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Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences

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... The Cohen (1988) and Zumbo (1999) criteria. According to Cohen (1988), R-squared effect sizes of 0.02, 0.13, and 0.26 denote "small," "medium," ...
... The Cohen (1988) and Zumbo (1999) criteria. According to Cohen (1988), R-squared effect sizes of 0.02, 0.13, and 0.26 denote "small," "medium," ...
... The study used Zumbo's (1999) three-step logistic regression modeling process as the main method of analysis. Table 5 Table 6 shows a summary of the final results for DIF analysis on each item according to Cohen's (1988) and Zumbo's (1999) criteria. ...
Article
Researchers in educational measurement use Differential Item Functioning (DIF) to examine whether test items are functioning uniquely across subgroups of test participants while taking into account their ability level. DIF is essential for test validity arguments, thus making it a necessary part of validity studies. This study examines DIF across gender on three subtests of the Early Grade Mathematics Assessment (EGMA) (number identification, number discrimination, and recognition of number patterns) using a logistic regression procedure. Study participants were Grade 2 and Grade 3 primary students who participated in the 2018 Early Grade Mathematics Assessment Survey in Zambia. The study employed a three-step logistic regression procedure on test items for number identification, number discrimination, and recognition of number patterns to determine whether DIF was present or not. The results, on the whole, show that none of the subtest items of number identification, number discrimination, and recognition of number patterns showed DIF.
... Independent Samples t-tests were used to compare the means between each independent group to determine whether they were statistically different. The magnitudes of the differences between group means (sprinters, backs, and forwards) for all spatiotemporal and kinematic variables were also determined using effect sizes (Cohen, 2013), with an effect size of 0.20 used to define the smallest meaningful difference (Hopkins, 2002;Winter et al. 2014). The magnitudes of these standardised differences were expressed as follows: <0.2, trivial; 0.20, small; 0.60, moderate; 1.2, large; 2.0, very large and 4.0, extremely large (Hopkins et al., 2009). ...
... For the regression analyses conducted, to reduce the possibility of the estimated explained variation of NAHEP being overstated by the coefficient of determination, owing to the relatively small sample size used in the analysis, adjusted r squared (r²) was calculated to interpret the effect size with thresholds set as: < 0.02, trivial; 0.02 to 0.13, small; 0.13 to 0.26, large (Cohen, 2013). ...
... Relationships were deemed meaningful when their magnitudes were equal to or greater than the smallest clinically important correlation and confidence limits did not include positive and negative values greater than the smallest clinically important correlation Hip torque and body mass were then combined with either repeated contact time, normalised hip extension touchdown angular velocity, or peak ankle dorsiflexion angle within three separate linear multiple regression models, using the 'enter' method for variable selection, to assess their For all correlation coefficients, the strength of observed relationships were defined as: (±) < 0.1, trivial; 0.1 to < 0.3, small; 0.3 to 0.5 moderate, 0.5 to 0.7 large, 0.7 to 0.9 very large and > 0.9, practically perfect (Hopkins, 2002). To reduce the possibility of the estimated explained variation of NAHEP being overstated by the coefficient of determination, owing to the sample size used in the analysis, adjusted r squared (r²) was calculated to interpret the effect size with thresholds set as: < 0.02, trivial; 0.02 to 0.13, small; 0.13 to 0.26, large (Cohen, 2013). All analyses were performed using SPSS (v26.0) with alpha set at p < 0.05. ...
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Biomechanics and motor control of early acceleration: Enhancing the initial sprint performance of professional rugby union backs Sprint acceleration is an important performance feature in many sports. For professional rugby union backs, short distance sprints are frequently carried out in training and competition, but how technique and strength-based characteristics contribute to their acceleration performance during these initial steps is not currently well understood. A series of investigations were therefore undertaken to, firstly, advance the understanding of this area and, secondly, to apply this information by prescribing individual-specific interventions to enhance initial acceleration performance. Three initial investigations sought to determine how technical features and strength-based qualities of professional rugby union backs related to their sprint performance (quantified as normalised average horizontal external power) during the initial steps. Findings from these investigations highlighted that focussing on the contribution of discrete technical variables to acceleration performance in isolation is an overly reductionist approach which overlooks how complex systems achieve high sprint performance. Findings also highlighted how important information on individuals can be lost using group-based study designs, since different inter-athlete strategies were adopted to achieve similar performance outcomes. In the fourth investigation, four subgroups of participants were identified, using cluster analysis, based on their whole-body kinematic strategies. At the intra-individual level, the variables which portrayed their individual strategies remained stable (CV: 1.9% to 6.7%) across multiple separate occasions. This characterisation of whole-body strategies was used to develop a novel and rigorous approach to longitudinally assess the efficacy of technical-based acceleration interventions. Demonstrating the application of this approach in the final investigation, several individual-specific interventions were prescribed to professional rugby union backs based on within-individual relationships of their technique strategies and strength-based capabilities with acceleration performance. Changes in within-individual technique and acceleration performance were measured at multiple time points across an 18-week intervention period where meaningful enhancements in acceleration were observed. This demonstrated that individual-specific technical interventions were effective in manipulating aspects of acceleration technique and performance. The outcome of these investigations provides a novel approach for practitioners working to individualise sprint-based practices.
... moderate; ≥ .50: large (Cohen, 2013). ...
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Introduction.Inspiration is a concept that is used in different disciplines; however, there is no instrument that measures its impact in the academic sphere. In this sense, the present study aims to develop and validate a measurement instrument for academic inspiration (AIS).Method.A total of 7,871 university students from different careers from a private university in Lima, Peru participated. Statistical techniques were used for latent variables and the rec-ommendations of the standards for educational and psychological tests proposed by American Educational Research Association et al. (2014) were followed for their construction.Results.The AIS is representative and relevant in the content of its items (Aiken's V> .70). In relation to its internal structure, it is organized into three factors, which are consistent with the theoretical proposal, and it was verified by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) with ex-cellent adjustment indices (CFI = .98, RMSEA = .08, WRMR = 2.44). Furthermore, this structure is invariant according to gender and is conceptually related tovariables such as satis-faction (r≥ .80) and academic commitment (r ≥ .59).Discussion and Conclusion.The AIS is a measurement instrument that has evidence of va-lidity, factorial invariance, and good reliability of its scores. Therefore, it can be used in fu-ture studies in the academic context.
... Al comparar medias de las mediciones vemos aumentos moderados pero significativos y positivos en los aprendizajes tanto en lectura como en matemáticas. Utilizando la prueba d de Cohen, se estiman efectos moderados en ambos dominios (Cohen, 2013). ...
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El cierre de escuelas producto de la pandemia de Covid-19 representa la emergencia educativa más importante del siglo XXI. Las recomendaciones internacionales incluyen la realización de cursos remediales para enfrentar esta emergencia educativa. El objetivo es analizar la efectividad de cursos remediales que utilizan la metodología de “Enseñar en el nivel adecuado” (Teaching at the Right Level -TaRL) en 1) aprendizajes básicos de lectura y matemáticas, y 2) en la atención a las desigualdades educativas que la pandemia de Covid ha provocado en el sistema educativo mexicano. Metodología: participaron un total de 360 sujetos con promedio de 9.49 años, de una muestra intencional en Veracruz, México. Se aplicaron intervenciones presenciales y a distancia, y se realizaron mediciones pre-post para evaluar la intervención. Resultados: se identificaron ganancias positivas y significativas en los aprendizajes de los participantes que recibieron los cursos: 0.54 DE en lectura y 0.34 DE en matemáticas. Los cursos remediales TaRL permitieron reducir levemente brechas de género, nivel socioeconómico, localidad y discapacidad. Se discute la necesidad de implementar cursos basados en evidencia para fortalecer los aprendizajes básicos que permitan acelerar los aprendizajes y disminuir las desigualdades educativas, que con la pandemia se incrementaron de manera importante.
... for medium effect, and 0.50-1.0 for large effect [14]. ...
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The gluten-free (GF) food market has been growing exponentially in recent years. However, GF products could contribute to imbalanced diets. The main objective of the present work was to perform a temporal nutritional comparison of GF foods over the last nine years. At the same time, the nutritional compositions of 104 GF products currently marketed in Spain were assessed and compared with their gluten-containing counterparts. Diets including GF products and the equivalent diets with homologous products with gluten were compared as well, the subjects being 25 adult celiac patients. A comparison of GF products (GFPs) in 2013 and 2022 showed nutritional differences in the groups of cookies, breakfast cereals, doughs/puff pastries/pizzas, and breads. The pasta group stands out from the rest due to an important decrease in energy, protein, simple carbohydrates, saturated lipids, dietary fiber, and salt. Comparing GF and gluten-containing homologous products in 2022, the major differences were found in protein and salt. Accordingly, GFPs lead to a diet lower in protein and higher in carbohydrates. Despite improvements in the formulation of GF products in recent years, their macronutrient profile maintains marked variation, and they cannot be considered nutritionally equivalent to their gluten-containing counterparts.
... The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and mixed-design ANOVA were also used to determine the effects of the interventions on the study variables. The Eta-squared (Ƞ 2 ; small: 0.01, medium: 0.06, large: 0.14) was used to determine the effects of the interventions [22]. In all the statistical analyses, the significance level was 0.05. ...
... The convergent validity of EROS was assessed by conducting Pearson's correlations with various relevant constructs namely dispositional mindfulness (PHLMS), psychological inflexibility (AAQ), emotional intelligence (WLEIS), ruminative thoughts (PTQ) and psychopathology (BSI). Correlations between 0.10 and 0.30 were considered small, 0.30 and 0.50 were considered moderate, and above 0.50 were considered large (Cohen, 1988). ...
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The Emotion Regulation of Others and Self Scale (EROS) is commonly used to measure individual differences in the use of strategies to regulate one’s own and other people’s emotions. This study aimed to examine its psychometric properties and measurement invariance across sex in a Portuguese clinical sample. For this purpose, we tested the factorial structure of the EROS in a sample of 390 adults (259 women; Mage = 34.33; SD = 9.99) undergoing active psychotherapy in a private clinic. The confirmatory factor analysis showed that the four-factor solution proposed by the original authors (intrinsic affect-improving, intrinsic affect-worsening, extrinsic affect-improving and extrinsic affect-worsening) fitted well to our data. Invariance across sex was determined by using multi-group analyses. Additionally, reliability analysis indicated good coefficients for all the dimensions. The pattern of associations of the EROS subscales with dispositional mindfulness, ruminative thinking, psychological inflexibility, emotional intelligence, and psychopathological symptoms were examined. As expected, small to moderate correlations were found evidencing the convergent construct validity of the EROS. Findings suggest that the EROS is a psychometrically sound approach for assessing individual differences in emotion regulation in clinical samples.
... The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and mixed-design ANOVA were also used to determine the effects of the interventions on the study variables. The Eta-squared (Ƞ 2 ; small: 0.01, medium: 0.06, large: 0.14) was used to determine the effects of the interventions [22]. In all the statistical analyses, the significance level was 0.05. ...
Article
Objectives: Using an exercise intervention to improve lumbopelvic control (LPC) can enhance the pain severity and disability of participants with non-specific low back pain (NSLBP). The present study aimed to compare dynamic neuromuscular stabilization (DNS) exercises and common aquatic exercises (AEs) in terms of improving the pain, disability, LPC, and spinal posture of patients with non-specific low back pain (NSLBP). Methods: This single-blind controlled clinical trial was conducted on 45 subjects who were randomly divided into three groups, such as DNS (n=15), AEs (n=15), and control (n=15). LPC, spinal posture, pain severity, and disability were assessed in pretest and six weeks after the intervention by pressure biofeedback, a spinal mouse device, the visual analog scale (VAS), and the Oswestry disability questionnaire, respectively. No intervention was implemented for the control group. Results: No significant differences were observed between the study groups regarding the impact of the interventions on improving pain and disability (P>0.05). In addition, no significant difference was observed between the AEs and DNS groups regarding the improvement of LPC disorders (P>0.05). The spinal inclination angle (P=0.03) and inclination of range of motion (P=0.05) were significantly improved only by the AEs. Discussion: According to the results, the DNS exercises and AEs had no significant differences in terms of impact on the improvement of pain, disability, and LPC. Therefore, proper alternatives can be used to enhance such dysfunctions in case of a lack of access to pools and hydrotherapy pools.
... The paired t-test was used to identify differences between capillary and venous blood and the difference between BL and PRE time-points in certain analytes (Hct, [Hb], and COHb%). The between-variable (capillary vs. venous) relationship strength was calculated using Pearson's correlation analysis and correlation coefficients were applied as recommended (Cohen, 2013;strong ≥0.60; moderate ≥0.40-<0.59; weak ≥0.20-<0.39). ...
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Objectives: Haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) assessment with the carbon monoxide rebreathing method is a more accurate estimate than other measures of oxygen-carrying capacity. Blood may be collected by several means and differences in the measured variables may exist as a result. The present study assessed the validity and reliability of calculated Hbmass and intravascular volumes obtained from capillary blood (CAP) when compared to venous blood (VEN) draws. Methods: Twenty-two adults performed a carbon monoxide rebreathing procedure with paired VEN and CAP draws at baseline, pre-rebreathing and post-rebreathing (POST). Thirteen of these participants performed this protocol on two occasions to assess the data reliability from both blood sampling sites. In a second experiment, 14 adults performed a 20-min seated and a 20-min supine rest to assess for the effect of posture on haematological parameters. Results: Haemoglobin mass (CAP = 948.8 ± 156.8 g; VEN = 943.4 ± 157.3 g, p = 0.108) and intravascular volume (CAP = 6.5 ± 1 L; VEN = 6.5 ± 0.9 L, p = 0.752) were statistically indifferent, had low bias (Hbmass bias = 14.45 ± 40.42 g, LoA -64.78 g—93.67 g) and were highly correlated between sampling techniques. Reliability analysis demonstrated no difference in the mean change in variables calculated from both sampling sites and good to excellent intraclass correlation coefficients (>0.700), however, typical measurement error was larger in variables measured using CAP (VEN Hbmass TE% = 2.1%, CAP Hbmass TE% = 5.5%). The results indicate that a supine rest prior to the rebreathing protocol would have a significant effect on haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit values compared to a seated rest, with no effect on carboxyhaemoglobin %. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that CAP and VEN were comparable for the calculation of Hbmass and intravascular volumes in terms of accuracy. However, reduced reliability and increased error in the CAP variables indicates that there are methodological considerations to address when deciding which blood drawing technique to utilise. To reduce this CAP error, increased replicate analyses are required.
... The quantitative data was analysed using Mann Whitney U-test (non-parametric) using GraphPad Prism 8.0.1 (California, USA) and Microsoft Excel 2013 and a p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Next, we analysed the size of the observed effects using the Cohen method (Lenhard and Lenhard 2016;Cohen 1988). Briefly, according to Cohen, the magnitude of size effects can be interpreted by 'no effect', 'small effect', 'intermediate effect' and 'large effect' (Table 1). ...
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Project-based learning (PBL) has been found to deepen learning and develop employability skills for students through active engagement with the learning materials. Foundation, first and second year Biomedical Science students at the University of Sussex were introduced to a PBL exercise. Each class had an approximate student to staff ratio of eighty to two. Students were put into groups of four to five and asked to create a revision guide for a disease system, which was then shared among the cohort for exam preparation. Students were later surveyed on the effectiveness of this group activity. 74% indicated the activity helped them integrate knowledge from previous modules, with the majority of the students scoring the activity 4 out of 5 for consolidation of knowledge. 75% of the participants who took part before the pandemic indicated that the tasks enabled them to build a cohort identity, with 59% students feeling similarly during the pandemic. Additionally, we qualitatively assessed the development of transferrable skills, such as teamwork, effective communication and time management. The results of the questionnaire suggested that students were able to gain these skills. This paper outlines the study, discusses benefits and limitations, and provides potential solutions for the future.
... After the results and reliable measures, we tested our hypothesis link with each other and the presented model. The value of R 2 was determined to be 0.74, indicating a significant clarification as it exceeded the advisable value of 0.35 (Cohen 2013). The results depict a high f-value which shows linearity between all linkages. ...
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Due to China's massive usage of fossil fuels, climate change concerns have become serious challenges to the country's sustainable development. Despite the fact that China has effectively employed solar technology to address these problems, there is a paucity of research examining consumers' intention to adopt solar energy in the rural region of China. This study intends to fill this gap in the literature by studying consumers' buying intentions for solar energy in rural China for household purposes. Additionally, the study added to the theory of planned behavior by adding three new variables, namely, environmental knowledge , environmental concern, and beliefs about the benefits of solar energy. Primary data were collected from 847 respondents in Hebei Province using a comprehensive questionnaire survey. Structural equation modeling was employed to examine the data. Empirical results revealed that attitude, environmental knowledge, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and beliefs about the benefits of solar energy positively influence buying intention of solar energy. On the contrary, environmental concern had no significant effect on buying intention for solar energy. Study outcomes emphasize the critical significance of changing societal norms, boosting consumer awareness, redesigning regulatory mechanisms, and stressing the benefits provided by solar power through coherent and persistent efforts while simultaneously enhancing environmental sustainability practices.
Article
Objectives: To characterize and compare match-play movement demands via Global Positioning Systems (GPS) between international and domestic women's rugby sevens players when performing in a novel elite dual-level tournament, with consideration to player position and tournament characteristics. Design: Fifty-four rugby sevens players; twenty-one international-level (5 speed edges, 8 backs, 8 forwards), and thirty-three domestic-level (10 speed edges, 11 backs, 12 forwards) wore GPS devices while playing in an elite dual-level tournament covering 2 seasons, with 367 full match-play data files analysed. International-level players were distributed evenly between teams competing with and against their elite domestic counterparts. Methods: Match-play movement demands were characterized by distance, speed, and acceleration-based indices from 5-10Hz GPS devices. with consideration to player level, while playing position and tournament characteristics were also investigated. Results: International players recorded significantly higher high intensity match-play movement demands compared to domestic players in variables such as time and distance in high and very high-speed zones (P = 0.01, P = 0.03, P = 0.01, P = 0.03, respectively), maximal acceleration (P = 0.001), maximal velocity (P < .001), speed exertion (P = 0.01), distance and efforts in high-intensity decelerations (P < .001, P = 0.01, respectively), acceleration load density (P = 0.03) and efforts in higher-intensity accelerations (P < .001). Positional analysis demonstrated forwards displayed the largest significant differences between international and domestic players in high intensity match-play movement demands. The match-play demands of the dual-level tournament also showed comparable match-play demands to previous international tournament research in total and relative match-play movement demands. Conclusions: Results identify key points of difference in match-play movement demands between player level of women's rugby sevens and provides important information on the characteristics of playing positions, and of a dual-level tournament of this nature. This will improve the design and implementation of player and position specific physical preparation programs, talent-identification procedures, and pathway structures from domestic to international level.
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Given the high rates of both primary and secondary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in multidirectional field sports, there is a need to develop easily accessible methods for practitioners to monitor ACL injury risk. Field-based methods to assess knee variables associated with ACL injury are of particular interest to practitioners for monitoring injury risk in applied sports settings. Knee variables or proxy measures derived from wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs) may thus provide a powerful tool for efficient injury risk management. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify whether there were correlations between laboratory-derived knee variables (knee range of motion (RoM), change in knee moment, and knee stiffness) and metrics derived from IMUs (angular velocities and accelerations) placed on the tibia and thigh, across a range of movements performed in practitioner assessments used to monitor ACL injury risk. Ground reaction forces, three-dimensional kinematics, and triaxial IMU data were recorded from nineteen healthy male participants performing bilateral and unilateral drop jumps, and a 90° cutting task. Spearman’s correlations were used to examine the correlations between knee variables and IMU-derived metrics. A significant strong positive correlation was observed between knee RoM and the area under the tibia angular velocity curve in all movements. Significant strong correlations were also observed in the unilateral drop jump between knee RoM, change in knee moment, and knee stiffness, and the area under the tibia acceleration curve (rs = 0.776, rs = −0.712, and rs = −0.765, respectively). A significant moderate correlation was observed between both knee RoM and knee stiffness, and the area under the thigh angular velocity curve (rs = 0.682 and rs = −0.641, respectively). The findings from this study suggest that it may be feasible to use IMU-derived angular velocities and acceleration measurements as proxy measures of knee variables in movements included in practitioner assessments used to monitor ACL injury risk.
Article
As educators and policymakers increasingly use parental involvement as a mechanism to increase student achievement, scholars know surprisingly little about the disparities in frequencies of parental involvement for first-generation immigrant compared to native-born parents as well as how involvement may differ for parents of students with Individualized Education Programs (IEPs). Using HSLS:2009, we compared parental involvement of first-generation immigrant parents and native-born parents of high school students with and without IEPs. Our descriptive results indicate that first-generation parents exhibit lower frequencies of school-based involvement compared to native-born parents. In our propensity score matching analysis, we found that IEP status is associated with an increase in school-based parental involvement for both first-generation immigrant and native-born families. We also found that IEP status was negatively associated with academic socialization for both first-generation immigrant and native-born families.
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In the twenty-first century, with the evolution of technologies, teaching and learning practices, especially in second language acquisition, have taken a significant leap. Numerous applications and software have been created to facilitate and boost learners’ L2 vocabulary. The goal of this study is to examine the effectiveness of Quizlet in enhancing lexical retention of EFL students at a private institution in Vietnam in two learning modes: at home and in class. Eighty-nine university students participated in the study and were separated into three groups. While the in-class group () had weekly sessions of vocabulary revision in class with their teacher, the at-home group () did the weekly reviews on Quizlet at home by themselves. The control group (), however, did not utilize Quizlet for vocabulary review either in class or at home. During four weeks, the three groups learned and practiced 32 target words, divided into four sets (), with each set utilized in one week. Via a quasi-experimental design including a pretest and a posttest, the quantitative data were analyzed with the employment of the Generalized Linear Mixed Model to generate reliable outcomes. Semistructured interviews were conducted after the posttest to gain insights into learners’ opinions on Quizlet use. The results indicated that Quizlet was effective in boosting lexical gains in second language acquisition and that most participants were interested in interacting with this tool for reviewing vocabulary. However, there was no statistically significant difference in lexical gains between the at-home and in-class groups. Pedagogical implications, as well as recommendations for future research, were also discussed.
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The control of neuropathic pain is a leading challenge in modern medicine. Traditional medicine has, for a long time, used natural compounds such as nutraceuticals for this purpose, and extensive evidence has supported their role in controlling oxidative stress and persistent pain-related inflammation. Nutraceuticals are natural products belonging to the food sector whose consumption could be related to physiological benefits. Indeed, they are used to improve health, prevent chronic diseases, and delay the aging process. Here, we report a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a more comprehensive report on the use of nutraceuticals in neuropathic pain, including evaluating confounding factors. A search of the literature has been conducted on principal databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science) following the PRISMA statement, and we retrieved 484 articles, 12 of which were selected for the meta-analysis. The results showed that administration of natural drugs in animals with neuropathic pain led to a significant reduction in thermal hyperalgesia, measured in both the injured paw (SMD: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.41 to 2.17; p < 0.0001) and in the two paws (SMD: −1.74; 95% CI: −3.36 to −0.11; p = 0.036), as well as a reduction in mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia (SMD: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.08 to 2.82; p < 0.001) when compared to controls. The results of the review indicate that nutraceutical compounds could be clinically relevant for managing persistent neuropathic pain.
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Research asserts that populist messages are more persuasive when the audience’s predispositions align with the framing and topic of these messages. Yet, few studies have empirically analyzed this assertion. In this article, we examine how people’s emotional reactions to social issues (fear/anger) and the belief that society is in decline condition people’s reactions to populist framed messages, and whether a populist framing is more persuasive on specific issues—that is, the European refugee crisis, climate change, or the pension crisis. We also focus on two effects of populist messages: issue-specific attributions of responsibility and populist attitudes. Based on a survey experiment, we find that people who are more fearful about social issues express more populist attitudes after reading a populist framed message, compared to a pluralist framed message, and that populist messages increase the attribution of responsibility to politicians for the European refugee crisis and climate change (i.e., global issues).
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This pilot study aims to explore the effects and mechanisms of a mindfulness-based intervention on negative emotions in community settings during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants (N = 100) were randomized into an intervention group (n = 50) and a waitlist control group (n = 50). Participants in the mindfulness group underwent 3 weeks (21 sessions) of an online audio-based mindfulness-based intervention program and completed the online measures four times whereas those in the waitlist control group needed to complete the measures twice. Participants completed measures of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. The results of the measures of the two groups were compared. Moderated mediation analysis was used to analyze intervention outcomes on negative affect through anxiety. Unconditional quadratic latent growth analysis was used to test the growth trajectories of anxiety. The results showed that this intervention program was effective at improving positive affect and at reducing depression, anxiety, and negative affect. The baseline anxiety moderator was found to be significant, and indirect effects of anxiety post-intervention were found between the mindfulness-based intervention and negative affect. Anxiety levels of participants were not at the same starting point and had similar but non-quadratic growth trajectories. The mindfulness-based intervention program was effective at promoting mental wellbeing and reducing mental problems in community settings in China. Mindfulness practices were beneficial to people with different anxiety levels but had more obvious benefits on anxiety and a negative affect for participants with low anxiety levels. Clinical trial registration: ISRCTN16205138 on 26/02/2021.
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This Research to Practice Full Paper investigates second language learners' writing output using an online next-word prediction writing tool after exposure to training and metacognitive prompts to improve their critical thinking. Engineering graduates' writing skills are often deemed lacking by industry standards; this can be even more challenging for English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. This study employs a randomized control trial with university-level participants using an internally developed writing aid with next-word prediction, reverse translation support, and metacognitive prompts. EFL participants were given question prompts in the TOEFL iBT independent writing task style, and the outputs were assessed (machine and human) using several measures for writing quality. All participants were shown short explanatory videos for TOEFL writing advice and metacognition training. The treatment group, exposed to the next-word prediction writing aid and metacog-nitive prompts, performed better than the control group even though both received the same training and writing opportunities. This study indicates there is value in providing writing support and metacognitive thinking practice to improve writing skills and, ultimately, writing output quality. This study's implications can be applied not only to EFL learners but also to engineering-related fields using English as a lingua franca.
Article
Purpose Children with epilepsy are at high risk for impairing symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), especially difficulties with attention. There is limited evidence regarding the use of psychological interventions for children with epilepsy and attention difficulties. We developed and piloted a novel psychoeducational intervention –Supporting Attention in Children with Epilepsy (SPACE). Methods Eligible children with epilepsy (8–13 years) and difficulties with attention underwent a comprehensive psychological assessment and took part in a single-arm trial of the SPACE intervention. The first three sessions of SPACE took place in groups of 3–5 children and two psychologists. The final three sessions involved one psychologist meeting the child and parent(s). The child’s teacher joined for one of the final three sessions. The first group of participants participated in the intervention in person. Subsequent groups took part online due to COVID-19-related restrictions. Measures of ADHD -inattention symptoms (parent and teacher), executive functioning (child, parent, and teacher), and epilepsy-specific and general Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) (child and parent) were administered before and three months after completing the intervention. Results Twenty-seven children with epilepsy expressed an interest in participating. Sixteen children met eligibility criteria and participated in a single-arm pilot of the intervention. All 16 participants completed the intervention. Pre- and post-intervention data were available for 15 of the 16 children. Improvement in function was noted on all measures and reached statistical significance for child ratings of executive functioning (p = 0.030) and HRQOL (p = 0.043), and parent-rated child HRQOL (p < 0.001). Qualitative feedback regarding content and acceptability was positive. Conclusion A psychoeducational intervention for children with epilepsy and difficulties with attention can lead to improved executive functioning and HRQOL. Such an intervention may be a useful first-line intervention for children with epilepsy at risk for or diagnosed with ADHD and/or be used in combination with pharmacological treatment with children with epilepsy and ADHD. However, more robustly designed studies are needed.
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University students are a high-risk population with problematic online behaviours that include generalized problematic Internet/smartphone use and specific problematic Internet uses (for example, social media or gaming). The study of their predictive factors is needed in order to develop preventative strategies. This systematic review aims to understand the current state of play by examining the terminology, assessment instruments, prevalence, and predictive factors associated with problematic smartphone use and specific problematic Internet uses in university students. A literature review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines using four major databases. A total of 117 studies were included, divided into four groups according to the domain of problem behaviour: problematic smartphone use ( n = 67), problematic social media use ( n = 39), Internet gaming disorder ( n = 9), and problematic online pornography use ( n = 2). Variability was found in terminology, assessment tools, and prevalence rates in the four groups. Ten predictors of problematic smartphone use, five predictors of problematic social media use, and one predictor of problematic online gaming were identified. Negative affectivity is found to be a common predictor for all three groups, while social media use, psychological well-being, and Fear of Missing Out are common to problematic smartphone and social media use. Our findings reaffirm the need to reach consistent diagnostic criteria in cyber addictions and allow us to make progress in the investigation of their predictive factors, thus allowing formulation of preventive strategies.
Thesis
Die Altersforschung beleuchtete in den letzten Dekaden diverse Aspekte von sozialen Beziehungen im Alter, dabei blieb Sexualität allerdings häufig unberücksichtigt. Gleichzeitig zeigte die Sexualforschung, dass viele ältere Erwachsene davon berichten, sexuell aktiv zu sein, und dass sexuelle Aktivität im Alter mit Indikatoren erfolgreichen Alterns zusammenhängt. Im Rahmen dieser Dissertation wurden drei empirische Studien durchgeführt, um neue Erkenntnisse über die Sexualität im Alter und ihre Korrelate zu gewinnen. Sexualität wurde dabei als ein facettenreiches Konstrukt verstanden, was zu dem Ansatz führte, verschiedene Aspekte von Sexualität zu unterscheiden: sexuelle Aktivität, sexuelle Gedanken, Intimität, Bedeutsamkeit der Sexualität, sexuelles Vergnügen, erlebte körperliche Nähe und gewünschte körperliche Nähe. Um neue Erkenntnisse über die Natur der Sexualität im Alter zu gewinnen, wurden Zusammenhänge von Sexualität mit dem Alter und der Zugehörigkeit zu einer bestimmten Geburtskohorte untersucht, sowie berichtete Alltagsschwankungen in erlebter und gewünschter körperlicher Nähe. Für ein breiteres Verständnis der Korrelate der Sexualität im Alter wurden Zusammenhänge mit mehreren psychosozialen Faktoren unter gleichzeitiger Berücksichtigung soziodemographischer Merkmale und physischer Gesundheit analysiert. Das Ergebnismuster in Bezug auf die Zusammenhänge mit psychosozialen Faktoren ergab relevante Unterschiede. Zum Beispiel hing eine bestehende Partnerschaft mit häufigerer sexueller Aktivität, häufigeren sexuellen Gedanken und mehr erlebten Intimitätsgefühlen zusammen. Dafür sagte eine längere Beziehungsdauer weniger sexuelle Aktivität und weniger sexuelle Gedanken, aber nicht weniger Intimitätsgefühle voraus. Die Nützlichkeit der Unterscheidung verschiedener Facetten von Sexualität wird diskutiert und der notwendige Einbezug von Sexualität als ein Aspekt enger sozialer Beziehungen im Alter betont.
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Background Depression has a point prevalence of 25% and lifetime prevalence of 50% in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). Due to accessibility and brevity, the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) may be a useful tool in clinical practice for screening and monitoring of depressive symptoms in people with MS (pwMS). Methods The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability, validity and acceptability of the PHQ-9 as a screening tool for depressive symptoms in pwMS. PwMS completed online questionnaires at 3 time-points over 4-weeks. The PHQ-9, Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29), Centre for Disease Control Health-Related Quality of Life Measure (CDC-HQOL-4) and clinical history. Results 103 participants completed the PHQ-9 at three time points, 43% were categorised as depressed on at least one response. The PHQ-9 exhibited high internal reliability (Cronbach’s α = 0.89), and test-re-test agreement (ICC 0.89, 95% CI 0.85–0.91). Convergent validity was indicated through positive correlation with the mental health items on the MSIS-29 (r = 0.46 and r = 0.50) and CDC-HQOL-4 (r = 0.79 and r = 0.73) at both assessment points. Positive correlations between the PHQ-9 and the MSIS-29 (r = 0.86 and r = 0.84) and CDC-HQOL-4 (r = 0.55 and r = 0.37) physical symptom sub-scores did not indicate divergent validity. 93% of ratings evaluated the PHQ-9 as “Very” or “Completely” acceptable. Conclusion The PHQ-9 is a reliable and valid measure of depressive symptoms in people with MS. Given its accessibility, ease of administration, and acceptability, we recommend the PHQ-9 as a tool to screen for depressive symptoms in people with MS.
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Observing someone perform an action automatically activates neural substrates associated with executing that action. This covert response, or automatic imitation , is measured behaviourally using the stimulus–response compatibility (SRC) task. In an SRC task, participants are presented with compatible and incompatible response–distractor pairings (e.g., an instruction to say “ba” paired with an audio recording of “da” as an example of an incompatible trial). Automatic imitation is measured as the difference in response times (RT) or accuracy between incompatible and compatible trials. Larger automatic imitation effects have been interpreted as a larger covert imitation response. Past results suggest that an action’s biological status affects automatic imitation: Human-produced manual actions show enhanced automatic imitation effects compared with computer-generated actions. Per the integrated theory for language comprehension and production, action observation triggers a simulation process to recognize and interpret observed speech actions involving covert imitation. Human-generated actions are predicted to result in increased automatic imitation because the simulation process is predicted to engage more for actions produced by a speaker who is more similar to the listener. We conducted an online SRC task that presented participants with human and computer-generated speech stimuli to test this prediction. Participants responded faster to compatible than incompatible trials, showing an overall automatic imitation effect. Yet the human-generated and computer-generated vocal stimuli evoked similar automatic imitation effects. These results suggest that computer-generated speech stimuli evoke the same covert imitative response as human stimuli, thus rejecting predictions from the integrated theory of language comprehension and production.
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The number of patients with diabetes in Indonesia reach 19,47 million in 2021, mostly is caused by the adoption of sedentary and unhealthy lifestyles. Continuous self-management is important in diabetes care. It requires optimal coordination and communication between patients, families, and health care provider. The use of communication technology could be solution to the problem. This study aims to initiate an android-based mobile apps technology as a tool for patient, family, and healthcare provider to optimize patient with T2DM treatment. This study will be conducted in Public Health Centers (PHCs) in Yogyakarta using an exploratory sequential mixed-methods design which is divided into three phases. The first phase will use qualitative descriptive methods. Patients with T2DM, families, nurses, physicians and Health Social Security Agency officers in Indonesia will be involved in a focus group discussion (FGD) and in-depth interviews to understand their needs in optimizing the treatment. The second phase will be the development of an android-based application on the first phase results. The apps will be usability tested by involving experts (heuristic evaluation) and users (think aloud method) to ensure that the apps really meet targeted user’s need. In the third phase, we will collect feedback from user after using this apps for three months. The effectiveness of the apps will be measured by self-management improvement and glycemic control of patients with T2DM. The non-equivalent control group design will be applied using a pre-repeated post-test control group. The result of this study will be an Android-based Application which will be called Integrated Diabetes Self-Management (IDSM) app to optimize the implementation of diabetes self-management which can improve glycemic control of patients with T2DM as one of the indicators of the Indonesian Chronic Disease Management Program at PHCs.
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Associations between various forms of activity engagement (e.g. work, leisure) and the experience of stress in workers have been widely documented. The mechanisms underlying these effects, however, are not fully understood. Our goal was to investigate if perceived whole day workload accounted for the relationships between daily frequencies of activities (i.e. work hours and leisure/rest) and daily stress. We analysed data from 56 workers with type 1 diabetes (T1D) who completed approximately two weeks of intensive longitudinal assessments. Daily whole day workload was measured with an adapted version of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX). A variety of occupations were reported, including lawyer, housekeeper and teacher. In multilevel path analyses, day-to-day changes in whole day workload mediated 67% (p < .001), 61% (p < .001), 38% (p < .001), and 55% (p < .001) of the within-person relationships between stress and work hours, rest frequency, active leisure frequency, and day of week, respectively. Our results provided evidence that whole day workload perception may contribute to the processes linking daily activities with daily stress in workers with T1D. Perceived whole day workload may deserve greater attention as a possible stress intervention target, ones that perhaps ergonomists would be especially suited to address.
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The study aimed to determine the willingness of medical staff to have their children vaccinated with a COVID-19 booster in Taizhou, China. From March 21 to April 19, 2022, an online questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the willingness of medical staff to vaccinate their children with a booster dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. Of the 1,252 medical staff in a tertiary grade hospital in Taizhou who were invited to answer the structured questionnaire, 514 (41.1%) samples had valid information for further data analysis. Four hundred thirty-seven medical staff (85.0%) were willing to have their children receive vaccine boosters. After adjustments for confounding factors, the opinion (‘Do you think your child needs a booster vaccination against COVID-19?’) (yes vs. no, OR = 6.91, 95% CI: 3.29–14.54), the viewpoint (‘What are your thoughts the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccine boosters for children?’ (≥12 vs. <12, OR = 13.81, 95% CI: 4.03-), and the attitude (‘Your attitude to whether your child is boosting the Covid-19 vaccine?’) (yes vs. no, OR = 4.66, 95% CI: 2.30–9.44) were significantly associated with their willingness to have their children receive a COVID-19 vaccine booster. A moderate percentage of the respondents expressed willingness to have their children receive booster vaccines. The findings implied that factors affecting medical staffs’ willingness to vaccinate their children with a COVID-19 vaccine booster included viewpoint, opinion, and attitudes.
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Background L-menthol evokes a cooling sensation by activating cold sensing cation channels. Menthol-enhanced fluids can be ergogenic during exercise in the heat by improving thermal perception; hence, the addition of menthol to energy gels may benefit athletes. Previously, unflavored menthol gels were deemed acceptable at 0.1% concentration, but no research has been undertaken on menthol gels with additional flavoring. Therefore, we determined athlete perceptions of flavored energy gels with different menthol concentrations. Methods With a randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 27 athletes (34.8 ± 6.7 y, 9 females) ingested an energy gel with either 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, or 0.7% menthol concentration, or a non-menthol, flavor-matched placebo (CON), on separate occasions before outdoor exercise. Gels were rated for cooling sensation, irritation, flavor, and overall experience on 100-point sensory and hedonic labeled magnitude scales. The duration of any cooling sensation was also reported. Results All menthol gels delivered a greater cooling sensation compared to CON (7.4 ± 8.1 AU) with a significantly greater response for 0.7% (59.9 ± 20.5 AU) and 0.5% (57.7 ± 21.8 AU), compared to all others. Irritation was higher for all menthol gels compared to CON (3.4 ± 7.2 AU) and for 0.7% compared to 0.1% (31.1 ± 31.0 vs. 16.3 ± 21.0 AU, p = 0.041), with none rated above a ‘mild-moderate’ intensity. The menthol gels delivered a significantly longer cooling sensation duration (12.3-19.6 min) versus CON (2.2 ± 4.8 min) with no difference between menthol gels. Conclusion A flavored menthol energy gel at 0.1–0.7% concentration provides a cooling sensation for athletes when ingested before exercise. The 0.5% concentration is recommended to maximize the cooling sensation whilst minimizing irritation.
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Importance Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) causes devastating loss of upper extremity function and independence. Nerve transfers are a promising approach to reanimate upper limbs; however, there remains a paucity of high-quality evidence supporting a clinical benefit for patients with tetraplegia. Objective To evaluate the clinical utility of nerve transfers for reanimation of upper limb function in tetraplegia. Design, Setting, and Participants In this prospective case series, adults with cervical SCI and upper extremity paralysis whose recovery plateaued were enrolled between September 1, 2015, and January 31, 2019. Data analysis was performed from August 2021 to February 2022. Interventions Nerve transfers to reanimate upper extremity motor function with target reinnervation of elbow extension and hand grasp, pinch, and/or release. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was motor strength measured by Medical Research Council (MRC) grades 0 to 5. Secondary outcomes included Sollerman Hand Function Test (SHFT); Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire (MHQ); Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH); and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores. Outcomes were assessed up to 48 months postoperatively. Results Twenty-two patients with tetraplegia (median age, 36 years [range, 18-76 years]; 21 male [95%]) underwent 60 nerve transfers on 35 upper limbs at a median time of 21 months (range, 6-142 months) after SCI. At final follow-up, upper limb motor strength improved significantly: median MRC grades were 3 (IQR, 2.5-4; P = .01) for triceps, with 70% of upper limbs gaining an MRC grade of 3 or higher for elbow extension; 4 (IQR, 2-4; P < .001) for finger extensors, with 79% of hands gaining an MRC grade of 3 or higher for finger extension; and 2 (IQR, 1-3; P < .001) for finger flexors, with 52% of hands gaining an MRC grade of 3 or higher for finger flexion. The secondary outcomes of SHFT, MHQ, DASH, and SF36-PCS scores improved beyond the established minimal clinically important difference. Both early (<12 months) and delayed (≥12 months) nerve transfers after SCI achieved comparable motor outcomes. Continual improvement in motor strength was observed in the finger flexors and extensors across the entire duration of follow-up. Conclusions and Relevance In this prospective case series, nerve transfer surgery was associated with improvement of upper limb motor strength and functional independence in patients with tetraplegia. Nerve transfer is a promising intervention feasible in both subacute and chronic SCI.
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The objective of this study was to monitor the training loads (TL) and well-being of elite rhythmic gymnastics (RG) athletes, as well as compare these variables between starters and reserve gymnasts during 25 weeks of training. Ten athletes from the Brazilian national RG team (17.4 ± 1.1 y of age) were monitored during the general preparatory period (GPP), specific preparatory period (SPP), and pre-competitive period (PCP). The internal TL was quantified with the use of sessional ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE). We assessed well-being daily with a well-being scale. The TL, duration, monotony, and strain were calculated weekly. We found that the internal TL and session durations were 9242 ± 2511 AU and 2014 ± 450 min, respectively. The internal TL, strain, and monotony were greater in the PCP than in the GPP and SPP for starters. In the SPP, there were statistical differences in internal TL (p = 0.036) and strain (p = 0.027) between starters and reserves. In the PCP, there were also statistical differences between starters vs. reserves athletes regarding internal TL (p = 0.027) and strain (p = 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in well-being between the periods assessed. In conclusion, RG athletes display a higher TL magnitude during the PCP, whereas only reporting non-significant minor variations in well-being. In addition, there is a discrepancy in the TL between starters and reserves.
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Microbenchmarking is a widely used form of performance testing in Java software. A microbenchmark repeatedly executes a small chunk of code while collecting measurements related to its performance. Due to Java Virtual Machine optimizations, microbenchmarks are usually subject to severe performance fluctuations in the first phase of their execution (also known as warmup). For this reason, software developers typically discard measurements of this phase and focus their analysis when benchmarks reach a steady state of performance. Developers estimate the end of the warmup phase based on their expertise, and configure their benchmarks accordingly. Unfortunately, this approach is based on two strong assumptions: (i) benchmarks always reach a steady state of performance and (ii) developers accurately estimate warmup. In this paper, we show that Java microbenchmarks do not always reach a steady state, and often developers fail to accurately estimate the end of the warmup phase. We found that a considerable portion of studied benchmarks do not hit the steady state, and warmup estimates provided by software developers are often inaccurate (with a large error). This has significant implications both in terms of results quality and time-effort. Furthermore, we found that dynamic reconfiguration significantly improves warmup estimation accuracy, but still it induces suboptimal warmup estimates and relevant side-effects. We envision this paper as a starting point for supporting the introduction of more sophisticated automated techniques that can ensure results quality in a timely fashion.
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Exercise interventions targeting older adults often focus on acute changes, but lasting improvements require the adoption of long-term, independent exercise habits. This study aimed to assess the influence of eight-weeks of resistance training (SSSH) on clinically relevant fall-risk indicators in older adults and to evaluate if SSSH participation altered independent exercise engagement 12 months later. Sixty adults aged 50 yrs+ were randomised into SSSH, Walk, or Control groups and completed questionnaires and muscle strength and flexibility tests pre/post 8 weeks. SSSH and Walk met 2x/wk for 60 min. Twelve months later 24 participants also completed a follow-up survey amid COVID-19 restrictions. Eight-week group changes were analysed using one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc analyses, and survey responses were compared using paired t-tests with a Bonferroni correction. SSSH demonstrated greater absolute changes over 8 weeks in sleep quality, activity engagement, 30-second-sit-to-stand and upper-body flexibility than Walk or Controls (p < 0.05). Twelve months later, SSSH participants reported significantly increasing independent resistance (+68), aerobic (+125) and flexibility (+26) training minutes per week (all p < 0.01). In conclusion, SSSH reduced fall risk in 8 weeks and sparked older adults to begin and sustain positive exercise habits 12 months later, despite COVID-19 restrictions.
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In this study a standardized effect size was created for use with the SIBTEST procedure. Using this standardized effect size, a single set of heuristics was developed that are appropriate for data fitting different item response models (e.g., 2-parameter logistic, 3-parameter logistic). The standardized effect size rescales the raw beta-uni value using a pooled variation that incorporates the beta-uni inclusion factor. Although the heuristics for the standardized and unstandardized effect sizes provide similar true-positive and false-positive rates in most conditions, the standardized effect size provides higher true-positive rates for conditions where item response variability is smaller in proportion to raw score differences. Inflated false-positive rates were solely impacted by smaller sample sizes, whereas larger sample sizes improved true-positive rates. An empirical application is provided to demonstrate how the standardized effect size provides for a more consistent comparison across items with varying response distributions. This study lays the foundation for the utilization of a standardized effect size for both dichotomous and polytomous item response models using the suite of SIBTEST procedures.
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En el presente trabajo se comparan las expectativas de inserción laboral y autoeficacia laboral de una muestra de estudiantes universitarios con diversidad funcional con las de la población normativa. A su vez, examinan si estas expectativas y autoeficacia laboral difieren en función de su perfil demográfico y de la tipología, grado de severidad y etapa en la que se adquirió la diversidad funcional. Finalmente, se averigua la posible asociación entre autoeficacia laboral y las expectativas laborales de estos estudiantes. Participaron 82 estudiantes con diversidad funcional de dos universidades de la provincia de Alicante. Se utilizaron el Cuestionario de Expectativas y Demandas Laborales para estudiantes pre y universitarios (2013) y la Escala de Autoeficacia para la Búsqueda de Empleo (2011). Los resultados mostraron índices moderadamente bajos en expectativas y autoeficacia laboral en los jóvenes con diversidad funcional, detectándose mayores niveles de ambos constructos entre los estudiantes con movilidad reducida y con diversidad sensorial visual, con mayor grado de severidad y con diversidad funcional adquirida desde el nacimiento. Por último, se observó una asociación positiva entre autoeficacia y expectativas laborales. Estos resultados sugieren la importancia de diseñar programas de inserción laboral que detecten el nivel de autoeficacia laboral en este colectivo con el objetivo de potenciar este constructo entre los estudiantes con diversidad funcional y favorecer sus expectativas y autoeficacia laboral y con ello, su inserción laboral.
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This study examines consumers’ decision to select parcel locker service with regard to privacy concerns and perceptions toward technology based on protection motivation theory and the technology acceptance model. A total of 310 consumers using online shopping and delivery services in the 10 most populated metropolitan areas in the United States were recruited. The responses in the final sample were analyzed by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The findings of this study show that consumers’ perceived trust in technology-based service (rather than privacy concerns) more strongly evoke parcel locker service adoption intention in consumers’ sequential decision-making process, which encompasses threat/coping appraisal, protection motivation, perceived innovativeness from a new service, service trust, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and attitude toward the new service—outdoor parcel locker service. This study provides managerial implications for retailers who need to deliver packages to consumers. This study attempts to understand consumers’ decision-making process toward adopting parcel locker service by considering two approaches: technology assessment and privacy protection.
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Despite the increasing use of simulation games in business education, only few studies have explored the cognitive processes that learners employ while playing the game, with quite controversial results about the students’ learning outcomes. The current study analyses the impact of a Business Simulation Game (BSG) on the cognitive processes related to the “Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome” (SOLO) taxonomy. Moreover, overall learning performance and perceived teamwork competency have been investigated. A quasi-experimental pre and post-test design was applied. Eighty (80) university students played a marketing simulation game to practise a business marketing plan. The results showed a significant improvement in the unistructural and extended abstract levels of the taxonomy after playing the game. There was no significant difference in the multi-structural level while the effect on the relational level was negative. Also, a strong, positive correlation between perceived teamwork competency and learning performance was found. Implications for instructional designers and educators are discussed.
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Placement stability is a key goal within child welfare. Unfortunately, placement disruptions are common and result in widespread negative outcomes for youth in care. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the youth and resource caregiver variables associated with the number of placement changes among 1,624 Canadian youths aged 10-17 years. Data were based on information collected from the youths, resource caregivers, and child welfare practitioners. For the demographic variables, compared to residential placements, parent-model placements (i.e., foster, adoptive, kinship homes) were associated with fewer placement changes. Also, younger age when first placed in care, older current youth age, and a higher number of maltreatment types endorsed by the child welfare practitioner, were associated with a greater number of placement changes. For the youth variables, greater conduct problems, peer problems, and prosocial behaviour, as well as fewer internal assets, were associated with greater placement changes. For the resource caregiver variables, lower placement satisfaction was associated with a greater number of placement changes. These findings not only add a Canadian context to previous literature on the factors associated with the number of placements youth in care experience, but also do so while making use of data from multiple informants, including the youths’ perspectives. Our findings highlight the importance of considering both youth and caregiver factors that are associated with placement changes, which provides insight into possible areas of intervention.
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While the plain language movement has shed light on the lack of readability of statutory texts for the lay person, there has been a lack of empirical methodology employed to determine the ways in which statutory language differs lexico-grammatically from forms of popular language that are familiar to the lay person. With this in mind, the present study conducts a comparative analysis of statutory language and other forms of popular written language (i.e., a corpus of news reports, sports reports, encyclopedia articles, and historical articles) with two goals: 1) to provide a detailed lexico-grammatical description of statutory law independent from other forms of legal writing, and 2) to identify pervasive lexico-grammatical features of statutory language that the lay person has relatively less exposure to in comparison to other written registers. Following a bottom-up selection of lexico-grammatical features for analysis, a key feature analysis is used to identify linguistic features that are more pervasive in statutory law relative to other forms of popular written language as measured through Cohen’s d effect sizes. Results reveal the pervasive use of the passive voice, prepositions, a variety of coordinating conjunctions, the pied-piping wh-relative clause construction, and non-finite -ing and -ed clause constructions in statutory language. These results complement previous research regarding the features that are characteristic of statutory language and help to identify features that potentially contribute to the lack of readability of statutory law.
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Although workplace social capital (WSC) is a relevant construct that contributes positively to employee and organizational wellness, there is lack of consensus regarding its definition and measurement. The aim of this paper was to synthesize a valid definition of WSC and develop an instrument measuring the construct. Based on a literature review of existing definitions (Phase 1), we conceptualized WSC as a workplace resource that concerns employees’ perceptions regarding trust, reciprocity (cognitive WSC), and network interactions (structural WSC) that exist among peers (bonding WSC) and among individuals across hierarchical levels and organizations (bridging WSC). Next, we developed the WSC Inventory (WoSCi; Phase 2) and, we tested the psychometric properties of the new scale (Phase 3). The initial structure of the scale was explored in a sample of university employees ( N = 376). Multilevel confirmatory factor analysis in a heterogeneous sample of 733 employees nested in 158 work groups supported the hypothesized factor structure of the WoSCi. Results also supported the internal consistency, as well as the convergent, criterion-related and incremental validity of the WoSCi in explaining work engagement, burnout, job performance over and above similar constructs, such as individual social capital and psychological capital. These results highlight the relevance of WSC as defined and measured with the WoSCi and underline its value for explaining work-related well-being and organizational behavior.
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Postsecondary institutions worldwide generally provide career development courses or similar courses to better prepare undergraduate students for healthy and quality future careers. Understanding whether these career development courses positively affect students’ career-related outcomes is crucial. Utilizing survey data collected from a large research university located in the eastern part of China, we found that students who have taken at least one career course exhibited career awareness and career planning abilities that were 0.096 and 0.147 units higher, respectively, than those of students who have not taken career courses, with other variables held constant. More specifically, an additional career course was statistically significantly associated with a 0.099, 0.084, and 0.175 unit increase in students’ career awareness, job search self-efficacy, and career planning ability, respectively. A student’s college major and annual family income seemed to be good predictors for a student’s career awareness, job search self-efficacy, and career-planning ability. Furthermore, the more career courses that a student took, the higher the career awareness, job search self-efficacy, and career planning ability that the student had. With these findings in mind, our study recommends postsecondary stakeholders to leverage such courses to help students better prepare for a healthy and quality career development.
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Introduction Nature exposure is a widely accepted option for promoting public health owing to the recent surge of scientific evidence. However, the actual settings to facilitate this initiative is yet to be extensively reviewed. In this systematic review, we have aimed to provide an up-to-date summary of interventional studies investigating the psycho-physiological effects of forests and urban forests, including details on their physical settings, and investigate an effect-modifying role of altitude and summarize data on the magnitude and shape of the association. Methods A keyword search using five electronic academic databases (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Scopus) was conducted to identify relevant articles published in English from the inception year to the end of February 2022. The methodological quality was evaluated using the ROBINS-I or ROB2 tool, depending on the study design. Meta-regression and random effects model were jointly used to examine the relationship between altitude and health outcomes. Results We included 27 eligible studies and 31 cases extracted from 19 studies were used for the meta-analysis. In the meta-regression, we observed a non-linear association between altitude and psycho-physiological effects. Altitude had a positive quadratic association with anxiety ( p < 0.000, adjusted R ² = 96.79%), depression ( p < 0.000, adjusted R ² = 98.78%), and fatigue ( p < 0.000, adjusted R ² = 64.74%) alleviating effects. Conversely, altitude demonstrated a negative non-linear association with the blood pressure-lowering effect ( p = 0.009, adjusted R ² = 32.83%). Additionally, the thermal index (THI) and illuminance (lx) levels were significantly associated with effect sizes of psychological restoration. Discussion This review provides moderate-certainty evidence for an effect-modifying role of altitude. The meta-regression results suggested the optimal and minimal altitude ranges for psychological restoration and physiological relaxation, respectively. Despite some limitations, the study findings provide a significant basis for utilizing altitude, which is easily accessible and simple, to promote the health benefits of nature-based initiatives. Systematic review registration https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42022310894 , identifier: CRD42022310894.
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Mobile phone usage is typically measured via self-reporting. However, scholars have questioned the validity of self-reported data, which may lead to Type I or Type II errors. Using an online survey (n = 777), this study compared self-reported and log mobile phone usage data using a simplified version of the mobile data donation method. The results showed that people generally underreported their mobile phone usage in terms of time duration, the number of notifications, and apps used. Moreover, self-reported data may either have no additional effect on or overestimate the communication findings depending on the outcome variables. This challenges the Type II error explanation and suggests that the effect sizes of self-reported data might not be underestimated after all. Instead, past research examining mobile use and pertinent outcomes may have false-positive findings and Type I errors. Given the potential inaccuracies of self-reported data, future research on mobile media and communications should go beyond self-reported data to enhance the validity of findings.
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The goals of this bibliometric review of the Review of Educational Research were to gain insights into the evolution of the journal and identify its key contributions to the education literature. Bibliographic data associated with the full set of 3,022 review articles published in RER from 1931 through 2021 were exported from Scopus for bibliometric analysis using VOSviewer software. The review confirmed that RER remains rooted in the American education context, with scholars located outside the United States accounting for only 6% of the RER corpus. The review identified authors and documents published in RER that have had the greatest impact on the broader education literature. Author co-citation analysis visualized the “intellectual structure” of the RER corpus, which is anchored by a “school of thought” associated with Teaching and Learning Strategies and Effects. This research stream has been informed by complementary schools of researchers who have generated theory and research on cognition, teaching, and learning as well as motivation and learning. Although conceptual reviews of research are more prominent, meta-analytic reviews have also come to represent a key pillar in the intellectual structure of RER. Journal co-citation analysis validated the centrality of RER’s place within a community of highly ranked education and psychology journals. The findings confirm the strong disciplinary influence of psychology in shaping the journal’s direction and content. Adapting to a changing global research landscape in education was identified as a key challenge facing RER in the next decade.
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The present study, commissioned by the Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection, critically examined the criminal law provisions on combating human trafficking (Sections 232 to 233a of the Criminal Code), which were reformed in 2016. For this purpose, among other things, a file analysis, numerous interviews with experts and a workshop were conducted. The result of the research is sobering: The goals pursued by the legislator with the reform were not achieved for the most part. The authors therefore propose several measures to improve the fight against human trafficking.
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Research on teacher retention and attrition suggests that it may be particularly difficult to fill special education positions in rural, economically disadvantaged, high-minority, and urban schools. Although teacher retention and attrition have received considerable attention in the literature, less is known about the reasons special educators teaching students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) leave their positions. Using a series of surveys and follow-up phone interviews, the current study sought to provide preliminary information regarding reasons teachers of students with ASD in West Virginia, a predominantly rural, economically disadvantaged state, may leave their positions and identify the supports that may be most influential in assisting them in staying in their positions. Additional directions for research and ways school districts might better support teachers of students with ASD are discussed.
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There are many ways in which we, as speakers, are creative in how we form and interpret new words. Working across the interfaces of psychology, linguistics, psycholinguistics, and sociolinguistics, this book presents cutting-edge interdisciplinary research, showing how we manipulate the range of linguistic tools at our disposal to create an infinite range of words and meanings. It provides both a theoretical account of creativity in word-formation and word-interpretation, and an experimental framework with the corresponding results obtained from more than seven hundred participants. Data drawn from this vast range of speakers shows how creativity varies across gender and age, and demonstrates the complexity of relationships between the examined variables. Pioneering in its scope, this volume will pave the way for a brand new area of research in the formation and interpretation of complex words.
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