predicted. Regarding evaluation criteria, with the
structural model, the value Q2 is greater than 0 for a specific endogenous latent
variable, indicating the path model's predictive relationship for this particular
dependent variable. From Table 6, the value Q2 of endogenous variables is greater
than 0 through blindfolding result. That employee performance has the value of Q2
of 0.049 suggests that the model's predictive relevance to endogenous latent
variables is possible.
Table 7 described the relationship between the research variables and research
hypothesis test. That employer attractiveness has a medium positive impact on
employee performance (β = 0.321) with 99% confidence implies that the hypothesis
is supported. Figure 2 pointed out the relationship between the concepts and
constructs in the research.
Table 7. Hypothesis testing result
P Values
EA -> EP
Note: Original Sample (O), Sample Mean (M), Standard Deviation (STDEV), T Statistics (|O/STDEV|)
Figure 2. The research results.
Nguyen et al. / Journal of System and Management Sciences Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
6. Discussion
That employer attractiveness positively impacts employee performance with impact
coefficient ß = 0.321 (significance level p-value = 0.000) means that hypothesis H2
is supported. This result helps to add a new research direction of employer
attractiveness because previous studies mainly focus on attracting potential
candidates, especially on candidate recruitment' impact on work efficiency.
Specifically, the previous employer attractiveness researchers pay more attention to
potentially potential candidates (Sivertzen et al.; 2013 and Ha & Luan, 2018) or
employer attractiveness scale (Berthon et al., 2005). Therefore, the relationship
between employer attractiveness and employee performance is affirmed in a new
Theoretically, this result is consistent with the theory concerned. According to
person-organisation (PO) fit theory (Kristof, 1996), there is harmony between the
company and the employee by providing each other with the benefits and values
that each side wishes to receive. The company will also provide employees with
financial values (economy, physical and psychology as safety or opportunities like
development and application). In contrast, employees will provide the company
with their performance. The optimal relevance is that both satisfy both needs
through the values mentioned above. Therefore, the positive relationship between
employer attractiveness and employee performance is completely consistent with
Person-Organization (PO) fit theory.
Compared to previous studies, this is a new research direction, so not many
studies on this relationship for reference. The first study of Dabirian et al. (2019),
analysing 15,000 IT employee reviews, identified eight values for IT employee
evaluation to propose appropriate solutions for IT, company leaders, to use the
employer brand effectively to attract and retain talent for improving human resource
competitiveness or increasing the efficiency of employees. In another study, Slatten
et al.(2019) found the role of organisational attractiveness as the powerful frontline
in employees' perception of their internal market-oriented culture and turnover rate,
engagement and service quality in hospitals; in which, organisational attractiveness
has a positive impact on the service quality of nurses provided to patients. This
research result is quite similar to that of Slatten et al. (2019). Pires (2020) studied
Employer attractiveness and its impact on individual work performance moderated
by national culture in multinational companies. With regression models, employer
attractiveness dimensions (economic and application value) with a positive
relationship with employee performance. To sum up, the results of the positive
relationship between employer attractiveness and employee performance are rather
Practically, the positive effect of employer attractiveness on employee
performance is relevant in practice. Firstly, factors related to the social work
environment (supportive relationship, the collaboration between colleagues, the
Nguyen et al. / Journal of System and Management Sciences Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
smooth coordination between superiors and subordinates, and friendliness in public
work) will make employees more comfortable and think more positively to increase
work motivation and positive impact on their work efficiency. Besides, with mutual
support among colleagues, the work will go more smoothly and quickly because
gathering collective strength will help the work more efficiency. Secondly, when
the company focuses on employee development (DEV), employees can improve
their competencies and solve problems effectively. Thirdly, when the company has
an application value (APP), employees will be able to apply the knowledge they
have learned in their real work to better the efficiency by being performed
methodically and professionally.
Moreover, other colleagues also share new knowledge to improve their work and
improve overall work efficiency. Fourthly, safety factor (SAF) contributes greatly
to employee performance. When employees feel safe at work, they will create peace
of mind and psychological stability to focus all their resources on the job. The
ultimate value is economical (ECO): when the company provides a competitive
salary and benefit, the employee will impact employee motivation so that
employees focus entirely on the work and improve work efficiency greatly. In a
nutshell, employer attractiveness positively impacts employee performance is
completely consistent with the activities occurring in enterprise practices.
7. Conclusion and Managerial Implications
This study on the relationship between attracting employer attractiveness and
employee performance in the Vietnamese context, confirm and adjust the employer
attractiveness scale, and test the effect of employer attractiveness on employee
performance is the new direction of employer attractiveness, emphasising the
impact on current employees. The study uses qualitative and quantitative research
methods to adjust and confirm the employer attractiveness and employee
performance scales. The number of respondents to the survey is 937 from 37
enterprises and organisations in Vietnam. The result has developed a new factor for
the employer attractiveness scale: safety factor (SAF). In summary, the research has
confirmed the employer attractiveness scale including social value: SOC (6 items),
developmental value: DEV (6 items), application value: APP (4 items), safety value:
SAF (3 items) and economic value (3 items). The employee performance scale
includes teamwork: TEA (8 items), innovator: INO (6 items) and job: JOB (3 items).
Besides, the study tests research hypotheses and research models by using SPSS and
PLS-SEM software. The analytical results show that standards on the measurement
model and structural model (according to PLS-SEM) achieved criteria. The results
also show that the factors of employer attractiveness and employee performance
both positively impact its components. In particular, research has found that the
positive effect of employer attractiveness on employee performance has a moderate
degree of impact and 99% confidence.
Nguyen et al. / Journal of System and Management Sciences Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
That employer attractiveness positively impacts employee performance directly
with the impact coefficient at an average level of 0.321 confirms the influential role
of employer attractiveness towards potential candidates and current employees. This
result implies that managers can refer to more attractive business values to improve
employee's work efficiency by studying and implementing several policies to apply
employer attractiveness to increase employee performance. Firstly, managers
should build a happy, fun and friendly working environment for social value and a
good relationship among colleagues, between superiors and subordinates. It will
help employees feel comfortable, happy and work more efficiently. Secondly,
managers had better develop a diversified employee training and development
program (career paths, inter-departmental experience experiences, succession
planning, authorisation of work). Simultaneously, building employee development
policy clearly and fairly helps all employees have the opportunity to develop.
Thirdly, managers can enhance organisational learning model to promote internal
training activities and enable employees to share their knowledge and experience
with colleagues. It will help employees feel they have a valuable contribution to the
organisation and a more meaningful life. Fourthly, the company should pay
attention to its employees' safety and physical and mental safety. Managers increase
the effective implementation of EHS (Environment - Health - Safety) strategy to
have good remedial and preventive measures in safe operations. Finally, managers
should pay attention to the effective implementation of salary, bonus and welfare
policies for employees by surveying and referring to the salary levels and salary
payment strategies in the market for appropriate adjustment to be competitive. To
help improve employee performance, managers can promote synchronous social,
developmental, application, safety, and economic factors.
8. Limitations and further research
This study focuses on respondents mostly from businesses operating in Vietnam.
That it is impossible to cover all employees from other types of organisations
(socio-political organisations, culture, media, education, non-government) will
affect data generalisation criteria. Besides, this study uses the non-probability data
collection method (convenient method), so the sample's accuracy and
representativeness have some limitations. Another limitation of the study comes
from the location of data collection: The study only collects survey questionnaires
from respondents living in cities and provinces in the Southern region of Vietnam.
There are differences in culture and customs between regions, leading to the
difference in employee perceptions. This limitation will affect the research data
accuracy, in particular, data generalisation. Finally, since the data collected from
respondents is only available at a time, it is impossible to compare the change in
perception of these respondents overtime series, leading to partly impacted research
Nguyen et al. / Journal of System and Management Sciences Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
Therefore, further research can develop more precise and general data collection
methods (using probability data collection method). Besides, study subjects can
expand to non-business organisations (socio-political organisations, culture,
journalism, education, non-government). For the geographical factor, it is possible
to survey more broadly organisations in the Central and Northern regions of
Vietnam for the more general research results. The study time may add some
different times to compare and evaluate the change in employee's perception of
employer attractiveness. Future studies may also expand some intermediate
variables or moderator variables in the relationship between employer attractiveness
and employee performance in terms of the research model. Besides the employee
performance, the next research may discover other dimensions (employee
satisfaction, commitment or loyalty) that employer attractiveness can impact.
Akinwande, M.O., Dikko, H.G. and Samson, A. (2015). Variance inflation factor:
as a condition for the inclusion of suppressor variable(s) in regression analysis.
Open Journal of Statistics, 5(7), 754-767.
Ali, A. Y. S., Ali, A. A., and Adan, A. A. (2013). Working conditions and
employees’ productivity in manufacturing companies in sub-Saharan African
context: case of Somalia. Educational Research International, 2 (2), 67-78.
Ambler, T., and Barrow, S. (1996). The employer brand. Journal of brand
management, 4 (3), 185-206.
Arachchige, B. J., and Robertson, A. (2013). Employer attractiveness: comparative
perceptions of undergraduate and postgraduate students. Sri Lankan Journal of
Human Resource Management, Vol 4 (1), , 33- 48.
Awan, A., and Tahir, M. (2015). Impact of working environment on employee’s
productivity: a case study of banks and insurance companies in Pakistan. European
Journal of Business and Management, 7 (1), 329-345.
Baruch, Y. (2004). Transforming careers: from linear to multidirectional career
paths: organizational and individual perspectives. Career development international,
9 (1), 58-73.
Baer, M., and Frese, M. (2003). Innovation is not enough: climates for initiative and
psychological safety, process innovations, and firm performance. Journal of
Nguyen et al. / Journal of System and Management Sciences Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational
and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 24 (1), , 45-68.
Bergstrom, A., Blumenthal, D., and Crothers, S. (2002). Why internal branding
matters: the case of Saab. Corporate reputation review, 5 (2-3) , 133-142.
Berthon, P., Ewing, M. and Hah, L.L. (2005), Captivating company: dimensions of
attractiveness in employer branding, International Journal of advertising, 24 (2),
151 172.
Betaubun, K., Werang, B. R., and Rahail, E. B. (2015). The Impact of teachers’
individual characteristics, teachers’ work morale and teachers’ job satisfaction on
teachers’ job performance at St. Francis Xavier 1 & 2 primary schools in Merauke
City, Papua Province, Indonesia. Journal of Educational Policy and
Entrepreneurial Research, 2 (4), 1-8.
Bhattacharyya, D. K.2007. Human resource research methods. Oxford University
Press, New Delhi, India.
Biswas, M., and Suar, D. (2013). Which employees' values matter most in the
creation of employer branding? Journal of marketing development and
competitiveness, 7 (1), 93-102.
Blau, P. M. 1964. Exchange and power in social life. Transaction Publishers.
Bodderas, M., Cachelin, J. L., Maas, P., and Schlager, T. (2011). The influence of
the employer brand on employee attitudes relevant for service branding: an
empirical investigation. Journal of Service Marketing, 25 (7), 497-508.
Borman, W. G., and Motowidlo, S. J. 1997. Task perfor- mance and contextual
performance: the meaning for personnel selection research. Human Performance,
10 (2), 99-109.
Brown, S. P., and Leigh, T. W. (1996). A new look at psychological climate and its
relationship to job involvement, effort, and performance. Journal of applied
psychology, 81 (4), 358 - 368.
Gampbell, J. P. 1990. Modeling the performance prediction problem in industrial
and organizational psy- chology. In M. D. Dunnette and L. M. Hough (Eds.),
Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology, 1 (2nd ed.): 687-732. Palo
Alto, GA: Gonsulting Psychologists Press.
Nguyen et al. / Journal of System and Management Sciences Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
Cassandro, M. H. (2008). Project manager, HR specialist, ONESTEPcompensation:
Outline and denitions. HR Guide to the Internet. 2000. Access from: Compensation guide: A Manual on Compensation
Practice & theory.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.).
Hillsdale, Erlbaum, NJ, New York.
Collins, C. J., and Stevens, C. K. (2002). The relationship between early
recruitment-related activities and the application decisions of new labor-market
entrants: a brand equity approach to recruitment. Journal of applied psychology, 87
(6), 1121 1133.
Dabirian, A., Paschen, J., and Kietzmann, J. (2019). Employer branding:
understanding employer attractiveness of IT companies. IT Professional, 21 (1) ,
Drucker, P. F.1998. Harvard business review on knowledge management. Harvard
Business Press.
Drucker, P. F. (1999). Knowledge-worker productivity: the biggest challenge.
California management review, 41 (2), 79-94.
Edmondson, A. (1999). Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams.
Administrative science quarterly, 44 (2), 350-383.
Edwards, J. R.1991. Person-job fit: a conceptual integration, literature review, and
methodological critique. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey.
Farooq, M., and Khan, M. A. (2011). Impact of training and feedback on employee
performance. Far east journal of psychology and business, Vol 5 (1), 23-33.
Gadibadi, C. (2020). Identifying dimensions of employer attractiveness in startups:
the case of Swedish tech startups.
Gatewood, R. D., Gowan, M. A., and Lautenschlager, G. J. (1993). Corporate image,
recruitment image and initial job choice decisions. Academy of management journal,
Vol 36 (2), 414-427.
Gerbing, D. W., and Anderson, J. C. (1988). An updated paradigm for scale
development incorporating unidimensionality and its assessment. Journal of
marketing research, 25 (2), 186-192.
Nguyen et al. / Journal of System and Management Sciences Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
Gomez-Mejia, L. R., and Balkin, D. B.1992. Compensation, organizational strategy,
and firm performance. South-Western Pub, Gincinnati.
Gonzalez, M. (1999). Shifting the performance curve. Ivey Business Journal,
July/August, 18-23.
Ha, N. M., and Luan, N. V. (2018). The effect of employers'attraction and social
media on job application attention of senior students at Pharmaceutical Universities
in Vietnam. International Journal of Business & Society, 19 (2), 473 491.
Hair Jr, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., and Gudergan, S. P.2017. Advanced
issues in partial least squares structural equation modeling. Sage publications,
Hlavsa, T., Urbancová, H., and Richter, P. (2015). Ways of human resource
branding in czech agricultural companies. Scientia agriculturae bohemica, 46 (3),
Harwiki, W. (2016). The impact of servant leadership on organization culture,
organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) and
employee performance in women cooperatives. Procedia-Social and Behavioral
Sciences, 219, 283-290.
Hasibuan, Melayu S. P. 2008, Manajemen sumber daya manusia, Penerbit Bumi
Aksara., Jakarta, Indonesia
Hendry, C., and Jenkins, R. (1997). Psychological contracts and new deals. Human
Resource Management Journal, 7 (1), 38 - 44.
Herman, R. E., and Gioia, J. L. (2001). Helping your organization become an
employer of choice. Employment relations today. 28 (2), 63 - 78.
Hertzberg, F., Mausner, B. and Snyderman, B.B. 1959. The motivation to work.
Wiley, New York, NY.
Geisser, S. (1974). A predictive approach to the random effect model. Biometrika,
61 (1), 101-107.
Gerbing, D. W., and Anderson, J. C. (1988). An updated paradigm for scale
development incorporating unidimensionality and its assessment. Journal of
marketing research, 25 (2), 186-192.
Nguyen et al. / Journal of System and Management Sciences Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
Ivancevich, J.M. 2003. Human resource management. 9th edition New Delhi: Mc
GrawHill Publishing, Boston.
Janssen, O. (2004). The barrier effect of conflict with superiors in the relationship
between employee empowerment and organizational commitment. Work & Stress,
18 (1), 56-65.
Jiang, T., and Iles, P. (2011). Employer-brand equity, organizational attractiveness
and talent management in the Zhejiang private sector, China. Journal of Technology
Management in China, 6 (1), 97-110.
Jurgensen, C. E. (1978). Job preferences (What makes a job good or bad?). Journal
of Applied psychology, 63 (3), 267 - 276.
Kartikasari, R. D. (2017). Pengaruh work safety and health karyawan terhadap
employee performance (Studi Pada Karyawan Bagian Produksi PT Surya Asbes
Cement Group Malang). Jurnal Adminsitrasi Bisnis Universitas Brawijaya Malang,
44 (1).
Kaur, P., Sharma, S., Kaur, J., and Sharma, S. K. (2015). Using social media for
employer branding and talent management: an experiential study. IUP Journal of
Brand Management, 12 (2), 7 - 20.
Khoa, B.T., Huynh, L.T. and Nguyen, M.H, (2020), The relationship between
perceived value and peer engagement in sharing economy: a case study of
ridesharing services, Journal of System and Management Sciences, 10 (4), 149-72.
Khoa, B.T. "The role of mobile skillfulness and user innovation toward electronic
wallet acceptance in the digital transformation era," International Conference on
Information Technology Systems and Innovation (ICITSI), 2020, IEEE, pp. 30-37.
Khoa, B.T. and Thai, D.T. 2021, Capital structure and trade-off theory: evidence
from Vietnam, The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business, 8 (1), 45-
Kianto, A., Vanhala, M., and Heilmann, P. (2016). The impact of knowledge
management on job satisfaction. Journal of knowledge management, 20 (4), 621 -
Nguyen et al. / Journal of System and Management Sciences Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
Kristof, A. L. (1996). Person organization fit: an integrative review of its
conceptualizations, measurement, and implications. Personnel psychology, 49, (1),
1 - 49.
Kivipõld, K. (2015). Organisational leadership capability-a mechanism of
knowledge coordination for inducing innovative behaviour: a case study of Estonia
service industries. Baltic Journal of Management, 10 (4), 478-496.
Łazorko, K. (2019). Work safety as an element of external employer branding
strategy. Zeszyty Naukowe. Quality. Production. Improvement, Vol 11 (2), 16 25.
Lyu, X. (2016). Effect of organizational justice on work engagement with
psychological safety as a mediator: evidence from China. Social Behavior and
Personality: an international journal, 44 (8), 1359-1370.
Masakure, O. (2016). The effect of employee loyalty on wages. Journal of
Economic Psychology, 56, 274-298.
May, D. R., Gilson, R. L., and Harter, L. M. (2004). The psychological conditions
of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at
work. Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, 77 (1), 11-37.
McGuire, D., and McLaren, L. (2009). The impact of physical environment on
employee commitment in call centres: the mediating role of employee well-being.
Team Performance Management, 15 (1), 3548.
Milkovich, G. T., and Newman, J. M.1999. Compensation. Irwin, Boston.
Muchinsky, P. M., and Monahan, C. J. (1987). What is person-environment
congruence? Supplementary versus complementary models of fit. Journal of
vocational behavior, 31 (3), 268-277.
Muzaffar, M. U., Salamat, S. H. and Ali, M. M. (2012). Impact of trainings on
employees outcome in IT Sector Pakistan. Global Journal of Management and
Business Research, 12 (6), 20-26.
Newell, H., and Dopson, S. (1996). Muddle in the middle: organizational
restructuring and middle management careers. Personnel Review, 25 (4), 4-20.
Nguyen, H. M., and Ngo, T. T. (2020). Psychological capital, organizational
commitment and job performance: a case in Vietnam. The Journal of Asian Finance,
Economics, and Business, 7 (5), 269-278.
Nguyen et al. / Journal of System and Management Sciences Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
Nguyen, H. M., Nguyen, C., Ngo, T. T., and Nguyen, L. V. (2019). The effects of
job crafting on work engagement and work performance: a study of vietnamese
commercial banks. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business, 6 (2),
Nguyen, M.T. and Khoa, B.T. 2020, Improving the competitiveness of exporting
enterprises: a case of Kien Giang Province in Vietnam, The Journal of Asian
Finance, Economics and Business, 7 (6), 495-508.
Nonaka, I. (1994). A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation.
Organization science, 5 (1), 14-37.
Ojokuku, R. M., and Sajuyigbe, A. S. (2009). Effect of pay satisfaction dimensions
on job performance in selected tertiary institutions in Osun State, Nigeria. African
Journal Institute and Development (AJID), 4 (2), 86-95.
Organ, D. W. (1988). A restatement of the satisfaction-performance hypothesis.
Journal of management, 14 (4), 547-557.
Peretomode, V. F., and Peretomode, O. 2005. Human resources management:
principles, policies and practices. Onosomegbowho Ogbinaka Publishers.
Permanasari, J.E. (2014). Analisis Pengaruh Kesehatan Dan Keselamatan Kerja (K3)
Terhadap Performance Dengan JOB SATISFACTION Sebagai Variabel
Interventing. Skripsi Fakultas Ekonomika dan Bisnis Universitas Diponegoro.
Pingle, S. S., and Sharma, A. (2013). External employer attractiveness: a study of
management students in India. Journal of Contemporary Management Research, 7
(1), 78 95.
Pires, M. C. (2020). Employer attractiveness and its impact on individual work
perfomance moderated by national culture (Doctoral dissertation), ISPA Instituto
Universitário Ciências Psicológicas, Sociais e da Vida, Portugal.
Reis, G. G., and Braga, B. M. (2016). Employer attractiveness from a generational
perspective: implications for employer branding. Revista de Administração (São
Paulo), 51 (1), 103-116.
Roy, S. K. (2008). Identifying the dimensions of attractiveness of an employer
brand in the Indian context. South Asian Journal of Management, 15 (4), 110 130.
Nguyen et al. / Journal of System and Management Sciences Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
Sajuyigbe, A. S., Olaoye, B. O., and Adeyemi, M. A. (2013). Impact of reward on
employees performance in a selected manufacturing companies in Ibadan, Oyo
State, Nigeria. International Journal of Arts and Commerce, 2 (2), 27-32.
Schein, E. H.1980. Organizational psychology (3rd ed.). Englewood Gliffs,
Prentice-Hall, New York.
Sivertzen, A. M., Nilsen, E. R., and Olafsen, A. H. (2013). Employer branding:
employer attractiveness and the use of social media. Journal of Product & Brand
Management, 22 (7), 473-483.
Slåtten, T., Lien, G., and Svenkerud, P. J. (2019). The role of organizational
attractiveness in an internal market-oriented culture (IMOC): a study of hospital
frontline employees. BMC health services research, 19 (1), 1-15.
Sok, P., and O'Cass, A. (2011). Achieving superior innovation-based performance
outcomes in SMEs through innovation resourcecapability complementarity.
Industrial Marketing Management, 40 (8), 1285-1293.
Soutar, G. N., and Clarke, A. W. (1983). Examining business students' career
preferences: a perceptual space approach. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 23 (1),
Spence, M. (1973). Job market signaling. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 87 (3),
Stevens, M. J., and Campion, M. A. (1994). The knowledge, skill, and ability
requirements for teamwork: implications for human resource management. Journal
of management, 20 (2), 503-530.
Stone, M. (1974). Cross-validation and multinomial prediction. Biometrika, 61 (3),
Thamhain, H. J. (2003). Managing innovative R&D teams. R&d Management, 33
(3), 297-311.
Tseng, F. C., and Fan, Y. J. (2011). Exploring the influence of organizational ethical
climate on knowledge management. Journal of business ethics, 101 (2), 325-342.
Tumasjan, A., Strobel, M., and Welpe, I. M. (2011). Employer brand building for
start-ups: which job attributes do employees value most?. Zeitschrift r
Betriebswirtschaft, 81 (6), 111-136.
Nguyen et al. / Journal of System and Management Sciences Vol. 11 (2021) No. 1, pp. 97-123
Tziner, A. (1987). Congruency issue retested using Fineman's achievement climate
notion. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 2 (1), 63 78.
Van Maanen, J., and Schein, E. H. 1979. Toward a theory of organizational
socialization. In B. M. Staw (Ed.), research in organizational behavior, 1: 209-264.
Greenwich, GT: JAI Press.
Wally, O. 1989. Corporate identity. Thames and Hudson, London
Welbourne, T. M., and Cable, D. M. (1995). Group incentives and pay satisfaction:
understanding the relationship through an identity theory perspective. Human
Relations, 48 (6), 711-726.
Welbourne, T. M., Johnson, D. E., and Erez, A. (1998). The role-based performance
scale: validity analysis of a theory-based measure. Academy of management journal,
41 (5), 540-555.
Welbourne, T. M., and Mejia, L. R. G. (1995). Gainsharing: a critical review and a
future research agenda. Journal of management, 21 (3), 559-609.
West, M. A., and Anderson, N. R. (1996). Innovation in top management teams.
Journal of Applied psychology, 81 (6), 680.
... Previous studies investigated the impacts of digital banking applications upon employee job security via quantitative survey techniques [22]. Specifically, the scrutiny to e-banking effects on employee job security at four Nigerian banks found that though the e-banking adoption embellished service delivery and directly conduced to job losses and early retirement, it could not displace human performance altogether [21]. ...
Conference Paper
This paper incipiently approaches state-of-the-art industrial outlook through intimate antecedents of employee's adoption to digital technologies deployed at their banks and correlation between digital adoption and employee job security. A quantitative survey is undertaken to reflect these two research dimensions with a sample of 470 employees working at commercial banks in Vietnam. Based on Partial Least Squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), the research dimensions encompass four independent variables, namely digital competences, techno-stress, available technological training and guidance and portents of redundancy; and two dependent variables, including employee technological adoption and employee job security. Corresponding to proposed hypotheses, digital competencies and available technological training and guidance signify positive relationships, whereas techno-stress and portents signify negative relationships towards perceived employees’ adoption of digital technologies. Meanwhile, there is a positive association between participants perceived technological adoption and perceived job security. The values obtained from this study is beneficial for human resource professionals to handle labor relationships in developing banks’ practical training programs and retrenchment policies; and for banking employees to edify digital skills in response to in-demand digitalization.
... Business performance is a crucial factor in evaluating enterprises, especially in the period of Covid-19 taking place, there are no signs of ending. In addition to the business building itself through internal elements of the organization (Nguyen et al., 2021), external communication factors as the review communities are equally important. The information from a professional advisory site or credible review page can change the customers' trust (Nguyen & Khoa, 2019). ...
Full-text available
Information technology had brought many advantages to daily consumption activities, especially when social networks were born. Social networking sites have become a new and modern tool for diners to choose restaurants and food services in Food and Beverage Service (F&B). This study aimed to find the relationship between the online food review communities' characteristics with trust and customers' restaurant selection intention. Mix-method research was done to archive the research objective. The research results pointed out that four characteristics of online food review communities, including, Expertness, Trustworthiness, Objectivity, Homophily, positively impacted customer trust, which has positively led to the restaurant selection intention in F&B. Some managerial implications were proposed to the managers in the F&B to improve customer trust and restaurant selection intention.
Full-text available
Economic integration is an indispensable trend in all countries. However, besides the advantages that economic integration brings, there are also disadvantages, such as competition between businesses among states in export activities. Vietnam is a developing country with many advantages, especially, the seafood exporting industry. However, with competitive pressure as well as strategic constraints, Vietnamese seafood exporters still face many difficulties. Therefore, the case study of the Kien Giang province of Vietnam is used to analyze the factors affecting the competitiveness of seafood exporting enterprises. The study applied quantitative research methods with a survey of 350 seafood exporting enterprises in Kien Giang province to achieve the research objectives. The research results identified eleven key factors affecting the competitiveness of seafood exporting enterprises, including (1) vision and strategy of leader; (2) human resources management capability; (3) organization capability; (4) customer-responsive marketing capability; (5) relationship management capability; (6) technical capability; (7) competitors reaction capability; (8) business environment adoption capability; (9) financial capability; (10) products and services innovation capability; and (11) branding management. The research results provided the basis to propose some managerial implications to improve the competitiveness of exporting enterprises in the context of the global economic integration.
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between employee's psychological capital, organizational commitment and job performance in Vietnam. In this study, psychological capital and overall organizational commitment are considered as two second-order constructs. Psychological capital includes four different components: self-efficacy, optimism, hope and resiliency. Organizational commitment comprises three different components: affective commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment. The study uses the combination of quantitative research method and qualitative research method. Qualitative research method (based on the experts' opinions) is used to design the official questionnaire, while relationship between concepts is estimated by quantitative research method, which is inclusive of the methods of descriptive statistics, Cronbach's Alpha, EFA, CFA and CB-SEM. The survey is conducted in two ways: face-to-face and via email. Data are collected from 848 employees across provinces and cities in Vietnam. The findings show that psychological capital and job performance have a positive relationship, organizational commitment has positive influence on job performance, and psychological capital is also related to organizational commitment. All relationship between psychological capital, organizational commitment and job performance of employee are statistically significant. In addition, organizational commitment also plays the mediating role in the positive relationship between psychological capital and employee's performance.
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to identify elements of job crafting impacts on work engagement and individual work performance in Vietnamese commercial banks. The research data, collected from 226 bank officers, uses the quantitative research tools as: Cronbach's Alpha Analysis, Explanatory Factor Analysis, Confirmatory Factor Analysis as well as Structural Equation Modeling. The results of the hypothesis test show that only two hypotheses (H2, H3) are accepted: the impact of cognitive crafting on work engagement of bank officers (H2) and the impact of work engagement on individual work performance (H3). However, three remaining relationships (H1, H4, H5) are not accepted in the study: the impact of relational crafting on work engagement of bank officers (H1), the impact of relational crafting on individual work performance of bank officers (H4) and the impact of cognitive crafting on individual work performance of bank officers (H5). The study results indicate that cognition on job crafting leaves positive impacts on work engagement, leading to individual work performance enhancement. On the other hand, the relational crafting element implies contribution on neither collective nor individual working performances. Furthermore, no direct effect of cognition on job crafting to individual performance has been identified.
Full-text available
Background Hospitals need to understand how to reduce their frontline employees’ turnover rate as well as how to positively engage them and improve their service. Central to these issues, we find, is the employees’ perception of their organization’s attractiveness. This objective of this paper is to clarify how the role of organizational attractiveness relates to frontline employees’ perception of their internal market-oriented culture as well as their turnover rate, engagement, and service quality. To our knowledge, no previous research has explored the role of organizational attractiveness from a frontline employee perspective in health-service organizations. Methods The conceptual framework we developed was tested in a quantitative study. We sent a questionnaire to nurses in several public hospitals in Norway. We then analyzed the data with confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling in Stata. Further, we performed multi-group comparisons to test heterogeneity in personal characteristics. The indirect effects were tested by mediator analyses. Results We made three main findings. First, organizational attractiveness has a significant positive effect on frontline employees’ engagement (β = 0.833) as well as on the service quality they provide to hospital patients (β = 0.472). Additionally, it significantly lowers their turnover rate (β = − 0.729). Second, the ‘internal market-oriented culture’ (IMOC) has a significantly positive effect on organizational attractiveness (β = 0.587) and explains a total of 35% of the variance in organizational attractiveness. Third, organizational attractiveness fully mediates the relationship between “internal market-oriented culture” (IMOC) and frontline employees’ engagement and the service quality they provide to patients, and it partially mediates the relationship with the turnover rate. Conclusions This study proves that organizational attractiveness is vital for hospital managers to focus on, as it affects employees’ perception of whether the organizations is a great place to work. It reveals the need for those same managers to develop an internal market-oriented culture (IMOC) directed toward hospital frontline employees, as it has both a direct effect on organizational attractiveness and an indirect effect on employees’ engagement, turnover intention, and service quality. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12913-019-4144-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Full-text available
Attracting and retaining IT talent remains challenging for IT executives. The limited supply of highly skilled candidates, combined with high workforce mobility, results in considerable hiring, training, and developing costs. To help IT employers overcome these challenges, the authors discuss employer branding as one strategy to manage firms’ reputations as “great places to work.” Based on a content analysis of nearly 15 000 employee reviews, this article identifies and describes eight values that IT professionals care about when evaluating IT employers, highlights which values are most important, and provides recommendations for how IT firms can use employer brand intelligence to attract and retain IT talent to remain competitive.
Full-text available
The study is carried out to enquire the impact of employers’ attraction and social media on potential candidates’ job application intention as senior students at pharmaceutical universities in Vietnam. With a sample of 354 final-year pharmaceutical students and descriptive statistical analysis application, reliability test of measuring scale, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), regression analysis and variance ANOVA analysis, the study shows that there exist four factors implying statistical significance with positive impacts on the intention for job application of potential candidates including: social media, interesting value, fair value and developmental value. In addition, the study also finds out, regarding to the intention for job application, a difference between experienced candidate groups and inexperienced ones. Moreover, in using different social media levels, there exists a difference among candidate groups from Ho Chi Minh City, Mekong River Delta and Middle-Central Highlands in Vietnam.
The customers tend to become more committed to the brand through interactions with peers in the sharing economy context. This study explored the relationship between perceived value and peer engagement of customers in the sharing economy. A quantitative approach with 488 participants was conducted to test the scale and theoretical model. The results pointed out (1) the perceived benefits, i.e., utilitarian benefit, hedonic benefit, had a positive impact on the perceived value, (2) the perceived costs, i.e., learning cost, risk cost, negatively affected on the perceived value. Additionally, this study pointed out that perceived value positively influences customers’ peer engagement in three dimensions: opinion giving, opinion seeking, and pass-along behaviour. Finally, some managerial implications were proposed to increase the customer’s peer engagement with the brand.
Conference Paper
The age of digital transformation has profound effects on the businesses’ operations and consumer behavior. Payment through electronic wallet, which is one of the solutions to digitize consumer payables and corporate receivables, is increasingly popular globally. This study had enriched the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to explore the role of mobile skillfulness and user innovation in the electronic wallet acceptance of consumers in the digital transformation era. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to achieve the research goal. Research results affirmed the TAM model applied toward e-wallet service, besides, showed the positive effect of mobile skillfulness and user innovation on consumers’ intention to accept the e-wallet in daily transactions. Some managerial implications were also suggested for regulators at e-wallet service providers.