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This article forms a descriptive study of the presence of digital art, which has been signified by three extraordinary occurrences, i.e., the presence of the world of art as based on Virtual Reality (VR), the principles of digital art for everybody, and the future which is expected to be signified by artistic creativity based on tech-enabled availability. All of these three phenomena are discussed here for the sake of achieving an understanding of the generic multidimensional space since this article does not intend to lead us to the specific meaning of digital art and its implications for the development of aesthetic values. Furthermore, this article does not assume to provide any theory of criticism whatsoever. The result of this study is simply to show how technological disruption in the world of art, including art education and its effects on the traditional arts, has become a constant topic of discourse in academic society.
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TRIYONO BRAMANTYO
Indonesia Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta, Central of Java, Indonesia
ORCID: 0000-0002-6488-914X, bramantyo.triyono@gmail.com
ТРИЙОНО БРАМАНТЬО
Индонезийский институт искусств, г. Джокьякарта, Центральная Ява
Индонезия
ORCID: 0000-0002-6488-914X, bramantyo.triyono@gmail.com
ISSN 1997-0854 (Print), 2587-6341 (Online) DOI: 10.33779/2587-6341.2021.1.096-110
UDC 78.01
Digital Art and the Future of Traditional Arts
Цифровое искусство и будущее традиционных искусств
Ever since the invention of communication technology, which was then followed by the
invention of the internet, the two apparatuses have become a very important part of our daily life.
For many of us, it feels like something is missing when we do not have a look at social media
during a particular day, either in search of news, a message from friends or relatives, or otherwise
when we would like to send a post to our social media account. This developed into a phenomenon
called the Internet of Things (IoT), which denotes everything about physical items communicating
with each other. Machine-to-machine communications and person-to-computer communications
are extended to inanimate objects. Indeed, ubiquity networks do exist everywhere, and with the aid
of the modern computer, which has become so speedy and powerful in its work, they are opening
up the road to the revolution of IoT (simply known as Revolution 4.0), which then signies the
beginning of the future generation of the internet.
This article forms a descriptive study of the presence of digital art, which has been signied by
three extraordinary occurrences, i.e., the presence of the world of art as based on Virtual Reality
(VR), the principles of digital art for everybody, and the future which is expected to be signied
by artistic creativity based on tech-enabled availability. All of these three phenomena are discussed
here for the sake of achieving an understanding of the generic multidimensional space, since this
article does not intend to lead us to the specic meaning of digital art and its implications for the
development of aesthetic values. Furthermore, this article does not assume to provide any theory
of criticism whatsoever. The result of this study is simply to show how technological disruption in
the world of art, including art education and its eects on the traditional arts, has become a constant
topic of discourse in academic society.
Keywords: Digital Art, Virtual Reality, Traditional Arts.
For citation / Для цитирования: Bramantyo Triyono. Digital Art and the Future of Traditional
Arts // Проблемы музыкальной науки / Music Scholarship. 2021. № 1. С. 96–110.
DOI: 10.33779/2587-6341.2021.1.096-110.
С момента изобретения коммуникационных технологий, за которым последовало
изобретение Интернета, эти две системы стали важнейшей частью повседневной жизни.
Многие из нас ощущают, что чего-то не хватает, если мы не просматриваем социальные
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сети в течение дня либо в поисках новостей, сообщений от друзей или родственников, либо
когда отправляем сообщение по адресу на аккаунт в социальных сетях. Это превратилось
в явление, так называемый «Интернет вещей» (IoT), который обозначает всё, что касается
физических предметов, взаимодействующих друг с другом. Межмашинные коммуникации
и коммуникации между людьми распространяются на неодушевленные объекты.
Действительно, повсеместно распространённые сети существуют повсюду, и с помощью
современного компьютера, который стал необычайно быстрым и мощным в своей работе,
они открывают дорогу революции IoT (известной, как «Revolution 4.0»), что означает начало
будущего поколения Интернета.
Эта статья представляет собой исследование цифрового искусства, обозначенного тремя
необычными явлениями, то есть, присутствием мира искусства, основанного на виртуальной
реальности (VR), принципах цифрового искусства для всех и в будущем, что, как ожидается,
означает художественное творчество, основанное на доступности технологий. Эти три
явления обсуждаются здесь для достижения понимания общего многомерного пространства,
поскольку данная статья не ставит цель привести нас к конкретному значению цифрового
искусства и его последствиям для развития эстетических ценностей. Более того, эта статья
не предполагает вообще какой-либо теории критики. Результатом данного исследования
становится демонстрация того, как технологический прорыв в мире искусства, включая
художественное образование и его влияние на традиционные искусства, стал постоянной
темой обсуждения в академическом обществе.
Ключевые слова: цифровое искусство, виртуальная реальность, традиционное искусство.
An artist is somebody who produces things.
that people don't need to have.
(Andy Warhol)
Introduction
We are here to agree about one thing in
common: that our destiny begins today!
The Internet of Things (IoT) literally
means everything related to physical items
talking to each other. Machine-to-machine
communications and person-to-computer
communications will be extended to things.”
[17, p. 2]
The IoT revolution begins with the
invention of software such as sensor
technology, beroptic, smart things,
nanotechnology, and miniaturization.
Moreover, the swift and admirable
development of ubiquity networks, which
truly exists everywhere, as well as the
invention of the modern computer, which
has opened up the road to the revolution
of the IoT (simply known as Revolution
4.0), signied the beginning of the future
generation of internet.
What is the implication of these
inventions when they are associated with
our emotions? Firstly, never again will our
emotions be tied up in such a way to the
gadget with the requirement of networks
availability in the form of the internet quota,
as well as the Wi-Fi. All of us may have
such an emotional experience connected
to the computer, an iPad or to a personal
mobile phone. It means that we are already
entering the matrix world. When we play
a 3Ds game, for example, it feels that we
already exist in that world. This means that
we have already entered the virtual world.
The second question is: what would it be
if the experience of entering those virtual
worlds happened when we were dealing
with art works? These imagined experiences
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can be widened with more questions, such
as: when was the last time you went to an
art exhibition and underwent the experience
as if you were dragged into the inner world
of its painters imagination? Or when you
had the feeling that you were playing on the
stage along with your favorite band?
Figure 1: “It’s hard to sell Virtual Reality”,
(Picture taken from Linkedlin.com,
downloaded on March 12, 2019)
However, in our new tech-enabled
world, artists tend to sharpen the power of
virtual reality, to put us right in the middle
of an artistic experience, to establish our
connection with their art works, and at
the same time to enrich the relationship
between artists and their audiences, which
goes beyond the wildest manifestations of
our imaginative power.
The second part of this article will
bring us to the beginning of the presence
of digital art, which has been signied
by three extraordinary occurrences, i.e.
the presence of the world of art, as based
on Virtual Reality (VR), the principles
of digital art acceptable for everybody,
and a future which would be signied by
artistic creativity based on technological
means. All these three phenomena will
be discussed here in crisscrossed order to
achieve an understanding in a more generic
multidimensional space, because this article
does not intend to bring us to any specic
meaning of digital art.
Digital art is undoubtedly connected
to Articial Intelligence (AI), or the
engineering of intelligence. The idea that a
machine can be made to simulate intelligence
was introduced by John McCarthy in 1955,
when he wrote a proposal to his ongoing
technological research. These are some of
his vivid ideas in his thesis: “The study is to
proceed based on the conjecture that every
aspect of learning or any other feature of
intelligence can in principle be so precisely
described that a machine can be made to
simulate it.” [16; See also: 15]
One of the examples of a ‘program’
for intelligence engineering in music may
be found in the last part of this article.
The program is called EMI (Experiments
in Musical Intelligence). According to
Hofstadter, this kind of ‘program’ can
produce brilliant music. [12, p. 3] As an
example, EMI is convincingly intriguing,
but in Indonesia nobody has shown any
willingness to study this ‘program’ yet.
In short, technological disruption in the
world of art, including art education, has
already occurred, and is constantly changing
since the emergence and development of
Information Communication Technology
(ICT). According to Scrivener and Clement
[23, p. 25]: “ICT changes at such a rapid rate
that it is constantly outmoded by innovation.
There is also the fact of the great diversity
of what constitutes ‘new media’ at any one
time. What constitutes the new media art
world is therefore both very diverse and
constantly changing.”
The very last inquiry is perhaps the most
controversial one. In such a hustle and bustle
of IoT and Digital Art, which will certainly be
applauded by many people, what is the stand
of Traditional Art? Is the smell of paint on a
canvas, the scratches of composing music,
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gamelan, choreography, and dramaturgy? Is
it photography with old print methods, and
all of the psychomotor aspects of the art,
which have already disappeared?
It is fortunate that we have with us a
caliber ethnographer such as Alan Lomax
who is greatly admired by most of our
postgraduate students. Sharing our concerns
with us, this great scholar and ethnographer
had the same feeling as we did in regard
to the disappearance of our Traditional
Art, when he exclaimed out loud in the
following manner: “We should appreciate
rural and indigenous traditions as true art,
on the same level as classical music.” [21]
Since we take it for granted that we think
of Western classical music as a serious and
high art, the time has now arrived that we
should regard our traditional arts, which
also deserve to be appreciated as a serious
art, as a form of high art too. This paragraph
has been purposely written as a short one,
in order to provide us with enough time to
reect about that philosophy. Moreover,
while we reect on manual and traditional
art, it will not be discussed in this article
anymore, but we must make the subject of
our reection after we have concluded this
seminar.
Digital Art
Science is art. It is the process
of creating something that never has existed before.
It makes us ask new questions about ourselves and
others, about ethics and the future.”– Regina Dugan,
Senior Executive at Google (2013).
Before the computer became so closely
connected with the artistic world, all of
our creative processes had been carried out
manually. Composers wrote musical scores
manually; for this reason, many mistakes
could be found in them, which made publishers
speculate over the originality of particular
publications of the composers’ works, which
the editors claimed to be the only authentic
ones. Choreographers had the necessity of
asking the dancers with whom they worked
to improve the musical compositions to
which they were dancing. Painters, designers
and other artists made raw designs of their
projected works in preliminary sketches.
Photographers had no means of altering what
they photographed, since they were not able
to create any distortions to the pictures like
what might be possible today.
All such limitations have already become
a thing of the past. Present-day computers
have made it possible for choreographers to
write down their choreography by creating
animations of human gures and making
virtual rooms in order to be able to view the
danced movements from every corner. It is
not necessary any more for choreographers
to invite other dancers to help their dancers
make corrections or eliminate mistakes
during the rehearsals. Similar advantages
are now also enjoyed by composers, since
they are able not only to complete full
musical scores, but also to be able to listen
immediately how they sound. This has
minimized the speculations and uncertainties
about how any part of the music sounds,
since presently the composer can directly be
the sound editor of the music, as well.
All artists can now enjoy all the benets
oered by the computer and an improvement
of digital technology. Furthermore, the
unprecedented innovation of technology
could be highly developed even more in a
blink of an eye. A present-day computer is
able to create a musical composition in the
scope of a symphony orchestra, to create
paintings and works of other types of visual
arts simply by clicking in an input set out
for it in advance (See Part 3 of this article).
It is not at all surprising that various
questions may be asked, such as, wherein
lies the essence of human intelligence?
Psychologists may be able to make a
measurement of our intelligence but when
asked where is the precise location of this
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intelligence, it is conrmed that the answer
to that is that it can be found in our left brain.
Accordingly, our brain possesses 10 billion
neurons, whereas the processor in our
computer has perhaps the capacity of only
1 gigabyte with 32 megabytes of memory,
but this already provides a great capability.
So, which among the left sides of the brain
possesses such a capability? (See Part 4 of
this article).
It is precisely the condition of postmodern
culture [19, p.108] that its phenomena may
be viewed in the following manner:
The postmodern culture can be
explained as an alternative path for society
which, perceiving its inherent structural
element as a form of connement, is
fundamentally in a condition of anxiety.
The new era of ICT oers this
alternative as a key of hope for a better life
and a more prosperous society.
The discourse of postmodern culture
focuses on people’s exibility to be able
to progress with individual identity and
to carry out an existence which proclaims
rationality and autonomy above all other
things.
The discourse of the new system of
communication provides more technical
improvements in information exchange
which not only are benecial for human
beings as individuals, but also for all
institutions created by human society.
As it might be suggested, the description
above precedes the discourse in which the
postmodern phenomenon within the arts
has already demonstrated itself in so many
materializations, in which it may be fully
understood. One example of postmodern
culture is the phenomenon of Andy Warhol.
This controversial artist has been
compared to an object of deconstruction (the
object which can be found in the discourse
of postmodernism of that time) by having
presented himself as an artist who had to be
deconstructed. In cases when repetition was
considered a taboo, he made repetition a part
of his philosophy “From A to B and Back
Again”. (More about this artist is written in
the last part of this article).
Figure 2: Andy Warhol From A to B
and Back Again” (1977). In this autobiography
Warhol speaks of his works of in the sphere
of painting which contain a considerable amount
of irony and open-mindedness
The new era of communication preceded
by the appearance of cybernetics as a term, that
is a science of unication of communication
theory and the theory of control. The term
“cybernetics” was introduced by Norbert
Weiner in 1948. Weiner (1948, 23-4) has
created a periodization parallel to the
scientic development and the history of
the development of the human body as
follows:
1. The ancient period (the Golemic
Age),
2. The period of the invention of the
clock (17th and 18th century),
3. The invention of the steam engine and
early mechanic contrivances (the 18th and
19th centuries),
4. The age of communication and
control, signied by changes from power
engineering to communication engineering,
from the economy of energy to the economy
based on accurate signal reproductions.
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This development parallels and
encourages four kinds of human body
functions:
1. The body as something magic, created
from dust,
2. The body as a work of mechanics
based on time,
3. The body as a heated machine which
not only burns up glycogen in the human
muscles, but also consumes natural fuel
meant for moving real machines,
4. Lastly, the body as a system of
electronic mechanisms which has the
ability to exchange and reproduce signals
in the forms of messages and various other
accurately input materials (the cyborg).
Cheery Colin in her book titled On
Human Communication: A Review, a Survey
and a Critic (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1980)
considers imagination a viable took for
communication, citing examples when a
human organism, its organic and mechanical
systems become united in a workable signal
in the temporal dimension, such as speech
and music, and then also becomes united
in the spatial dimension, such as painting,
printing or carving.
Although this was, most likely, only
the work of imagination, Colin engaged
in a signicant study of the subject and
developed certain views on the subject,
some of which can be quite provoking.
When such a phenomenon occurs, it cannot
be otherwise that our entire culture will be
changed. We will enter the stage of life in
a true post-humanist condition in which
we will be surrounded by cyborgs and
will depend on machines. Our lives, our
bodies and our living machines can surely
be merged together. One can only imagine
the situation that a powerful microchip
based on an Android can be created out of
a ber which would not be rejected by our
cell system, if inserted into it, and at the end
would merge with our body. (As this article
is being written, this microchip has already
begun to be implanted into the human hand
and has proven its usefulness for many
kinds of digital economic transactions; see
the picture below).
Figure 3: The Independent reports
that Swedish workers were implanted
with microchips – the size of one grain
of rice – to replace cash cards and ID passes.
Microchips are injected in between the thumb
and index gure with a syringe
(The Independent, 6 April, 2017)
Stone (1991, 102) shares this concern,
when he states that “… our fundamental
division between technology and nature is
in danger of being dissolved; the categories
of the biological, the technological, the
natural, the articial and the human are
now beginning to blur.”
After reading Stone, our memories soon
focus back on the cyborg. According to Clynes
& Kline [6, p. 29], the word “cyborg” is the
shortened form for “cybernetic organism,”
i.e., a human cybernetic structure capable of
self-regulating. Thereby, the result of these
experiments is a kind of human machine
parts of which can be replaced, integrated,
or utilized as a supplement of the human
body, added to enhance the power of the
latter. Examples of such graphics can be
found in science ction movies, such as
Robo Cop, Blade Runner, Star Wars: The
Last Jedi, and Avatar.
Cyborgs undoubtedly exist in the perfect
borderless dimension of inner and outer
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space. The domain for their mobility is the
so-called cyberspace. The latter is a domain
of information in which relevant data is
described in such a way to as provide the
illusion of control to an operator so that he
can move and access information. In this
situation, the cyborg is connected to various
kinds of simulations similar to shadows.
Indeed, this type of technology is already
familiar to us for instance the 3D or 4D
games.
Other technologies of the kind are still
being developed in the present for this
and other kinds of presentation of ‘real
time,’ albeit, for the most part still in the
ctional world; nonetheless, all of them
have capabilities of simulating the space
with which we all interact. Those readers
who are interested in learning more about
cyborgs are advised to read the book on the
subject by Joanna Zylinska (editor): The
Cyborg Experiments: The Extensions of
the Body in the Media Age. New York, NY:
Bloomsbury Publishing, 2002.
At the same time, Lanier & Biocca [14,
p. 150] and Jeeries [13, p. 43] concur on
the issue that cyberspace usually appears in
connection with virtual reality, an extension
of process of cyberspace existing in order
to provide ‘pristine’ informational space by
means of constructing data which results in
the eect of immersing into the cybernetic
space. Virtual reality is usually familiar to
us in the form of 3D/4D. During its process,
virtual reality can provide our body with
articial vision in the form of light, sound
and touch, unlimited only the dimensions of
space and time (2D). Furthermore, whereas,
in an ordinary dimension we might not be
able to share this space with other people at
a precise time, in the space of virtual reality
we are not only capable of sharing the same
space with other people, but we are also
capable of doing so from a very dierent
place.
It is only by using 3D technology that
Jeeries [13, p. 44] is able to utilize visual
manipulation to compose his choreographic
works. According to him,
Another impact of using 3D has been
that we have learned so much more about
our practices. More about physics, ways of
choreographing in virtual space, assembling
movement material, behaviors. Now we are
making physical objects from forms taken
from our virtual worlds.”
Figure 4: Artists have quickly realized
that by means of technology they were able
to improve and polish their art works more
eectively. Fabio Giampietro, a prominent
Italian artist, told us of how fast the speed
of creating art is changing due
to modern technology
(Tilt Brush, VR Application by Google, 2014)
Moreover, when we combine video
graphics with computer graphics in order
to create a specic response, we are thereby
entering an articial reality (AR). We might
experience it when we play an interactive
sport (for instance soccer game in which
every player will forcefully attack and
blockade another attack from the opponent).
The same things are also happening in
the movie industry. Film companies have
tried various ways to make their audiences
capable of feeling as if they existed in the
movie they were watching, not merely sat
back and watched it [11, p. 28]. Could you
imagine that your students were able to
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produce a movie in an articial reality based
on a story from the Bharata Yudha series?
AR and VR in cyberspace reality prove
that these two realities can be developed
from their respective characteristics, starting
from mimicry of reality, then multiplying
in parameters, becoming multiplex and
developing into a genuine reality. At the
same time some, there have appeared other
novel technical terms such as, automaton,
automation, automatic, android, robot, and
bionic. This would consequently lead us to
the perception of our constructed bodies, our
conceptions of what is organic or inorganic,
relating to the body or to technology, human
or non-human, and what comes from
machines themselves when in the future we
will accept them as organisms pertaining to
the human species [5, p. 45].
All of those experiments might be carried
out in the future because of the ongoing
extra sophisticated computer technology,
in addition to the expanding scientic
revolution of the theory of relativity, quantum
mechanics and the theory of chaos. The
very last phenomenon is the theory of non-
linear systems, such as, for example, studies
of phenomena that in their progression
are extremely too sensitive, so that even a
very small uctuation of initial process of a
condition, for example of climate change the
forming of turbulence, or computer graphic
depiction, could be aected.
One example of a concrete linear
movement could be cited, when we ride
a bicycle twice the normal speed, we will
arrive to our destination half the time it
would normally take. Each percent we move
faster matches to one percent in decrease of
the distance of time. However, this linear
system may turn out to be non-linear in one
specic condition, – for instance, during the
steadily process of evaporation of water,
which may turn into steam turbulence, then,
if further increased, into a storm, and so on.
When this is implemented in a computer
program chaos theory, it might produce
a number of diverse eects such as VR.
This also includes the process of creating
Articial Intelligence (AR).
The explanation of quantum theory
is more complicated. David Bohm [3,
p. 36] provides four kinds of approaches to
understanding it:
1. The progression of quantum cannot
be divided: its basic postulation is that the
energy of a wave cannot be divided by its
specic limit which passes the limit of its
frequency.
2. The quality of a particle wave is that
all the waves on a specic level of quantum
can be considered as particles, but, since it
is a wave, it depends on the observer to set
up the condition for observation in order to
produce the description of a particle wave
as a phenomenon.
3. The material elements functioned
as enhancement to statistical potency are
solid materials with their limited characters
which provide statistical description as a
group of quantum particles, – for example,
billions of particles of atomic uranium can
be divided with precise accuracy, but not a
single atom would thereby be united.
4. Non-causal correlation is expressed
by the fact that quantum theory requires
sub-atomic particles to provide direct
information instantly beyond their ultimate
distance.
During the rest of his life, after he
discovered the quantum theory, Einstein
tried to overcome it, but without any success.
According to him, the only instant and
constant element is the speed of light. All
of the aforementioned theories, they have
already and are continuing to be improved
by means of various experiments on working
on computers by means of creating virtual
intelligence (VR). Examples of dierent art
works carried out by computers examined
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in the following sections of this article will
provide us with a proof of how computers
can possess the skill for creating paintings,
composing music, and engaging other kinds
of artistic activity.
Various of the aforementioned scientic
theories have also altered our position from
the anthropo-centric, with human beings
seen as the center of the universe, through
the anthropo-eccentric, according to which
human beings are no longer seen as the
center of the universe, towards the so-called
cyber-centric, where human beings are seen
as the center of the cyber world. Presently,
our feeling has uctuated between the
skeptical and the optimistic. However, Plato
has reminded us since the 4th century BC
that it is likely that we live in a prison. In the
7th book of his “Republic,” Plato presented
us with the mental image that we live in a
cave. What we see in front of us are only
shadows created by torches burning behind
our backs. [9, p. 19]
This idea evokes the image of people
from the Paleolithic Era (c. 14.000 BC)
who lived in caves. Painting on cave
walls was for them the means to sharpen
their vision. They sat around on the oor,
making re, meditating, reecting on their
lives. For Plato this capability of engaging
in reecting is similar to the ability of
the so-called “mind’s eye.” This kind of
mental perspective was exactly similar to
what we feel after watching a movie. This
is essentially merging with virtual reality.
Very often, people have felt themselves as
a personied Rambo, after watching this
movie.
Living in caves, as the people of the
Paleolithic Age, watching movies in the
cinema, staying at home and sleeping, – all
of these create the same conditions. When
we read a novel, listen to a symphony,
or look at impressive paintings, we feel
immersed into the respective activities,
as if we ‘exist’ in a dierent reality. Such
an immersion provides a widespread
anthological condition. It is the nearly the
same when we ‘exist’ in the world of virtual
reality. The dierence however, that in the
world of virtual reality the viewed image
seems to be very realistic. We face virtual
entity and become ourselves an entity of
this virtual environment. In this kind of
situation, the symbol becomes reality.
The world of telepresence (virtual world)
is an example of cyber-reality, since its main
object becomes transported and transformed
into the world of cyber. As a stratum of the
other reality, cyberspace make it possible
for us to exist in other place and meet some
other people, even though our physical
bodies exist in a dierence place.
When we use digital camera and engage
in chatting with people located at a far
distance from us by means of internet
connection, in such conditions we create a
simple telepresence. A work of art carried
out by means of a computer can create a
form of telepresence even more amazing
than the previous variety. All of this is now
made possible by the computer. We all have
become very dicult to be separated from
the computer. Technology has become more
perceptible and closer to us, and it might
even occur in the future that soon it will be
inserted into our bodies.
Some Examples of Digital Art
The future will be robots and humans working side
by side going by the latest research in IIoT
(Industrial Internet of Things).
Alasdair Gilchrist, 2016, 12
This article has just led us to the discourse
between digital art and ‘traditional’
art, without any complicated technical
explanation. However, when technical
description is necessarily required, the
writer is only able to provide the readers
with the websites on specic technical terms
which can be accessed separately.
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The rst example was a music computer
created by Stephen Baron. This computer
was an example of network art, a work of
art produced and transmitted by means of
the internet. This work was “performed”
at the Adelaide Festival 1996 in Australia.
It featured a combination of internet
technology to which were added aesthetic
touches, social problems and political
agendas inuenced by the practice of
globalization [1].
This work utilized two prepared pianos,
which were set up with screws and rubber
bands inserted between its strings to produce
certain strange sound eects. The rst music
for the prepared piano was composed by
American composer John Cage. Barron
made use of two prepared pianos, which
were already connected to computers, one of
them was set up at the Sym Choon Gallery
in Adelaide, and the other one was located
at the Donguy Gallery in Paris, France.
These pianos were ‘played’ by means of
an automatic procedure, by consistently
applying two kind of resources. One resource
measured the amount of air pollution in the
ozone layer in Adelaide, aected by the
amount of pollution produced by the street
trac in Paris, and the other computer
measured the level of ultraviolet (UV) rays
pouring into the atmosphere aected by the
widening of the hole in the ozone layer in
the sky over Adelaide.
The two prepared pianos which had
already computerized the produced sounds
by certain reciprocal means by measuring
the ozone coming from the air pollution from
the cars in the streets of Paris, as well as the
widening of the hole in the ozone layer.
Thereby, this performance was dedicated
to the changes of the “ozone pump”
installation aected by air pollution and
the natural condition of the ozone layer. It
played upon the distance between Europe
and Australia, as well as that between human
beings and nature. This music was not
produced by anybody other than the human
activities on the scale of the entire planet
Earth (the making of air pollution in the
ozone layer by all people) and its interaction
with the sun (because of the danger of the
ultra-violet rays from the sun light).
An example of a painting produced
by a computer can be found in a program
called AARON created by Harold Cohen,
a professional painter who was interested
in Articial Intelligence (AI) present in
computers. Cohen created the AARON
in 1972. As a program, the AARON was
intended to create pictorial images. It was
meant not for copying images, or changing
any given input image, but for continuously
creating new images. The AARON controls
a robot machine, which at the rst stage
produces lines of painting in monochrome
(black and white), after which Cohen nishes
the painting by putting in various colors
manually. Despite the presence of the artist’s
manual activity, the development of the
AARON has made it possible to paint with
many colors, sizes, as well as to wash the
brushes used for adding color to the drawing.
Figure 5: Theo, 1992. Dilukis oleh AARON,
cat di atas kanvas, 34x24 inchi.
(Foto oleh Becky Cohen, n.d.)
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According to Cohen as noted by Ed
Burton [4, pp. 33–49], Cohen considers
not only that the pictures which AARON
produces are art, but also that AARON
itself is a work of art.” It can be said that if
Andy Warhol was known as ‘mechanistic
artist’, then Harold Cohen should be
considered to be a ‘meta artist,’ since he
creates both a machine for creating his art
and the art itself. Readers who would be
interested in learning more about the works
of the AARON might visit this website:
http://www.scinetphotos.com/aaron.html.
Next, we shall examine the phenomenon
of experimental music as an example of a
composition created by means of Articial
Intelligence (AI) – with a computer by
David Cope, a professor of music at the
University of California at Santa Cruz,
USA, who has successfully created musical
compositions by means of a system called
“Experiments in Musical Intelligence”
(EMI). David Cope had already carried
out this experiment for 20 years, when the
production of musical works on the EMI
was announced for the rst time in 1995.
The musical scores produced by the EMI
are as precise as the works written manually
by a composer. For instance, when the EMI
creates a Mazurka for the piano imitating
the manner of Chopin, it sounds as similar
as an authentic piece by Chopin. Similarly,
when it was played on the EMI program
on a multimedia computer, it sounded
very close to the composers style. [8,
pp. 67–69]
The system present on the EMI was
related to so-called “recombinant music,”
i.e. it was a system which repeatedly
identied the stylistic traits inherent in the
music of various composers. After this, the
EMI re-utilized these structures in a new
arrangement and composed new music “in
the same style”. Thereby, we might imagine
that when we give an input into the EMI
containing Beethoven’s nine symphonies,
undoubtedly, the EMI will present us
with the output of the composer’s Tenth
Symphony.
Normally musicians pay much less
attention to works created on a computer.
Nonetheless, Bach specialist, composer and
pianist Bernard Greenberg, when he was
given the chance to listen to music composed
by the EMI with an initial input set up to
imitate the style of J. S. Bach, commented
the following way: “It was amazing, not
only that this music is in the style of Bach,
but also it is in itself magnicent.” We
might ask then, whether the music was in
the style of Bach but was not very good?
Thus, this presented the evidence that the
music created by the EMI not only sounded
like Bach, but also it ‘spoke’ like Bach (i.e.
not only following the style, but also having
the personality of Bach!).
A test was given to the students of
the Department of Music Theory and
Composition of the Music Department at
the University of Rochester, USA. A pianist
played two Mazurkas in front of the class,
after which the students were asked, which
piece was the original Mazurka by Chopin
and which one was created by the EMI.
Most of the students replied that the rst
Mazurka sounded as if it were written by
Chopin, but was not a real Chopin work,
because it was too large in its structure, with
a plentiful amount of musical inventions. So,
they were convinced that the second piece
was an original Mazurka by Chopin, for it
possessed the grandeur of lyrical melodies,
being endowed with beautiful chromatic
modulations and with a natural balance of
form and duration.
The results of the test announced that
the rst Mazurka was the original piece
of Chopin, while the second one was the
work created by the EMI. All the students
were amazed at what they had just heard.
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How was it possible that the EMI could
outwit them, who were notable specialists
in music theory and composition? It should
be noted that the University of Rochester is
one of the highly reputable universities in
the USA.
So dear readers, it cannot be denied that
that computer has developed tremendously,
and the phenomenon that we have just
seen provided us with living proof that
research and new inventiveness in the
eld of Articial Intelligence can be more
developed in the very near future. What will
things be like in the next 20 years from now?
Or in 50 years from now? We have inferred
from the aforementioned example that even
by this time it has already been proven that
the works of art created by a computer can
be even better than the works of a human
being.
Brian Ren-Smith [20, pp. 127–138], a
well-known critic, observer and visual arts
curator in the USA, described the discourse
about art produced by computers when he
said that, The truth is that there used to
be much better art produced by means of
computers.” The reason was, as he went on
saying, Because it approached the problems
of art, not just of spectacles.” One viable
solution of the problems of art, according to
Smith, is that the art produced by computer
would not be successful in promoting
the names of its creators. Thus, this art is
devoid of prejudice and preconception, and
also lacks the various contextual features
normally overly exaggerated by our art
critics.
The question that may arise is such:
is this the end of traditional art? Richard
Shusterman [24, pp. 1–3] in his book
entitled Performing Live: Aesthetic
Alternatives for the Ends of Art expounds
the idea which art-related theories have
already stated, since Hegel proclaimed that
art has reached its nal stage. According
to Hegel, as it was cited by Shusterman,
Art no longer aords that satisfaction of
spiritual wants.” Similarly, Gianni Vattimo
said that the modern age has been marked
by “The Death of Art.” According to Arthur
Danto, it was, “The death of mimesis.
(Note: It must be noted here that even the
school of thought known as Dadaism was
begun with the assertion that “Art is Dead.”
This mode of thought was introduced for
the rst time by Hugo Ball in Zurich in
1916. The word “Dada” in French means
a wooden horse. More about Dadaism
can be read in Herschel B. Chipp’s book
Theories of Modern Art. Los Angeles, CA:
University of California Press. 1966).
An alternative path was oered by
Shusterman in challenging the upcoming
era (it is provided here for ghting the
phenomenon of commodication acts by
our contextualists!): “In our new age of
multiple, marketed lifestyles, which sadly
seem to foster as much conformism as
creativity, the concept of individual style
needs more attention.” It is the last part of
the sentence, ‘individual style needs more
attention,’ which presents the keywords for
developing our traditional art in its challenge
to the digital era.
However, the present and future
challenges are aimed at sharpening the
ability of human intelligence to resist the
hegemony of the computer. The next section
of this article will briey describe human
intelligence in its relationship to Articial
Intelligence, as well as artists’ reaction
to the phenomenon of the post-humanist
conditions of life and art.
Human Intelligence Versus AI
“Study the science of art and the art of science.”
(Leonardo da Vinci)
In the rst section of this article
mention was made of the phenomenon of
Andy Warhol, who thought himself as a
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“machine,” so in this nal section the writer
is able to describe the philosophical aspects
of the Warhol phenomenon with their
connection to human intelligence versus
Articial Intelligence.
Warhol considered the main challenge
of the 20th century was to cope with the
digital era and the end of the history of
aesthetics. According to Jean Baudrillard
[2, p. 184], aesthetics was already reduced
to the level of the mise-en-scene(out of the
scene). Warhol had deconstructed himself
(rather than the object he painted) as a
machine, situated outside of the pretense
and prejudices of human intelligence. Each
of his paintings was created in the form of
initiation, but it was initiation to nothing at
all. “Marilyn Monroe,” as everybody could
see, was shown to be what she really was.
The image of Marilyn Monroe speaks of
herself, because everyone has known this
celebrity as the sex symbol of the 20th
century. The painting “The Bottles of Coca-
Cola” carried a similar message. These
kinds of images according to Baudrillard,
were images which could be identied as
hypostatic, pure without forms, devoid
of anything signicant. But this was the
case, was because Warhol would denigrate
his own will, demonstrating himself as
a “machine” which had to exhibit such
articial images. This was because in order
for the artist to be natural, there must be
subject to be exposed through him or her,
and thereby to change the real world into his
or her paintings. Warhol considered that he
possessed an indispensable disregard to all
these realities. For Warhol there is no real
universe in his works, and there also is no
Warhol behind all of Warhol’s eects.
Baudrillard described the Warhol
phenomenon connected to the paradoxes of
art, as well as to the science of context of no
real universe. This was what he said:
This is the most original and specic
situation we can face today in the matter
of science, as in the matter of art (perhaps
it is no longer art, and perhaps it is no
longer exactly science: what is paradoxical
science?). The virtual, uncertain and
paradoxical status of the image is its ideal
status, as it is for the object of science
(whether we like it or not, both art and
science have become screens).” [ 2, p. 189]
The phenomenon of metal music was,
surprisingly, also similar to the idea of the
absence of a real universe. Realized that all
metal musician artists enjoyed their status
more as the totem icon of the primitive
tribes. They gave themselves such names
as Sting, Metallica, Nirvana, and U2, which
sounded like names of primitive tribes, just
to make it clearer of their social identities.
In contrast to icons of goddesses and
saintly people present in the temples which
were regularly attended by primitive tribes,
Metallica and other such groups wisely
presented themselves in the forms of video
clips available in every household. Their
motto, as it was repeated multiple times by
what seemed to be their ‘empire’ MTV
was: “One world, one music!” So, when
there is a machine capable of singing, it
must be sounded, like an electric guitar.
No matter how much you have listened to
this music before, you never listened to the
human voice, especially when you were
listening to it very loudly. You will have
heard nothing. You will only listen to a
machine.
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1. Barron, Stephen. Project Notes for the Sym Choon Gallery Show. Telstra Adelaide Festival,
Stuart, Mealing (Ed.). Computer and Art. 2nd Edition. Portland, OR: Intellect Books, 1996,
pp. 103–105.
2. Baudrillard, Jean. Andy Warhol: Snobbish Machine. Julian Pefanis (trans.). Impossible
Presence: Surface and Screen in the Photogenic Era. Smith, Terry (Ed.). Chicago, IL: The
University Chicago Press, 2001, pp. 183–192.
3. Bohm, David. Wholeness and the Implicate Order. London, UK: Ark Paperbacks (Routledge),
1980. 281 p.
4. Burton, Ed. Representing Representation: Articial Intelligence and Drawing. Mealing,
Stuart. (Ed.). Computer and Art. Exeter: Intellect Books. 2nd Edition. Portland, OR: Intellect
Books, 1997, pp. 33–49.
5. Canguilhem, George. Machine and Organism. J. Carry and S. Kwinter (Eds.). Incorporations.
New York: Zone 6 Publications, 1992, pp. 44–69.
6. Clynes, Manfred E. & Kline, Nathan S. Cyborgs and Space. Austronautics: Journal of
Science. Edition September 1960, pp. 29–33.
7. Colin, Cheery. (3rd Edition). On Human Communication: A Review, a Survey, and a
Criticism. Cambridge, UK: MIT Press, 1980. 392 p.
8. Cope, David. Virtual Music: Computer Synthesis of Musical Style. Cambridge, MA:
MIT Press., 2001. 551 p.
9. Falzon, Christopher. Philosophy Goes to the Movies: An Introduction to Philosophy.
London, and New York: Routledge, 2002. 225 p.
10. Gilchrist, Alasdair. Industry 4.0: The Industrial Internet of Things. Distributed by
New York, NY, 2013: Springer, 2016. 259 p.
11. Grady, Sean M. Virtual Reality: Simulating and Enhancing the World with Computers.
New York: Facts on File, Inc. New Edition, 2003. 215 p.
12. Hofstadter, Douglas. Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid. New York: Basic
Books, 1999. 821 p.
13. Jeeries, Janis. Blurring the Boundaries: Performance, Technology and the Articial
Sublime – An Interview with Ruth Gibson and Bruno Martelli. Interfaces of Performance. Chapter
Three. Chatzichristodoulou, Maria, Jeeries, Janis, & Zerihan, Rachel (Eds.). Surrey, England:
Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2009, pp. 43–56.
14. Lanier, J., & Biocca, F. An insiders view of the Future of Virtual Reality. Journal of
Communication. 1992. No. 42, 4, pp. 150–172.
15. Lee, Newton. From a Pin-up Girl to Star Trek’s Holodeck: Articial Intelligence and
Cyborgs. Digital Da Vinci: Computers in the Arts and Sciences. New York: Springer, 2014,
pp. 1–21.
16. Meyer, David. IBM ‘neuron’ chips mimic brain processing. ZDNet. [Online] August 18,
2011. URL: http://www.zdnet.com/ibm-neuron-chips-mimic-brain-processing-3040093720/
(10.12.2020).
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Internet of Things: Challenges and Opportunities. New York: Springer, 2014, pp. 1–17.
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at 84. Stanford News Report. Octiober 25, 2011.
REFERENCES
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19. Poster, Mark. Postmodern Virtualities. Cyberspace, Cyberbodies, Cyberpunk: Cultures
of Technological Embodiment. Featherstone, Mike and Roger Burrows, Roger (Eds.). London,
UK: SAGE Publications, 2000, pp. 108–136.
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Tartan Literature Groin Arts. Computers and Art. Stuart Mealing (Ed.), Bristol: Intellect Books,
1997, pp. 127–138.
21. Russonello, Giovanni. The Unnished Work of Alan Lomax’s Global Jukebox. Critic’s
Notebook. The New York Times, 11 July, 2017.
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Cornell University Press, 2000. 259 p.
About the author:
Triyono Bramantyo, Ph.D., Professor of Musicology at the Department of Music
Education, Faculty of Performing Arts, Indonesia Institute of the Arts (55188, Yogyakarta,
Central of Java, Indonesia),
ORCID: 0000-0002-6488-914X, bramantyo.triyono@gmail.com
Об авторе:
Брамантьо Трийоно, Ph.D., профессор музыковедения кафедры музыкального
образования, факультет исполнительских искусств, Индонезийский институт
искусств (55188, г. Джокьякарта, Центральная Ява, Индонезия),
ORCID: 0000-0002-6488-914X, bramantyo.triyono@gmail.com
RR
... Sanat, eserlerinde kullanılan materyaller ve uygulamalarla duygu ve düşüncelerin izleyiciye aktarılmasını amaçlar. Dijital teknolojiler sanat dünyasıyla ve sanat üretim süreçleriyle bu kadar bağlantılı hale gelmeden önce bütün sanat eserleri manuel bir üretim sürecinden geçiyordu (Bramantyo, 2021 (Zaher, 2022). Fotoğrafçıların, fotoğraflarını basmadan önce çekim sonuçlarını görme şansları yoktu. ...
... Fotoğrafçıların, fotoğraflarını basmadan önce çekim sonuçlarını görme şansları yoktu. Şimdi ise tüm bu sınırlamalar geçmişte kaldı (Bramantyo, 2021 Dijital teknolojiler dokümantasyon ve sanal sergiler gibi ortaya çıkan yeni sunum ve saklama yöntemlerini beraberinde getirmiştir (Vaughan, 2005). Galeriler ve müzeler her alanda gerçekleşen dijital dönüşümden muaf değildir ve dijital araçları aktif bir şekilde kullanmaktadır (Gere, 2008 (Graham, 2007). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Dijital sanat denilince muhtemelen aklınıza ilk olarak düzgün 3 boyutlu çizimler ve son zamanlarda internet ortamında beklenmedik biçimde yüksek fiyatlarda alıcı bulan dijital eserler gelecektir. Dijital eserlerin satıldığı platformların her geçen gün arttığı bir sürecin içerisindeyiz. Bu durum dijital sanat ve dijital eserlerin toplumsal-küresel anlamda kabul edildiğinin en önemli göstergelerindendir. Günümüzde dijital sanatın geldiği nokta bambaşka bir hale gelmiştir. İlk ortaya çıktığında telif, kopyalama, çoğaltma, izinsiz kullanım vb. dezavantaj olarak görülen birçok durumun, blok zincir alanında meydana gelen gelişmeler sonucunda, dijital sanat lehine değiştiğini görmekteyiz. Bahsedilen gelişmeler ışığında bu bölümde sanatın dijitalleşmesi, evrimleşen sanat, sanatçı, sanat eseri algısı, öne çıkan dijital sanat uygulamaları ve dijital sanatın geleceği konuları ele alınmıştır.
Chapter
Sometime between 1956 and 1958, an anonymous IBM programmer rendered a glowing image of a pin-up girl on a cathode ray tube screen of a $ 238 million U.S. military computer at Fort Lee, Virginia . “The pin-up image itself was programmed as a series of short lines, or vectors, encoded on a stack of about 97 Hollerith type punched cards,” recalled Airman First Class Lawrence A. Tipton who took the Polaroid photo shown in Fig. 1.1 that somewhat resembles a hybrid of Betty Boop and Esquire’s December 1956 calendar pin-up by George Petty.
Project Notes for the Sym Choon Gallery Show
  • Stephen Barron
Barron, Stephen. Project Notes for the Sym Choon Gallery Show. Telstra Adelaide Festival, Stuart, Mealing (Ed.). Computer and Art. 2nd Edition. Portland, OR: Intellect Books, 1996, pp. 103-105.
Impossible Presence: Surface and Screen in the Photogenic Era
  • Jean Andy Baudrillard
  • Warhol
Baudrillard, Jean. Andy Warhol: Snobbish Machine. Julian Pefanis (trans.). Impossible Presence: Surface and Screen in the Photogenic Era. Smith, Terry (Ed.). Chicago, IL: The University Chicago Press, 2001, pp. 183-192.