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This paper’s main objective is to introduce the Non-Contact Hand Wash dispenser for helping people sanitize their hands without any physical contact. The device mainly consists of an ultrasonic sensor that senses the user’s hand at a range of 5-6 cm and transfers signals to the servomotor, which immediately rotates and releases the liquid contents on the user’s hand. As Bangladesh is a densely populated country, it is recommended for all to wash their hands frequently to prevent the virus’s transmission during the outbreak of COVID-19. As germs can get transmitted easily through physical contact, they can also get transferred from the surface of soaps and regular hand washes dispensers whenever used one after another. Thus, these Wash dispensers could be used on public and domestic sides to reduce the virus’s transmission rate significantly. Hence, this innovation could replace the traditional hygiene product in most circumstances and might become a trend soon.
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Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainable Development in Technology for 4th Industrial Revolution 2021
(ICSDTIR-2021) 12 – 13 March, 2021, Chattogram, Bangladesh
ISBN: 978-984-34-9542-6
© ICSDTIR-2021
A BUDGET-FRIENDLY NON-CONTACT HAND WASH
DISPENSER CONSIDERING THE COVID SITUATION IN
BANGLADESH
Fardeen Mahbub1*, Rashedul Islam2, Shouherdho Banerjee Akash3 and Sayed Abdul Kadir Al-Nahiun4
1*American International University-Bangladesh, mahbubfardeen1998@gmail.com, Bangladesh
2American International University-Bangladesh, saydulbabar147570@gmail.com, Bangladesh
3 American International University-Bangladesh, akashbanerjee906@gmail.com, Bangladesh
4American International University-Bangladesh, nahiunkf42@gmail.com, Bangladesh
Abstract- This papers main objective is to introduce the
Non-Contact Hand Wash dispenser for helping people
sanitize their hands without any physical contact. The
device mainly consists of an ultrasonic sensor that senses
the user’s hand at a range of 5-6 cm and transfers signals
to the servomotor, which immediately rotates and
releases the liquid contents on the user’s hand. As
Bangladesh is a densely populated country, it is
recommended for all to wash their hands frequently to
prevent the virus’s transmission during the outbreak of
COVID-19. As germs can get transmitted easily through
physical contact, they can also get transferred from the
surface of soaps and regular hand washes dispensers
whenever used one after another. Thus, these Wash
dispensers could be used on public and domestic sides to
reduce the virus’s transmission rate significantly. Hence,
this innovation could replace the traditional hygiene
product in most circumstances and might become a trend
soon [1].
Keywords: Non-contact, handwash, ultrasonic sensor, Arduino
UNO, economic aspects, COVID-19)
1. INTRODUCTION
In medical settings, hand wash dispensers were
first introduced in 1966, like hospitals and healthcare
facilities. However, the product got popularized in the
early 1990s. Liquid hand wash is more convenient for
killing microorganisms than handwashing with ordinary
soap and water in most healthcare settings.[1] Due to the
current outbreak of COVID-19, liquid hand wash
contents have become very popular throughout the world
because it could help people stay clean and germ-free. [2]
However, liquified hand wash dispensers are usually
used by squirting the wash dispenser liquid contents
when one presses a pump with one’s hand, causing many
people to contact the pump handle and increases the risk
of viral transmission, which raises the possibility of
covid-19.[3] The reality is, most work facilities like
toilets, washrooms, and even eating places are shared
publicly, which raises the chances of virus transmission
among people. Considering this, an automatic hand wash
dispenser has been designed in this paper.
Automatic hand wash dispensers are useful and
practical for those who always have body contact with
others on public and domestic sides.[4] The touchless
component allows for minimal contact with other
surfaces, reducing the growth of germs.[5] Disparate
conventional dispensers or handwashing, touchless hand
wash dispensers mitigate the risk of unnecessary touches
by using ultrasonic or other sensors instead of a button to
deliver a robust sanitizing solution in one quick and
convenient actions.[6] The main aim of this paper is to
deliver the best technology among people and as well as
to prevent the transmission of various germs. However,
until now, there are many instances where students of
other countries have implemented this concept in the past.
Here, the re-implementation is made for this model by
considering all the economic aspects, including its cost,
reliability, and size, to make this device sustainable in the
market. Though, this paper has been focused on
considering the perspectives of numerous conditions
concerning Bangladesh. But the overall scenario is very
much similar to the rest of the world, which ensures the
validity of other parts of the world.
2. BLOCK DIAGRAM
Fig. 1: Block Diagram of the proposed model
As shown in Figure 1, the 220V AC power supply is
given as input to the transformer, converting the 220V
AC into 12V AC. Then the voltage is passed through a
Rectifier, which converts the 12V AC into 12V DC. The
12V DC is provided as a DC-DC Converter input, known
as Buck Converter (with a duty cycle of 0.4167). The
Buck Converter’s output provides 5V DC, which is
parallelly connected to the Arduino UNO, Ultrasonic
Sensor, and the Hand Wash dispenser, as shown in Figure
1.
© ICSDTIR-2021
3. USER COMPONENTS
Components that are required for the model along
with its functions are discussed below-
Step-Down Transformer- it converts the 220V AC
supply into 12V AC output
Buck Converter- It is a DC-DC Converter that
converts the input 12V DC into 5V DC output with a
duty cycle of 0.4167
Ultrasonic Sensor HCSR:04- It senses the user hand
at a range of 5-6 centimeters. Once it senses the hands,
it sends signals to the Arduino UNO
Arduino UNO- It receives the signal from the
Ultrasonic Sensor and permits the servomotor to rotate
Servomotor- The servomotor rotates and provides
pressure to the handle of the hand wash dispenser
once it gets permission from the Arduino UNO
Diodes (1N4007)
Capacitor (4700uF)
Hand Wash Dispenser
4. HARDWARE STRUCTURE
At first, all the required components were connected
and were placed in a 15cm*15cm Architecture Board.
The input power supply was provided to the Step-Down
Transformer from the main power supply. The
transformer converts the input voltage of 220V AC into
12V AC output. Then, the full-wave rectifier circuit was
formed consisting of four diodes along with a single
capacitor. The 12V AC was provided as the input of the
Rectifier, and as a result, it gives 12V DC as output. After
that, the 12V DC was provided as the DC-DC Converter
input (known as BUCK Converter). The buck converter
converted the 12V DC input into 5V DC output with the
duty cycle of 0.4167. The 5V DC voltage was parallelly
connected to the Arduino UNO, Ultrasonic Sensor
HCSR-04, and the servomotor. The 5V DC input voltage
was provided to the Echo and Trigger pin, further
connected to the Arduino pin 6 and 7. The Arduino UNO
can be operated at a range of 5V-12V; thus, a 5V DC has
been provided to the Arduino since it performs best at this
magnitude of voltage. Also, the program code was done
in the ARDUINO software and was uploaded with a cable.
However, the servomotor was attached to the handwash
dispenser’s surface, and it was tightly connected to the
handle of the hand wash dispenser with a couple of metal
strings. After all the equipment was successfully
connected (as showed in Figure 2), the desired output was
successfully achieved [7].
Fig. 2: Practical Setup of the proposed model
5. RESULTS
When the hand is placed at a range of 6-7 centimeters
near the ultrasonic sensor, it is immediately detected by
the ultrasonic sensor. Once the sensor detects the hand, it
sends signals to the Arduino UNO, and immediately
Arduino responds to the signal and allows the servomotor
to conduct and rotate. Since the servomotor is tightly
connected to the hand wash dispenser’s handle with
metal strings, it is pulled downwards, releasing a
significant amount of the liquid content to the user’s hand.
When the liquid content comes out of the container, the
servomotor returns to its stationary position. Henceforth,
all the equipment returns to OFF STATE until the
Ultrasonic sensor detects the next user’s hand. The
proposed model’s simulation was also implemented
using the Tinkercad Software (online version), shown in
Figure 3.
Fig. 3: Simulation of the proposed model
6. ANALYSIS ON THE ECONOMICAL ASPECTS
OF THE MODEL
The comparison of Local prices and International
prices of all the equipment that have been used in the
proposed model are given below-
Table 1: Comparison of the Local price and International price
of the components that have been used [8]
Equipment
Quantity
Local Price
(in BDT)
International
Price
(in USD)
Arduino UNO
1
250
24
Ultrasonic Sensor
HCSR-04
1
35
4
Buck Converter
1
50
1.5
Transformer
1
50
3
Servomotor
1
50
3
Diode (1N4007)
4
5*4
0.5*4
Capacitor (4700uF)
1
10
0.2
Hand Wash
dispenser
1
90
2
Metal strings
2
1*2
0.1*2
Connecting wires
10
0.5*10
0.1*10
Total Cost
562
$40.6~3477
BDT
Table 1 has included the prices of all the pieces of
equipment used during this model’s implementation.
© ICSDTIR-2021
From the table, it is visible that all equipment prices in the
local market are lower than the international market. It
can be seen that, compared to the local market, the total
cost of building this model is almost six times higher; thus,
it can be deduced that the total price of making this model
in Bangladesh is comparatively cheaper concerning other
countries. The table has been formed based on the
availability of these components in the current market.
However, certain factors had affected this particular price,
such as- when this experiment was being implemented
that moment, the pandemic of COVID-19 already got
started in most parts of the world. Thus, all the
international manufacturing companies stopped
manufacturing these components, and therefore the
availability of these components drastically reduced in
the global market in recent times. Since the demand for
these components is high and the availability is low, this
raised the prices. However, the moment this outbreak will
get over, these components’ prices will hopefully return
to their original Figure.
Furthermore, these components were bought with a
single quantity just for the implementation of this
particular model. Instead, suppose these components
were bought at a large scale for mass production of NON-
CONTACT HAND WASH DISPENSERS. In that case,
the average total cost will surely fall significantly,
making the device even cheaper affordable. However, the
total cost of this model could have been reduced by using
alternatives components with similar specifications and
functions, such as- instead of Arduino UNO, Arduino
NANO could have been used, which is very cheap with
the same performance and as well as further researches
could have been done on the ways of reducing the cost.
But unfortunately, these components were not available in
the market due to the outbreak of COVID-19. Despite all
these, this model’s total cost is still reasonable, and
therefore this device is economical enough considering
the price.
Fig. 4: Comparison between the performance of Ultrasonic
Sensor and Infrared Sensor
Since all these electrical components used in this
model are manufactured in a large quantity, there are minor
possibilities of facing manufacturing defects. Among all
these components, only the Arduino UNO is the most
sensitive device due to its complex structures and
configuration. Except for that issue, all the components
that have been used while creating this device are long-
lasting, with a minimum average lifetime of 12 months. It
must be mentioned that in some country’s students had
also implemented Non-Contact Hand Wash dispensers
consisting of two Infrared sensors. However, compared to
Ultrasonic sensors, Infrared sensors are more expensive;
thus, it automatically raises the model’s cost. Moreover,
ultrasonic sensors are insensitive to light, dust, vapor, etc.
The performance of infrared sensors is affected by light,
dust, and vapor due to the possibility of interference. This
proves that ultrasonic sensors are more reliable than
infrared sensors, which is shown in Figure 4.
However, in some parts of the world, numerous
touchless dispensers under the tagline of many renowned
companies do not consist of direct power supply; instead,
it uses either LIPO or Lithium-ion Batteries. But the
critical problem with these batteries is that their
performance continuously deteriorates with usage and is
very expensive. Therefore, these expensive batteries make
the device more expensive and force the user to buy the
charger. Moreover, it needs to be charged multiple times
daily and disconnected after every usage. Since this
particular solution is not effective in public places, thus it
can be said that connecting the circuit directly to the
power supply is more reliable than the LIPO/Lithium-ion
Batteries. Also, it might be thought that usage of direct
power supply might continuously increase power usage,
which will raise the electricity bill, but in reality, this is
not the case. The system is designed to consume power
only when the ultrasonic sensor detects the user’s hand.
Once it completes its assigned task, it automatically shifts
the OFF-STATE system until the ultrasonic sensors
determine the next user’s hand. Thus, it can be concluded
that the system is also very much reliable considering
electricity bills. Furthermore, once the container’s
contents get over, it is unnecessary to replace the older
box with newer ones. There are refill pouches available
in the market that can refill the container once the contents
get over. Therefore, without replacing the container, the
device can be used several times, making it even more
reliable. Hence, it can be said that the model is
economical and considers the fact of its reliability. [9]
This whole model was done successfully over an
architectural board of size 15cm*15cm. Since its size is
comparatively small, therefore it can be easily fitted to
anywhere as per the choice. But there is one thing that
needs to take care of: when the contents of the container
of a hand wash dispenser get over, the older box doesn’t
need to be replaced with the newer one. The containers
can be easily refilled with the pouches that are available
on the market. Though the whole model’s size is very
compact, it could have been made even more compact in
many ways. This includes- instead of implementing the
model in the architectural board, it could have been
implemented in a PCB board, which would have occupied
less space. Moreover, there are many types of
transformers in the market with the same configurations
but of various sizes. But unfortunately, these components
could not be used due to its unavailability in the market
because of the current outbreak of COVID-19 throughout
the world, due to all these possibilities of making the
device even smaller, thus considering it to be economical.
Despite having several positive economic aspects,
this model’s sustainability in the market will vary based
on different country regions. This is just because of the
mindset of the people of Bangladesh. According to the
data, the current literacy rate of Bangladesh is around
73%. But despite having such a high literacy rate, the
© ICSDTIR-2021
people do not have proper knowledge regarding the
necessity of adequate hygiene. Previously, it has been
elaborately discussed the benefits of this model and the
total cost of the model, as shown in Table 01. It can be seen
that in Bangladesh, this particular model will cost around
560 BDT, but during mass production, the cost will reach
below 450 BDT. Since Bangladesh is a developing country,
most people living in the rural sides are underprivileged;
thus, there is a high possibility that these people would
not afford this device despite its low cost. So, this device
might not sustain in rural areas. But the case might be
completely different in urban areas because here, the
people have proper knowledge regarding hygiene
considering the current worldwide outbreak of COVID-
19. As a result, this device will sustain itself in the urban
sector considering its function and cost. Besides, as said
earlier, there are many international market devices under
the tagline of well-known companies with similar
specifications and operations but at very high prices.
Despite that, this model is economically stable,
considering its production cost, quality, and size, making
the device sustainable. Furthermore, this model’s whole
concept can also be used for the Non-Contact Hand
Sanitizer Dispenser system [10].
6. CONCLUSION
Considering the demand and numerous
advantageous applications of the sanitizing system
during this COVID-19 pandemic, a model of the Non-
contact hand wash dispenser has been proposed in this
paper. Moreover, in this paper, it has also been portrayed
by numerous equipment of the proposed model. Also, the
model’s size is kept very compact so that it occupies less
space—the Non-Contact Hand Wash dispenser for
helping people sanitize their hands without any physical
contact. The device mainly consists of an ultrasonic
sensor that senses the user’s hand at a range of 6-7 cm
and transfers signals to the servomotor, which
immediately rotates and releases the liquid contents on
the user’s hand. When the hand is placed at a range of 6-
7 centimeters near the ultrasonic sensor, it is immediately
detected by the ultrasonic sensor. Once the sensor detects
the hand, it sends signals to the Arduino UNO, and
immediately Arduino responds to the signal and allows
the servomotor to conduct and rotate. Since the
servomotor is tightly connected to the hand wash
dispenser’s handle with metal strings, it is pulled
downwards, releasing a significant amount of the liquid
content to the user’s hand. When the liquid content comes
out of the container, the servomotor returns to its
stationary position. Henceforth, all the equipment returns
to the OFF STATE until the Ultrasonic sensor detects the
next user’s hand. As Bangladesh is a densely populated
country, it is recommended for all to wash their hands
frequently to prevent the transmission of the virus during
the outbreak of COVID-19 as germs can get transmitted
easily through physical contact. Thus, these handwash
dispensers could be used on public and domestic sides to
reduce the virus’s transmission rate significantly. Hence,
this innovation could replace the traditional hygiene
product in most circumstances and might become a trend
soon. It can be concluded that the proposed model can be
an excellent option for sanitizing systems in Bangladesh,
considering its healthy prospects.
REFERENCES
[1] Jain, V.M., Karibasappa, G.N., Dodamani, A.S.,
Prashanth, VK and Mali, GV, 2016. Comparative
assessment of antimicrobial efficacy of different
hand wash dispensers: An in vitro study. Dental
Research Journal, 13(5), p.424.
[2] Berardi, A., Perinelli, D.R., Merchant, H.A.,
Bisharat, L., Basheti, I.A., Bonacucina, G., Cespi,
M. and Palmieri, G.F., 2020. Hand sanitisers amid
CoViD-19: A critical review of alcohol-based
products on the market and formulation approaches
to respond to increasing demand. International
Journal of Pharmaceutics, p.119-431.
[3] Jing, J.L.J., Pei Yi, T., Bose, R.J., McCarthy, J.R.,
Tharmalingam, N. and Madheswaran, T., 2020.
Hand Wash dispensers: A Review on Formulation
Aspects, Adverse Effects, and
Regulations. International Journal of
Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(9),
p.3326.
[4] Mondol, M.A.S. and Stankovic, J.A., 2015, August.
Harmony: A hand wash monitoring and reminder
system using smart watches. In proceedings of the
12th EAI International Conference on Mobile and
Ubiquitous Systems: Computing, Networking and
Services on 12th EAI International Conference on
Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing,
Networking and Services (pp. 11-20).
[5] Anton, S., Lina, E. and Slamet, I., 2018. Touchless
automatic as innovation on modern waste place
developing anti-decay catted temperature cold with
the application of anti-bacterial spray cooling
system. GSC Biological and Pharmaceutical
Sciences, 5(1), pp.009-016.
[6] Eiref, S.D., Leitman, I.M. and Riley, W., 2012. Hand
wash dispenser dispensers and associated hospital-
acquired infections: friend or fomite? Surgical
infections, 13(3), pp.137-140.
[7] Orji, E.Z., Oleka, C.V. and Nduanya, U.I., 2018.
Arduino based door automation system using
ultrasonic sensor and servo motor. Journal of
Scientific and Engineering Research, 5(4), p.344.
[8] “02 Soap Dispenser - Ningbo BETTER Life
Household Products Co., Ltd. - page 1.,” Made-in-
china.com, 2019.
[9] Adarsh, S., Kaleemuddin, S.M., Bose, D. and
Ramachandran, K.I., 2016, September. Performance
comparison of Infrared and Ultrasonic sensors for
obstacles of different materials in vehicle/robot
navigation applications. In IOP Conference Series:
Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 149, No. 1,
p. 012141). IOP publishing.
[10] Berardi, A., Perinelli, D.R., Merchant, H.A.,
Bisharat, L., Basheti, I.A., Bonacucina, G., Cespi,
M. and Palmieri, G.F., 2020. Hand sanitisers amid
CoViD-19: A critical review of alcohol-based
products on the market and formulation approaches
to respond to increasing demand. International
Journal of Pharmaceutics, p.119-431.
... The author [7], has proposed the non-contact hand wash dispenser which is primarily composed of an ultrasonic sensor that detects the user's hand from a distance of 6-7 cm and transmits signals to the servomotor, which instantly spins and releases the liquid contents on the user's hand. When the hand is put within a range of 6-7 cm of the ultrasonic sensor, it is recognized instantaneously. ...
... As a result, this innovation may potentially replace standard hygiene products in the majority of cases and could become a trend in the near future. It may be stated that the suggested model is an ideal candidate for system sanitization, given its favorable prospects [7]. ...
Research Proposal
It is the design of an Automatic Hand Sanitizer that will automatically spray the sanitizer when hand is detected with the use of Ultrasonic sensor, Servo motor, and Arduino UNO.
... When the container's liquid content is removed, the servomotor returns to its stationary position. Thus, until the Ultrasonic sensor detects the next user's hand, all equipment returns to the OFF STATE (Mahbub, F. et al., 2021). ...
Research
IMAGINATIVE ABSTRACT. In the global health emergency caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), multiple experts have mandated the use of hand sanitizers as a safety measure for COVID-19. Hand sanitizer is a product that is applied to the hands to remove common pathogens. It is used to break the chain of infections, making it one of the important protocols for reducing the burden on healthcare. The aim of this project is to develop a device that is an automatic and hands-free sanitizer that dispenses a good amount of hand washing liquid onto your hands. This project uses an Arduino Uno, an HCSR04 Ultrasonic sensor, and a servo motor. The Ultrasonic Sensor is used to detect the presence of a hand placed under the device. The servo motor is the driver to press the pump of the bottle. And the Arduino Uno board controls the pump based on the distance obtained from the ultrasonic sensor.
Full-text available
Article
Background: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of four different hand sanitizers against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis as well as to assess and compare the antimicrobial effectiveness among four different hand sanitizers. Materials and Methods: The present study is an in vitro study to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of Dettol, Lifebuoy, PureHands, and Sterillium hand sanitizers against clinical isolates of the aforementioned test organisms. The well variant of agar disk diffusion test using Mueller-Hinton agar was used for evaluating the antimicrobial efficacy of hand sanitizers. McFarland 0.5 turbidity standard was taken as reference to adjust the turbidity of bacterial suspensions. Fifty microliters of the hand sanitizer was introduced into each of the 4 wells while the 5 th well incorporated with sterile water served as a control. This was done for all the test organisms and plates were incubated in an incubator for 24 h at 37΀C. After incubation, antimicrobial effectiveness was determined using digital caliper (mm) by measuring the zone of inhibition. Results: The mean diameters of zones of inhibition (in mm) observed in Group A (Sterillium), Group B (PureHands), Group C (Lifebuoy), and Group D (Dettol) were 22 ± 6, 7.5 ± 0.5, 9.5 ± 1.5, and 8 ± 1, respectively. Maximum inhibition was found with Group A against all the tested organisms. Data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance, followed by post hoc test for group-wise comparisons. The difference in the values of different sanitizers was statistically significant at P < 0.001. Conclusion: Sterillium was the most effective hand sanitizer to maintain the hand hygiene.
Article
The world is facing a medical crisis amid the CoViD-19 pandemic and the role of adequate hygiene and hand sanitisers is inevitable in controlling the spread of infection in public places and healthcare institutions. There has been a great surge in demand for hand sanitisation products leading to shortages in their supply. A consequent increase of substandard products in the market has raised safety concerns. This article, therefore, presents a critical review of hand sanitation approaches and products available on the market in light of the scientific evidence available to date. This review also provides a range of hand sanitisation product formulations, and manufacturing instructions to allow for extemporaneous preparations at the community and hospital pharmacies during this urgent crisis. In addition, this emergent situation is expected to continue, hence hand sanitisers will be in demand for an extended time, and the availability and purchase of substandard products on the market create an ongoing safety concern. Therefore, this article shall also provide various commercial organisations, interested in stepping forward the production and marketing of hand sanitisers, with a guide on the development of products of standardised ingredients and formulations.