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Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo

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... The study also indicated that neophobia levels diminished once the food was not considered a novelty. As mentioned by Douglas (2002), one can confront an anomaly and try to create a new patter of reality in which it has a place, she claimed that it is not impossible to revise mental classifications and called attention for the social influence present in this process. Expanding the knowledge about consumer's experience with insect-based food can be a promising path to understand mental classifications. ...
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The global food consumption scenario and the influence of a country's image on consumer decision-making motivated this research. The global edible insect market is growing, and cultural issues, disgust, and low perception of quality are barriers to consumption. Through an online experiment (n = 194) Brazilian consumers demonstrate that the use of the country-of-origin label (COOL) can result in greater intention and quality expectation regarding a cricket flour. Consumers showed a preference for the flour produced by a positive image country label. Both intention and quality expectation were higher for the cricket flour produced in the United States. Furthermore, the mediation model indicates that quality expectation mediated the effect of COOL on the intention to consume. The results show that even though consumers have created a positive expectation concerning the product, a higher level of neophobia diminished their intention to consume the product and this relates to the aversion and disgust that can exist towards an edible-insect product. The neophobia level can weaken the effect of COOL on intention mediated by quality expectation. The study aimed to contribute to a better understanding of the consumer's perception of an insect-based food and provide insights into variables related to the intention to consume by verifying their contribution to the consumer's behavior. Full-text available until December 21, 2022: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1g0MDiVKTdXdr
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There is a burgeoning literature on the religion-social movement connection. However, these literatures have on the one hand been geographically biased as most of the focus has been on the global north, and on the other hand, conceptually and theoretically inconclusive as much of the scholarly attention has been on the mobilization role of religion in social movements. As a contribution towards filling this gap, the present study examined the religious framing of the neo-Biafra separatist agitations in Nigeria. Using content and thematic analytical methods, the study analysed eight speeches delivered by the Indigenous People of Biafra’s (IPOB) leader, Nnamdi Kanu. With the findings showing an overwhelming frequency of religious concepts and the leader’s attempt to blend the socio-political and the religious aspirations of the Igbo people, the study demonstrates that religion is increasingly being appropriated to sustain the current Biafra separatist movement in Nigeria. Implications of the findings for research and policy are discussed.
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Ideas of well-being in old age are often anchored in the successful ageing paradigm, foregrounding independence, activeness and autonomy. However, for those oldest old living in nursing homes, these goals are largely out of reach. In this article, we use the meta-ethnographic method to explore and reinterpret existing findings on the ways in which well-being is experienced (or not) by the oldest old in institutional care settings. We frame our findings in existential well-being theory, which understands wellbeing as a sense of ‘dwelling-mobility’. Our analysis resulted in the following themes: (a) institutionalisation as both restrictive and liberating; (b) reciprocity and mattering: the importance of being seen; (c) the need for kinship and the problem of ruptured sociality; (d) rethinking agency: situated, delegated and supported; and (e) lowered expectations: receiving care is not a passive act. We conclude that while institutional care environments are not always conducive to well-being, this does not have to be so. By shifting our focus from successful ageing ideals onto relationally situated care practices, a possibility for existential well-being opens up, even in situations of decline and care dependency.
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Drawing on qualitative interviews with female expeditioners in the Australian Antarctic Program, this article examines the additional labour involved in managing menstruation during remote Antarctic fieldwork. Unlike expeditioners working on a research station, fieldworkers rarely have consistent access to private toileting facilities or dedicated times/spaces to deal with their bodily excretions. However, being able to easily access toileting facilities can significantly impact how people who menstruate experience fieldwork. This is an overlooked but crucial corporeal challenge of working in Antarctica. Findings reveal that in male-dominated spaces, expeditioners must go to great lengths to make their menstruation invisible. A primary way that women do this is through menstrual suppression technologies. When these are not available or not preferred, women negotiate trying to keep their menstruation and gynaecological health issues hidden but often do so in field settings where there is little infrastructure or support. I argue that the lack of infrastructure to support menstrual health in the field is a form of sexism that maintains women’s lower status in polar field environments. To conclude, I provide practical guidance for National Antarctic Programs to support people who menstruate.
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Migrant death rates at international borders have risen sharply since the 1980s. Through archival research, we analyze the European Union’s and the United States’ international border infrastructures to illuminate how technological developments may have contributed to this spike in death rates. Based on an analysis of archival materials, we show how the mobile phone has emerged as an inadvertent identification technology at two border sites – the Mediterranean Sea and the Sonoran Desert – and how this technology supports survival in increasingly dangerous border-crossing experiences while also leading to death, detention, and deportation. We find that mobile phones have become identification technologies central to both migrants’ survival and border infrastructures’ attempts to deter cross-border mobility with profound consequences for human life and agency. We conclude with suggestions for future work to investigate reshaping border infrastructures in ways that do not rely on the galvanizing power of false and dangerous narratives of a symbolic Other.
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This article investigates the idiosyncrasies of creative work in Russian art institutions through a study of their materialities. As identified in previous research, social inequalities are a significant feature of creative work. I argue, however, that in order to reveal inequalities that are constructed performatively, that is, in the ‘here’ and ‘now’, we need to further develop the existing arsenal of methods that is employed in critical creative work studies. In the Russian case, art institutions display a wealth of techniques for constructing and maintaining hierarchies, which of necessity must frequently be re-established due to conditions in the local context. In particular, the following explores two perennial paradigms of cultural production: ‘high culture’ and ‘creativity’. As these paradigms coexist in the economy of the Russian art world, they compete for resources, including funding, public attention and legitimation. In the struggle, a binary of purity/dirt develops the social space of institutions, organisational identities and hierarchies inside and between organisations. This paper primarily focuses on an ethnographic study of cultural producers from the visual arts sector in Russia’s two largest cities: Moscow and St. Petersburg.
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In 2009, French street artist JR appeared in the oldest favela in Rio de Janeiro and started taking photographs of women who were collectively mourning the recent slaughter of three teenagers. In a communal effort, these black‐and‐white portraits were reproduced at an enormous scale and pasted onto the favela's facade. Up close, the images were so big that they seemed to have no particular form. But from a distance, the faces assembled, revealing women's eyes gazing steadily at the city beneath the favela. In this article, I explore how the installation can be understood as a commentary on gendered and racial state violence against Black motherhood. I turn to the images as ethnographic subjects to theorize ways Black femininity is constructed, experienced and understood in Rio. The central question I pose in this article is about the power and potential of the motherly gaze to replace the violent male stare—the one that misrepresents and disempowers those most vulnerable to distortion's ill effects. I make the case that the (bri)collage is a call to further examine the relationship of poor Black mothers with the state, how they combat negative public representation ascribed to Black youth, and how they negotiate the safety of their families.
Chapter
The most influential sociological definition of deviance was issued in 1963 by Howard Becker who emphasized its most important characteristic, not as a property of an act or actor, but as a designation bestowed by a social audience. The sociology of deviance itself had its heyday in the 1960s and 1970s when it appeared to be a serious rival to criminology proper, but it was then eclipsed or sublated to become, for many, not much more than another strand in the larger discipline.
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Connecting the neoinstitutional theory with Bourdieu's field theory, we develop a framework on the dual institutional process of integration and differentiation in a field. While the neoinstitutional theory has focused on similar organizational structures, we shift the research focus to offer an institutional explanation of differential organizational status. Drawing insights from Bourdieu's theory and key concepts, we highlight that the very institutional mechanisms causing isomorphism—regulative forces, normative pressures, and cognitive processes—also generate systematic status differentiation among organizations via their different levels of capital, homologous structures, and various habitus in a field. Our extended framework has theoretical significance in advancing the neoinstitutional theory, the research of status in organizational and economic sociology, and the Bourdieusian perspective. By theorizing status differentiation among organizations, it also adds an important dimension to enrich our understanding of multilevel status and social hierarchies.
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Generally, researchers assume that the experience of disgust is universal, shared by all humans at all times. It is under this assumption that much of the growing field of the history of disgust studies operates. However, no single concept of disgust exists. For example, while many believe that the causes of disgust are universal, others do not. Others have noted that the English word ‘disgust’ does not have identical equivalents in other languages, pointing to no single, shared concept of disgust. This article looks more closely at that last idea, noting that the word ‘disgust’ did not take on its current usage until the mid-eighteenth century. Beginning with an exploration of modern understandings of disgust, the paper charts the development of the modern English concept of the feeling. It argues that rather than being a universal emotion, the modern concept of disgust began when the word was used by early eighteenth-century taste theorists to describe a feeling of anti-taste – an extreme reaction to the opposite of beauty. Even then, this disgust was somewhat different from modern disgust, with deeper links to displeasure and horror than modern notions of the feeling. The main point of the article is the suggestion that historians of emotion research what look like modern emotions in the past, particularly disgust, that they ought to be cautious. Even if modern feelings appear to apply to historical events and ideas, a more in-depth look will often reveal a more complex era-dependant experience somewhat different from the modern concept.
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Using data collected from 9,508 volunteer tourists, we employ Critical Incident Technique to identify and explore the volunteers’ experience and how this affects the liminality of their journeys. What becomes apparent is that the liminality of the experience can have uncertain outcomes as volunteer tourists have to navigate living conditions, culture, operational differences, and feelings of marginalisation and vulnerability, all while feeling powerless to make meaningful change. As such, volunteer-sending organisations should be mindful of the use of transformation within the marketing of their programmes, given the highly individualised experiences of volunteers. The use of transformation should be fine-tuned to the individual, their expectations, and the contribution they wish to make.
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Drawing from Goffman’s original observations on stigma and the consequences of interactions between the stigmatized and supportive or stigmatizing audiences, we conduct a 20-year review of the diverse literature on stigma to revisit the collective nature of stigmatization processes. We find that studies on stigma’s origins, responses, processes, and outcomes have diverged from Goffman’s relational view of stigma as they have overlooked important relational mechanisms explaining the processes of (de)stigmatization. We draw from those conclusions to justify the need to study stigma as a collective phenomenon. We develop a relational perspective on stigma based on understanding how attributes are stigmatized (or not) by audiences in their interactions. We argue that to advance stigma research, it is necessary to build on Goffman’s theory to include the stigmatizers (i.e., the normal) and supporters (i.e., the wise); how they create, sustain, or remove stigma; and how they relate to the stigmatized (i.e., the targets). Accordingly, we provide a research agenda on stigma as a collective phenomenon that theorizes a relational perspective, proposes a typology of how audiences relate to stigmatization, and identifies patterns of relations between audiences. We thus offer a missing piece to existing accounts of stigma by focusing on the key role of audiences (i.e., stigmatizers or supporters of the stigmatized) rather than on the targets of stigma (i.e., the own).
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How migrants negotiate and adjust to new cultural settings and how they transmit culture to their children are key questions for migration researchers. This paper explores how culture is experienced and negotiated among Russian-speaking migrants, drawing on interviews and observation data collected in Perth, Australia, and Madrid, Spain, together with online forum data and documents. Analysis reveals that long-term socio-historical processes taking place within the post-Soviet space generate certain similarities among its inhabitants. These shared features, which Norbert Elias (1996) called ‘national habitus’, include internalised dispositions and behavioural patterns evident and reproduced in everyday life, such as hygiene and healthcare practices, norms of conduct in public places, and practices and beliefs related to the control of children’s behaviour and discipline. Many migrants come to realise that they are bearers of these similarities only in the process of the migration experience. This process of recognition of their habitus, including realising the cultural nature of certain standards of behaviour perceived as ‘civilised’ and ‘rational’ in the past, and the making of decisions about what is important to keep and what is not, we refer to as ‘cultural continuity dilemmas’. Participants resolve these dilemmas in three main ways: reinforcing their cultural classification systems through condemnation or attempts to correct; adopting the new standards; or adjusting perceptions to find a compromise. In these processes, certain practices and norms may come to be recognised as Soviet in both positive and negative senses, as being acceptable, or outdated remnants of a totalitarian system. Solving such dilemmas creates a unique combination of practices, forming a common cultural hybridity and generating new awareness of cultural and national identities.
Article
Umbilical cord blood stem cells can be extracted and collected in cord blood banks, potentially to be used for stem cell transplants in the case of blood and related disorders. But some women in Tamil Nadu store dried cord tissue in an amulet to protect their children from harm and to restore health when required. I trace the sakthi (power) of the amulet and its contents by following puberty rites, pre-delivery rituals and food consumed, which the pregnant mother embodies, eventually to be reproduced in an amulet. What makes the amulet and its contents medicine and a symbol of regeneration, just like cord blood stem cells? Why is the amulet a preferred mode of storing cord tissue in Chennai?
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The stay-at-home measures imposed by governments to counteract the COVID-19 pandemic have drawn attention to the domestic sphere. Besides spending much more time at home in general, people also required the private sphere to fulfill multiple functions, including as workplaces, schools, and fitness centers. Within a qualitative social research framework, the paper examines how people in Vienna, Austria re-ordered their homes during lockdowns to address these challenges. We discuss ordering work as a form of care work regarding the home’s conception, realization and maintenance, and understand the home as being produced in and through practices, including ordering practices. In particular, we are interested in whether and how ordering practices gained higher significance during the pandemic, and in how—by reordering their homes—people re-negotiated their social relations and the inequalities connected to care work and the home.
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Ōmoto, Japon Dini Tarihi içerisinde adından en çok söz ettiren, Şinto temelli bir Japon Yeni Dini Hareketi (YDH)’dir. Japon Tarihi’nde Meiji Dönemi (1868-1912) itibariyle başlatılan hareket inanç ve ibadetleriyle dünyevi-politik düşüncelerini birleştirerek Taishō (1912-1927) ve Shōwa (1927-1945) dönemlerinde öne çıkmıştır. Modern Dönemle (1945-) birlikte pasifize olan hareket, içerisinde farklı eğilimlerin etkisiyle bölünme sürecine girmiştir. Günümüzde üç ayrı dini grup şeklinde faaliyetlerini devam ettirmektedirler. Ōmoto’nun “Üç Büyük Öğrenim”, “Dört İlke” ve “Dört Prensip” olmak üzere üç temel öğretisi bulunmaktadır. Bunlar, insan ile Tanrı’nın ilişkisini düzenleyen ve nasıl yaşanması gerektiğiyle ilgili inançlardır. Buna göre İlk olarak Ōmoto cennet ve dünyayı gözlemleyerek gerçek tanrının kimliği hakkında düşünmek, evrenin gelişimin ayrı değil bir olduğunu görerek tanrının gücünü düşünmek ve hayatın doğasına hazırlıklı bir biçimde gerçek tanrı hakkında düşünmek biçiminde tasavvur ettikleri Üç Büyük Öğrenim çerçevesinde kapsayıcı bir dini dünya görüşü sunmaktadır. İkinci olarak Dört Öğreti bulunmakta bunları Matsuri, Oshie, Narawashi ve Nariwai oluşturmaktadır. Matsuri, Ōmoto’da düzenli veya düzensiz yapılan, sunu ve duayı içeren ibadetlerin her birine denmektedir. Oshie, öğreti anlamına gelmektedir. Ōmoto Shin’yu ve Reikai Monogatari hareketin iki ana kutsal metnini ifade etmektedir. Narawashi, insan hayatının alışkanlıklardan ibaret olduğu, tanrı-insan uyumu için insanın alışkanlıklarını tanrının isteğine göre düzenlemesi gerektiği inancını anlatmaktadır. Nariwai ise uygun çalışma anlamına gelmektedir. İnsanın ruhuyla elde ettiği sonuçları iyileştirmeye odaklanması gerektiği inancını ifade etmektedir. Buna göre insan ruhunu iyi kullanırsa sonuçlar iyi, kötü kullanırsa sonuçların kötü olacağına inanılmaktadır. Üçüncü olarak Dört İlke bulunmakta, bunları Seiketsu Shugi, Rakuten Shugi, Shinten Shugi ve Tōitsu Shugi oluşturmaktadır. Seiketsu Shugi, zihin ve bedenin arınması anlamına gelmekte, ölüm, hastalık ve ahlaksızlık gibi kirletici olduğu kabul edilen durumlardan kurtulmak kastedilmektedir. Bunlardan kurtulmanın ise arınma ritüelleri ile mümkün olduğu ifade edilmektedir. Rakuten Shugi, iyimserlik anlamına gelmektedir. Dünyanın daha iyi bir kurtuluş dünyası haline geleceğine dair bir inancı ifade etmektedir. Shinten Shugi, ilerlemecilik anlamındadır. İnsanın zihin ve bedenini yenileyerek sosyal hayatta gelişmesi ve ilerlemesi gerektiği inancını vurgulamaktadır. Tōitsu Shugi ise birleşim anlamındadır. Evrende bulunan iyi-kötü insan, zengin-fakir, tanrı-insan arasındaki ikiliğin ortadan kaldırılması gerektiği inancını açıklamaktadır. Buna göre toplumda ayrımcılıkların ve adaletsizliğin olmaması için düzen ve birliğin olması gerekmektedir. Ōmoto, Şintoist eksenli bir YDH olmasının yanında kapsayıcı monoteistik bir Tanrı inancına sahiptir. Dünya üzerindeki tüm dinlerin tek bir kaynaktan geldiğine inanmaktadır. Buna göre onlar, tüm dinlerin inanç ve ibadetleri tek bir Tanrıya yapıldığına ve hakikatten birer parça taşıdıklarına inanmaktadırlar. Ōmoto’da Ōmotosume Ōmikami adındaki yüce tanrının Kunitokotachi no Mikoto ve Toyokumunu no Mikoto biçiminde ikili yönü olduğuna inanılmaktadır. Onların kutsal metinleri, evren ve kurtuluşa dair inançları da bu yönde gelişim göstermiştir. Ōmoto’da Ōmoto Shin’yu ve Reikai Monogatari adında iki kutsal metin bulunmaktadır. İlki Nao Dehuchi’ye, ikincisi Onisaburō Deguchi’ye atfedilmektedir. Ōmoto’da Daiuchū adlı büyük kozmos, Shōuchū adlı küçük kozmos şeklinde iki ana evren anlayışı bulunmaktadır. Daiuchū insan evrenini de içine alan bilinmeyen binlerce evreni, Shōuchū ise insan evrenini ve dünyasını ifade etmektedir. Ōmoto’da üç tür kurtuluş inanışı bulunmakta, aynı zamanda bunlar kurtuluşun aşamaları olarak görülmektedir. İlki bireysel kuralların uygulanması, ikincisi toplumsal kuralların uygulanması, üçüncüsü ise kurtarıcını gelişiyle dünyanın kurtuluş dünyası haline gelişiyle kurtuluşun mümkün olabileceği söylemektedir. Ōmoto’nun inançlarını ele aldığımız çalışmamız Temel Öğretileri, Tanrı Anlayışı, Kutsal Kişi Anlayışı, Kutsal Metinleri, Evren Anlayışı ve Kurtuluş Anlayışı olmak üzere altı bölümden oluşmaktadır. Çalışmamız ülkemiz ve dünya literatüründe Ōmoto inançlarının incelenmesi açısından kapsayıcı nitelikte ilk araştırmadır. Çalışmamızın literatüre katkı sağlaması ve yeni araştırmalara faydalı olması amaçlanmıştır.
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Standing in as a monumental work of Ottoman first-person prose that is without precedent, the Seyāḥatnāme (“Book of Travels”), at once a travelogue as well as a literary composition, is an ideal source for conducting a sensate history of Ottoman-Islamic society in the 17th century. Using characteristic flair and imagination, its author Evliyā Çelebi relates a number of fantastical anecdotes where scent plays a key narrative purpose, once in the context of conversing with the sacred dead in a dream, and on three occasions during visits to the caves of various Islamicate religious figures from the past. This paper will analyze these anecdotes to determine the narrative functions of scent in the text and in doing so tease out how olfaction was implicated in the Ottoman religious and social imaginary.
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This article draws upon an ethnography of two differently-priced UK residential care homes for older people. Informed by recent scholarship on the materialities of care, together with separate theoretical contributions by Mary Douglas and Émile Durkheim, I examine the spatial and material organisation of care work. I sketch out care workers’ attitudes and practices concerning hygiene and bodily waste, and how these are established and reaffirmed through the marking out of boundaries between materials, spaces and persons. Central to understanding care workers’ erecting of, or inattention to, these boundaries is an awareness of the material, temporal and cultural conditions of work. Variances in the availability of resources, the formal organisation of work and the layout of residential homes affect the care provided to residents. In examining these variances, I identify how care workers’ use of space functions to maintain or undercut not only hygiene and infection control standards but, also, more interpersonal virtues, such as dignity and respect for older people receiving care. I conclude by highlighting how the (mis)treatment of older people is a story of both a deeply inequitable market for care provision and a broader context of oppression, devaluation and dehumanisation.
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The 2018 announcement that the world’s first babies had been born following gene editing was unexpected and unanticipated. In this article, we focus on the reaction to the announcement and explore how this revealed implicit and explicit assumptions about the role and responsibilities of scientists and scientific standards. Through analysis of media coverage and public commentary about the birth of the “world’s first,” we identify how the event was constructed as a breach of scientific norms. We begin by identifying the use of an “if true” narrative, which contributed to the meanings of the technology and the births following the initial announcement. We consider two dimensions to the concept of “breach,” as an individual act of transgression and as a rupture of community norms. Finally, we consider the work of the broader scientific community in repairing the damage and their attempts to strengthen its boundaries to prevent future transgressions.
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This article explores how public responses to the Covid‐19 pandemic could potentially help us understand the responses to the climate crisis and its environmental catastrophes. Public responses to the pandemic, in turn, also potentially help us understand the responses to the climate crisis and its environmental catastrophes. How do these compare through our epistemological lenses? Can the various Covid‐19 responses function as a projection of future responses to the destabilizing climate change we are beginning to experience? Outlined are two broad conceptual overlaps: risk and epistemic dissensus. Could this become the basis of a predictive analogy to help inform anthropological research into future dimensions of climate change?
Article
In Global North’s psychology, some existential experiences such as the loss of beloved persons are understood as purely individual problems. In a society of functioning individuals, the person is responsible for her own condition and for consuming the healthcare services provided to overcome the “problem” as soon as possible to go back to the fully functional role in the society. This vision raises several questions about turning “experiences” into “pathologies.” Historically, mankind made sense of death, loss, and grief as both a personal and collective experiences, mediated by heterogeneous cultural forms. I elaborate theoretically the concept of cultural mediation of grief, focusing on the esthetic and temporal dimensions of such mediation, as it is visible in art, rituals and everyday discourses. The idea is that such mediation is always present, and that psychology must be able to recognize it also in apparently secularized societies.
Article
Hiriya landfill, in central Israel, served Tel Aviv for 50 years and became a byword for neglect and ugliness until it was recently transformed from an environmental hazard, into a beautiful park. This article explores the idea and experience of waste, as concept and matter, and its representations in the 2004 international design competition for Hiriya’s rehabilitation. Addressing the global issue of rehabilitating wasted sites, the competition encouraged landscape architects to address a polluted past and outline new cultural and ethical meanings in the reclaimed public space. Drawing from unexplored textual and visual sources, and combining landscape architecture with cultural studies on waste, we reveal that few of the 14 proposals touched upon the complexity of waste, with its cultural, ethical and social attributes. The winning entry by Peter Latz turned the mound into a striking monument to trash, but minimised the visitors’ idea and experience of the waste itself.
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The aim of this study is to compare public opinion regarding single and same‐sex parents. Comparing attitudes about the effectiveness of single‐parents to same‐sex parents shows how much importance the public places on the number of parents compared to the sex of the parents; however, surprisingly little research examines attitudes about single and same‐sex parenting ability. We use data from the 2012 General Social Survey “Family‐and‐Changing‐Gender‐Roles” module (N ~ 1200) to compare perceptions of the effectiveness of single parents (vs. two parents) and same‐sex parents (vs. a mother and a father). We construct a measure that captures whether individuals hold more positive attitudes about single parents or same‐sex parents. We then rely on multivariate models to examine the impact of sociodemographic characteristics on these perceptions, and explore the influence of attitudes regarding gender, sexuality, and childcare policy. Approximately half of the respondents provided similarly positive or negative responses regarding the effectiveness of single and same‐sex parents; of the remaining half, slightly more provided higher ratings to single parents. Several sociodemographic factors—gender, age, marital status, region, and sexual minority status—significantly shape attitudes about same‐sex and single parents in similar directions—although, in some cases, these factors also predict differences in these attitudes. For example, compared to men, women are more positive about both single parents and same‐sex parents, but they still rate single parents higher. In contrast, other sociodemographic factors—notably, race/ethnicity and education—predict attitudes about same‐sex and single parents, as well as the difference between these two parental types. Some of these patterns occur via respondents' religiosity. Of the attitudinal factors, attitudes regarding gender, sexuality, and childcare policy are linked to views regarding single parents and same‐sex parents; however, only sexuality attitudes significantly and consistently differentiate views regarding single parents and same‐sex parents. Views of single parents and same‐sex parents often are not consistent with each other. Public assessments and comparisons of same‐sex and single parents are shaped by sociodemographic and attitudinal factors, notably, attitudes regarding sexuality.
Article
In this paper I consider the concept “organization” by using the weed as an example of a category in human culture. The disorganization of the weed is often contrasted to the forms of order that produce farms and gardens, terrains of human labor defended against the wild. In contrast, European romanticism and much environmental thought tends to celebrate that which lies outside culture as being more authentic or regenerative. A survey of these intellectual landscapes is then followed by a consideration of how certain plants move in and out of the category of weed, and what this tells us about an epistemology of organization, particularly a vegetal or post-metaphysical account of organization. Finally, I suggest that it is necessary in Anthropocene conditions, to trouble the boundary between organization and disorganization, and hence to wild organization theory.
Article
Measuring meaning is a central problem in cultural sociology and word embeddings may offer powerful new tools to do so. But like any tool, they build on and exert theoretical assumptions. In this paper, I theorize the ways in which word embeddings model three core premises of a structural linguistic theory of meaning: that meaning is coherent, relational, and may be analyzed as a static system. In certain ways, word embeddings are vulnerable to the enduring critiques of these premises. In other ways, word embeddings offer novel solutions to these critiques. More broadly, formalizing the study of meaning with word embeddings offers theoretical opportunities to clarify core concepts and debates in cultural sociology, such as the coherence of meaning. Just as network analysis specified the once vague notion of social relations, formalizing meaning with embeddings can push us to specify and reimagine meaning itself.
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Class, Whiteness, and Southern Literature explores the role that representations of poor white people play in shaping both middle-class American identity and major American literary movements and genres across the long twentieth century. Jolene Hubbs reveals that, more often than not, poor white characters imagined by middle-class writers embody what better-off people are anxious to distance themselves from in a given moment. Poor white southerners are cast as social climbers during the status-conscious Gilded Age, country rubes in the modern era, racist obstacles to progress during the civil rights struggle, and junk food devotees in the health-conscious 1990s. Hubbs illuminates how Charles Chesnutt, William Faulkner, Flannery O'Connor, Dorothy Allison, and Barbara Robinette Moss swam against these tides, pioneering formal innovations with an eye to representing poor white characters in new ways.
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This paper advances a comparative reading of Chen Qiufan’s The Waste Tide (2013) and Wu Mingyi’s The Man with the Compound Eyes (2011) that is informed by the matter of waste. The former a dystopic, cyberpunk tale about the transnational circulation of electronic waste written by a former Google engineer from the Chinese mainland, the latter an eco-fantasy novel by a Taiwanese environmental activist and artist, these two novels “explore,” as Anna Tsing would have it, “the ruins that have become our collective home.” Lingering on waste processing sites and migrant worker communities, floating garbage patches and displaced indigenous populations, these texts transcend national boundaries and geopolitical dichotomies, to unfold instead on the common grounds generated by waste. Defined by it, they foreground in material terms the planetary networks, “webs of life” (Moore 2015 Moore, J. W. 2015. Capitalism in the web of life: Ecology and the accumulation of capital. London: Verso. [Google Scholar]), and more-than-human spatiotemporal scales within which life in late capitalism is entangled, envisioning radical possibilities therein.
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While medical quarantining has (again) received widespread attention during the COVID-19 pandemic, comparatively little consideration has been given to how medical quarantining is entangled with socio-political life. Further, there are no known studies that consider how quarantine might also be employed as a socio-political practice. This article explores the concept of social quarantine by tracing the creation of white Australia via the social construction, excise and discipline of Indigenous peoples as a potentially contagious Other. It shows how social quarantine integrates largely disparate sociological concepts/literatures (e.g. bordering, (im)mobility, confinement, enclave society, discipline, eugenics, assimilation), demonstrating how they unite under settler colonialism as a powerful assemblage of disciplinary technologies. Social quarantine also makes visible how the threat of contamination has been central to constructing and protecting Australia’s (white) imagined nationhood from the perceived disease of Otherness.
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Our aim in this conceptual article is to theoretically reimagine the concept of ‘healthy prisons’ in a way that more thoroughly grounds it in the everyday experiences of prisoners. Our point of departure is the observation that there seems to be an intriguing conceptual and theoretical overlap between first‐person oriented empirical studies of two spheres of human experience that are normally seen as separate: serious illness and imprisonment. Our analysis leads us to reimagine the term ‘healthy prisons’ in a way that increases its usefulness for anyone interested in making prisons healthier and more constructive and reinventive institutions.
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This article examines Pentecostal architecture as an expression and apparatus of “Pentecostal power.” Referencing the “new” auditorium of the Deeper Christian Life Ministries in Gbagada, Lagos, the article analyzes the “architecturations”—expressions, materializations, and activations through iconic Pentecostal buildings—of Pentecostalism’s spatial, political, corporeal, symbolic, and economic power. This article coins and develops the concept of architecturations of Pentecostal power by predominantly undergirding it with Bourdieu’s conceptual tripartite of field, habitus, and capital. It contributes to embryonic sociology of Pentecostal architecture against a backdrop of its relative neglect in the literatures that have begun to recount Pentecostalism as an urban signifier.
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This article critically reads a social encounter in which a social worker and a middle-aged man with learning disabilities are implicated. To do so, I draw upon ideas and approaches associated with anthropology and the sociology of everyday life to expose invisible, or invisibilised, dimensions of social interaction which may, otherwise, be obscured, backgrounded, and perhaps even concealed by virtue of their ‘thereness’. Through the prisms afforded by these disciplinary lenses, a seemingly ordinary, and unspectacular, social encounter may be regarded in the context of everyday life alongside learning disability, as registering/generating multiple forms of language, and as being inescapably saturated in multifaceted forms of power. Because these disciplinary tools may help map not only the particular social encounter to which this article is concerned but also social interactions more generally, they constitute useful resources, to be cultivated, or crafted, for ethical social work practice.
Article
The purpose of this article is to establish dialogue between psychoanalysis, social sciences (philosophy, anthropology, sociology) and politics to analyse the way in which current migratory policies, impact on the bodies exiled peoples who seek to establish themselves in safe territories. This article will look at the ways in which the body of the exiled person is affected by the political, and how they embody the place of a subjective suffering. Different figures of the migrant subject’s body will be discussed. The data comes from varied ethnographic research conducted in France (‘Calais Jungle’, accommodation centres and administrative detention centers). Our interpretations will demonstrate how this body in the process of transit, which swings between extremes of mobility and immobility, appears damaged, wounded, or even at risk of becoming ‘human-refuse’. We will also see that it can be instrumentalised, measured, evaluated, by the institutions that receive it. This body in a state of exile wavers continuously between fragility, vulnerability and destructivity; but it can also, on occasion, show itself to be powerful and life-saving. Indeed, it harbours a surprising strength, and is capable of crossing borders and territories to which it has been forbidden entrance. Thus, it bears witness to the intensity of the human drive to live, even when put to the test of segregational migratory policies.
Article
Abstract Adequate intake of high‐quality nutritious foods during infancy and early childhood is critical to achieving optimal growth, cognitive and behavioural development, and economic productivity later in life. Integrating high‐quality and nutrient‐dense animal source foods (ASFs), a major source of protein and micronutrients, into children's diets is increasingly considered essential to reducing the global burden of malnutrition in low‐ and middle‐income countries. While eggs are an ASF that shows promise for mitigating child undernutrition, interventions promoting egg consumption among children have had mixed results in improving egg intake and child growth outcomes. As part of an evaluation of a demand creation campaign promoting egg consumption, qualitative research was carried out in September 2019 to assess sociocultural and household factors affecting egg intake among young children living in Kaduna State, Nigeria, where a thriving egg industry and childhood stunting rates of 50% exist. Methods included freelisting exercises (11), key informant interviews (11), in‐depth interviews (25) and FGDs (4). Results illuminated cultural rules that restrict egg consumption among children living in low‐income households. These rules and norms reflect social and economic valuations that foster male dominance in household decision‐making and guide food purchasing and intrahousehold food allocation that allow men to consume eggs more regularly. Study results highlight sociocultural considerations when selecting food interventions to address child malnutrition in low‐income contexts. Interventions encouraging increased consumption of ASFs, and specifically eggs in young children, should be informed by formative research to understand sociocultural norms and beliefs guiding egg consumption.
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Soil and dust refer to categories of matter that are simultaneously vague, diverse, ubiquitous and essential to life. These largely ‘black-boxed’ substances play a vital, and often oppositional, role in tuning our bodies to be in the world. Ecologists are increasingly coming to understand that the spatio-material composition of soil is central to how the agricultural systems we depend upon function (Edmundo, 2007). Biodiverse soil also contains many, largely unknown, microbial communities that teach the human immune system to respond appropriately to potential pathogens. Conversely, the dust of modern homes is one of the key sources of irritation to modern human immune systems—containing allergens such as dust mites and cockroach droppings, in addition to countless chemical toxicants and dead cells (Dunn, 2018; Mitro et al., 2016). Early human dwellings, or more accurately, nests, were filled with soil and their attendant microbial ecologies. Our bodies co-evolved with these microbes, leading microbial ecologists to call them our ‘old friends’ (Rook & Brunet, 2005). Since moving indoors over the last two centuries, the microecologies of our dwellings have become predominantly occupied by dust. As our ‘old friends’ do not tend to live in dust, our bodies have been set adrift without their crucial immunological guidance, resulting in a dramatic rise in allergenic diseases (Dunn, 2018). The points at which dust and soil collide tell the story of human habitation and immunity. Despite the significance of these two substances to human and ecological health, they remain conceptually nebulous, obtuse forms of particulate matter, both of which remain vague in the practical deliberation of everyday life. So, what would it take to open the black boxes of soil and dust so that non-scientists can start to more attentively curate (or garden) these ecologies? In this chapter we speculatively explore dust and soil as ‘thinking things’ that may complement other scientific and participatory sensing practices (Connor, 2010). The aim of doing so is to engage with how bodies dynamically relate these forms of matter over time, and how these related, albeit dissimilar, substances are sensed, conceived and interacted with differently.
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Inclusive policies in early childhood classrooms have in recent decades become mainstream [UNESCO. 1994 UNESCO. 1994. The UNESCO Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Educational Needs. Paris: UNESCO. [Google Scholar]. The UNESCO Salamanca statement and framework for action on special educational needs. Paris: UNESCO]. Inclusive practices however are far from ideal [Slee, R. 2013. “How do we make inclusive education happen when exclusion is a political predisposition?” International Journal of Inclusive Education 17 (8): 895–907; Grace, R, G. Llewellyn, N. Wedgwood, M. Fenech, and D. McConnell. 2008. “Far From Ideal: Everyday Experiences of Mothers and Early Childhood Professionals Negotiating an Inclusive Early Childhood Experience in the Australian Context.” Topics in Early Childhood Special Education 28 (1): 18–31] and although children with disabilities are often welcomed into early childhood classrooms, the dominant discourses that circulate continue to position them as different and as Other [Watson, K. 2017. Inside the ‘inclusive’ early childhood classroom: The power of the 'normal’. New York: Peter Lang]. To build on our understanding of contemporary inclusive practices, an awareness of the complexities of the knowledge that informs practice is central. Some appreciation of the contribution made by historical discourses to the contemporary construction of disability in the classroom is necessary [Barnes, C. 2014. “A brief history of discrimination and disabled people.” http://repositoriocdpd.net:8080/bitstream/handle/123456789/495/CL_BarnesC_BriefHistoryDiscrimination_1991.pdf?sequence = 1]. This ethnographic research, employing observation and conversations among children, brings into focus how remnants from the past affect everyday encounters in the classroom as deeply embedded fears and anxieties continue to circulate around disability. Seldom made visible, rarely talked about or openly challenged, bygone relics permeate the way educators and children position children with a disability as a comparison to the norm, hindering inclusivity. This paper aims to bring into focus how fear affects the way disability is positioned in our early childhood classrooms, fear that leads to exclusions, separation, and Othering. Recognition of the past and scrutiny of the fear that lingers provides some promise for inclusive practice.
Article
In this ground-breaking study, Robin Baker investigates the contribution ancient Mesopotamian theology made to the origins of Christianity. Drawing on a formidable range of primary sources, Baker's conclusions challenge the widely held opinion that the theological imprint of Babylonia and Assyria on the New Testament is minimal, and what Mesopotamian legacy it contains was mediated by the Hebrew Bible and ancient Jewish sources. After evaluating and substantially supplementing previous research on this mediation, Baker demonstrates significant direct Mesopotamian influence on the New Testament presentation of Jesus and particularly the character of his kingship. He also identifies likely channels of transmission. Baker documents substantial differences among New Testament authors in borrowing Mesopotamian conceptions to formulate their Christology. This monograph is an essential resource for specialists and students of the New Testament as well as for scholars interested in religious transmission in the ancient Near East and the afterlife of Mesopotamian culture.
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Medieval literature contains many figures caught at the interface between life and death - the dead return to place demands on the living, while the living foresee, organize or desire their own deaths. Jane Gilbert's original study examines the ways in which certain medieval literary texts, both English and French, use these 'living dead' to think about existential, ethical and political issues. In doing so, she shows powerful connections between works otherwise seen as quite disparate, including Chaucer's Book of the Duchess and Legend of Good Women, the Chanson de Roland and the poems of Francois Villon. Written for researchers and advanced students of medieval French and English literature, this book provides original, provocative interpretations of canonical medieval texts in the light of influential modern theories, especially Lacanian psychoanalysis, presented in an accessible and lively way.
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Every year, there are over 1.6 million violent deaths worldwide, making violence one of the leading public health issues of our time. And with the 20th century just behind us, it's hard to forget that 191 million people lost their lives directly or indirectly through conflict. This collection of engaging case studies on violence and violent deaths reveals how violence is reconstructed from skeletal and contextual information. By sharing the complex methodologies for gleaning scientific data from human remains and the context they are found in, and complementary perspectives for examining violence from both past and contemporary societies, bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology prove to be fundamentally inseparable. This book provides a model for training forensic anthropologists and bioarchaeologists, not just in the fundamentals of excavation and skeletal analysis, but in all subfields of anthropology, to broaden their theoretical and practical approach to dealing with everyday violence.
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Bullying is a socially and culturally complex phenomenon that until now has largely been understood in the context of the individual. This book challenges the dominance of this approach, examining the processes of extreme exclusion that are enacted in bullying - whether at school, through face-to-face meetings or virtual encounters - in the context of group dynamics. Contributors draw upon qualitative empirical studies, mixed methods and statistics, to analyse the elements that allow bullying to emerge - the processes that produce exclusion and contempt, and the relations between children, teachers and parents. Introducing a new definition of bullying, this book goes on to discuss directions for future research and action, including more informed intervention strategies and re-thinking methods of prevention. Exploring bullying in the light of the latest research from a wide variety of disciplines, this book paves the way for a new paradigm through which to understand the field.
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Every year, there are over 1.6 million violent deaths worldwide, making violence one of the leading public health issues of our time. And with the 20th century just behind us, it's hard to forget that 191 million people lost their lives directly or indirectly through conflict. This collection of engaging case studies on violence and violent deaths reveals how violence is reconstructed from skeletal and contextual information. By sharing the complex methodologies for gleaning scientific data from human remains and the context they are found in, and complementary perspectives for examining violence from both past and contemporary societies, bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology prove to be fundamentally inseparable. This book provides a model for training forensic anthropologists and bioarchaeologists, not just in the fundamentals of excavation and skeletal analysis, but in all subfields of anthropology, to broaden their theoretical and practical approach to dealing with everyday violence.
Chapter
Every year, there are over 1.6 million violent deaths worldwide, making violence one of the leading public health issues of our time. And with the 20th century just behind us, it's hard to forget that 191 million people lost their lives directly or indirectly through conflict. This collection of engaging case studies on violence and violent deaths reveals how violence is reconstructed from skeletal and contextual information. By sharing the complex methodologies for gleaning scientific data from human remains and the context they are found in, and complementary perspectives for examining violence from both past and contemporary societies, bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology prove to be fundamentally inseparable. This book provides a model for training forensic anthropologists and bioarchaeologists, not just in the fundamentals of excavation and skeletal analysis, but in all subfields of anthropology, to broaden their theoretical and practical approach to dealing with everyday violence.
Chapter
Every year, there are over 1.6 million violent deaths worldwide, making violence one of the leading public health issues of our time. And with the 20th century just behind us, it's hard to forget that 191 million people lost their lives directly or indirectly through conflict. This collection of engaging case studies on violence and violent deaths reveals how violence is reconstructed from skeletal and contextual information. By sharing the complex methodologies for gleaning scientific data from human remains and the context they are found in, and complementary perspectives for examining violence from both past and contemporary societies, bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology prove to be fundamentally inseparable. This book provides a model for training forensic anthropologists and bioarchaeologists, not just in the fundamentals of excavation and skeletal analysis, but in all subfields of anthropology, to broaden their theoretical and practical approach to dealing with everyday violence.
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Rice today is food to half the world's population. Its history is inextricably entangled with the emergence of colonialism, the global networks of industrial capitalism, and the modern world economy. The history of rice is currently a vital and innovative field of research attracting serious attention, but no attempt has yet been made to write a history of rice and its place in the rise of capitalism from a global and comparative perspective. Rice is a first step toward such a history. The fifteen chapters, written by specialists on Africa, the Americas, and Asia, are premised on the utility of a truly international approach to history. Each brings a new approach that unsettles prevailing narratives and suggests new connections. Together they cast new light on the significant roles of rice as crop, food, and commodity and shape historical trajectories and interregional linkages in Africa, the Americas, Europe, and Asia.
Chapter
Every year, there are over 1.6 million violent deaths worldwide, making violence one of the leading public health issues of our time. And with the 20th century just behind us, it's hard to forget that 191 million people lost their lives directly or indirectly through conflict. This collection of engaging case studies on violence and violent deaths reveals how violence is reconstructed from skeletal and contextual information. By sharing the complex methodologies for gleaning scientific data from human remains and the context they are found in, and complementary perspectives for examining violence from both past and contemporary societies, bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology prove to be fundamentally inseparable. This book provides a model for training forensic anthropologists and bioarchaeologists, not just in the fundamentals of excavation and skeletal analysis, but in all subfields of anthropology, to broaden their theoretical and practical approach to dealing with everyday violence.
Chapter
Every year, there are over 1.6 million violent deaths worldwide, making violence one of the leading public health issues of our time. And with the 20th century just behind us, it's hard to forget that 191 million people lost their lives directly or indirectly through conflict. This collection of engaging case studies on violence and violent deaths reveals how violence is reconstructed from skeletal and contextual information. By sharing the complex methodologies for gleaning scientific data from human remains and the context they are found in, and complementary perspectives for examining violence from both past and contemporary societies, bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology prove to be fundamentally inseparable. This book provides a model for training forensic anthropologists and bioarchaeologists, not just in the fundamentals of excavation and skeletal analysis, but in all subfields of anthropology, to broaden their theoretical and practical approach to dealing with everyday violence.
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