ArticlePDF Available

Effect of Nanoparticles and Fibers Types on Hybrid Blend Composite Materials Behavior of Epoxy and Phenol-Formaldehyde

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Phenol-formaldehyde resin was mixed with epoxy resin in different proportions to form a hybrid mixture of composite materials. It was reinforced with carbon fibers, glass fibers, Kevlar fibers, magnesium oxide and zirconia nanoparticle particles. This research investigates the effect of fibers and nanoparticles on the behavior of hybrid composites, namely, tensile, bending, hardness and toughness. The results showed an improvement in the properties of the hybrid mixture after the use of fibers and nanoparticle enhancement.
Content may be subject to copyright.
International Journal of Nanoelectronics and Materials
Volume 13, No. 1, Jan 2020 [91-100]
Effect of Nanoparticles and Fibers Types on Hybrid Blend Composite
Materials Behavior of Epoxy and Phenol-Formaldehyde
Mustafa A. Rajab1, Sabah A. Salman2*, Maher N. Abdullah3
1 Technical Institute of Baqubah, Middle Technical University, Iraq.
2, 3 Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Diyala, Iraq.
Received 14 July 2019, Revised 13 September 2019, Accepted 18 November 2019
ABSTRACT
Phenol-formaldehyde resin was mixed with epoxy resin in different proportions to form a
hybrid mixture of composite materials. It was reinforced with carbon fibers, glass fibers,
Kevlar fibers, magnesium oxide and zirconia nanoparticle particles. This research
investigates the effect of fibers and nanoparticles on the behavior of hybrid composites,
namely, tensile, bending, hardness and toughness. The results showed an improvement in
the properties of the hybrid mixture after the use of fibers and nanoparticle enhancement.
Keywords: Hybrid Blend, Mechanical Properties, Phenol Formaldehyde Resin, Epoxy
Resin.
1. INTRODUCTION
Technological development depends on advances in materials. One does not have to be an
expert in the design of sophisticated cars or airplanes, but one must realize that there is
sufficient material to withstand external loads and stresses [1, 2]. A composite material consists
of a combination of two or more substances that often have very different properties than the
original materials, which work together to give the unique properties of composite materials [3,
4]. Figure 1 shows the classification of composite materials. Composite materials are used not
only for their mechanical properties but also for electrical, thermal, technological,
environmental and other applications. Composite materials are usually optimized to achieve a
certain balance in properties for a particular set of applications. Considering the wide range of
uses through which composite materials can be designed; the applications of these materials
have increased after strengthening them with fibers and nanoparticles [5, 6].
*Corresponding Author: pro.dr_sabahanwer@yahoo.com
Mustafa A. Rajab, et al. / Effect of Nanoparticles and Fibers Types on Hybrid Blend
92
Figure 1. Types of composites.
Normally, fillers are used to change the thermal, electrical and mechanical properties of the
matrix. The coefficients of particulate composites near the minimum values of composites
reinforced with fibers are shown in Figure 2. Sand mixed with polymer is much cheaper
compared to well-arranged glass fibers in the same polymer. For this reason, the slight
increment in the hardness as a result of particle addition is economically important [5].
Figure 2. The change in the elasticity coefficient for particulate composites with volume fraction change
[5].
2. THE AIM OF THE RESEARCH
The general use of composite materials depends largely on the mechanical and physical
properties of these materials. Therefore, the study of these properties under the influence of the
forces and loads of different types of fibers and the reinforcement of nanoparticles is of great
importance to determine the suitability of these properties to the workplace in these materials.
The epoxy was mixed with phenol-formaldehyde resins according to different mixing ratios for
the purpose of manufacturing the test samples needed to obtain the mechanical properties,
analyze and compare them to the best.
International Journal of Nanoelectronics and Materials
Volume 13, No. 1, Jan 2020 [91-100]
93
3. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
Materials: epoxy resin, phenol-formaldehyde (resole) resin, carbon fibers, glass fibers, and
Kevlar fibers.
Preparation of samples and properties of tensile, impact and hardness: epoxy resin and
phenolic formaldehyde resin were mixed with different weight fractions as shown in Table 1a,
Tensile strength samples were manufactured according to ASTM D 638, and the tensile test
used the universal testing device as shown in Figure 3. While hardness samples with a diameter
of (25 mm) and a thickness of (10 mm) were used to test for hardness shore (D) according to
ASTM D790 by using the testing device as shown in Figure 4. The Charpy durability samples
with root radius (0.25 mm) and a depth of (0.5 mm) were used to test for Charpy accordance
with ASTM E23 by using the testing device as shown in Figure 5, and the Table 1b shows the
mechanical properties (tensile, bending, toughness, hardness) of the composite materials
according to the mixing ratios between epoxy and phenol-formaldehyde.
Table 1a Composition of epoxy-phenol formaldehyde hybrid blend
Sample No.
Composition
E1
(Epoxy/Resole) (85/15)%
E2
(Epoxy/Resole) (90/10)%
E3
(Epoxy/Resole) (95/5)%
E4
(Epoxy/Resole) (100/0)%
Table 1b Testing of epoxy with phenol-formaldehyde at different ratios
Ratio
Tensile Test
Bending Test
Shore (D)
Hardness
Stress
(Map)
Strain
Stress
(Map)
Strain
0%
25.40985
3.378
0.21684
34.31733
68
5%
26.01369
1.7106
0.2597
33.60467
70.2
10%
24.26089
3.0093
0.30076
41.04733
64.6
15%
11.12752
2.168
0.10888
35.772
62.8
Epoxy risen and resole resin preparation: firstly, epoxy resin and resole resin are weighted
for suitable mixing ratio and manually mixed. Then, the epoxy resin and resole resin were mixed
by magnetic stirrers at (800 rpm) for (15 minutes). Finally, the hardener with a suitable mixing
ratio was added in order to have good homogeneous of hybrid resin as shown in Table 2.
Table 2 Hybrid blend mixing ratio of epoxy risen and resole resin
No.
Mixing Ratio of Epoxy Risen
Mixing Ratio of Resole
Resin
1
100%
0%
2
95%
5%
3
90%
10%
4
85%
15%
5
80%
20%
6
70%
30%
7
60%
40%
8
50%
50%
Composites Preparation: The hand lay-up technique was used to prepare sheets of epoxy
composites pure or reinforced with many types of fibers mat and with nanoparticles filler. The
casting mold consists of glass plates with dimensions (200 × 200 × 4 mm) and under the casting
Mustafa A. Rajab, et al. / Effect of Nanoparticles and Fibers Types on Hybrid Blend
94
mold placed nylon sheets to prevent adhesion of the composite material. All the test specimens
were completed by abrading the edges on a fine carborundum paper. Neat epoxy preparation;
firstly epoxy resin and hardener are weighted for suitable mixing ratio, and manually mixed,
then the epoxy resin and hardener were mixed by magnetic stirrers at (800 rpm) for (15
minutes) to have good homogeneous between epoxy resin and hardener. The mixture was
combined with Kevlar fibers, glass fibers, and carbon fibers to determine the effect of fibers on
the characteristics of hardness and impact. The two-layers reinforcement was shown in Figure
6, where (95%) of epoxy resin and (5%) formaldehyde resin as the best mixing ratio in terms of
the mechanical characteristics. After selecting this best percentage, it was reinforced with fibers
to determine the effect of the fibers type on the properties of hardness and impact as shown in
Table 3. The nano magnesium oxide particles and nanoparticles of zirconium oxide were then
amplified to demonstrate the effect of nanoparticle reinforcement on the electrophoresis of the
hybrid mixture.
Figu re 3. Tensile tes t
inst rument .
Figu re 4. Hardness test
inst rument .
Figu re 5. Impact test
inst rument.
Figu re 6. Tensile, to ugh ness, and ha rdn ess t est sa mpl es wi th different types of fibers ( carbon,
glas s, Kevlar).
The fibers reinforcement materials are:
i. Glass fibers (E-glass fibers, glass fibers biaxial fabric 0/90), the basis of textile-grade
glass fibers is silica, SiO2.
ii. Carbon fibers precursors for the production of carbon fibers include polyacrylonitrile
(PAN), isotropic pitch, mesosphere pitch, and regenerated cellulose, among others.
iii. Kevlar fibers (Kevlar-49 fibers), materials used as thermoplastic matrix are: (i) P1 -
thermoplastic (styrene-acrylonitrile), (ii) P2 - ASTALAC® ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene
styrene) 2029-2, and (iii) P3 - DOWLEX® polyethylene resins. The fibers materials used
in this work are shown in Figure 7 and its properties are shown in Table 4.
International Journal of Nanoelectronics and Materials
Volume 13, No. 1, Jan 2020 [91-100]
95
Table 3 Hardness and impact properties of different fibers
Table 4 Properties of different fibers
Property
Tensile
Strength
Compressive
Strength
Elastic
Modulus
Density
(g/cm3)
E-glass
fibers
3445(MPa)
1080(MPa)
73(GPa)
2.58
Carbon
fibers
(37 GPa)
(13 GPa)
(200935 GPa)
1.752.20
Kevlar
fibers
2757.9(MPa)
517.1(MPa)
151.7(GPa)
1467(kg/m3 )
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figu re 7. (a) Kevlar-49 fiber, (b) Carbon fi ber and (c) E-glass f ibe r.
Zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), which is also denoted to as zirconium oxide or zirconia, is an
inorganic metal oxide that is largely used in ceramic materials. There are many different ways of
producing ZrO2 nanosize powders, such as hydrothermal processing sol-gel processing and ion
exchange manufacture methods [7]. Pure ZrO2 exhibits three crystalline forms. Pure zirconia is
monoclinic (M) at room temperature. This phase is stable up to (1170°C). It will transform into
a tetragonal (T) phase under higher temperatures and later into a cubic phase (C) at (2370°C) as
shown in Figure (8) which illustrate ZrO2 nanoparticles in three main crystalline structure
phases: (a) cubic, (b) tetragonal and (c) monoclinic [8]. Zirconia was used in different fields of
chemistry such as ceramics and catalysis. Nano-zirconia ceramics are of great attention due to
their obvious enhancement in strength and toughness. Its high hardness, low reactivity and high
melting point (2715°C) changed the mechanical property, thermal performance, electrical
performance and optical performance of ceramic components [9].
].9[ : (a) cubic, (b) tetragonal and (c) monoclinic
2
Illustration of three polymorphs of ZrO .8Figure
Fibers
Hardness
Impact (J)
Kevlar Fibers
69.2
3.2
Glass Fibers
71.4
2.4
Carbon Fibers
78.1
1.2
Mustafa A. Rajab, et al. / Effect of Nanoparticles and Fibers Types on Hybrid Blend
96
The magnesium oxide (MgO) is a very suitable material for insulation applications due to its low
heat capacity and high melting point (2850°C). MgO was obtained by thermal decomposition of
different magnesium salts. The crystal structure of magnesium oxide is cubic, as shown in
Figure (9). MgO was used as a dielectric layer due to its excellent properties such as high
dielectric constant (~9.8), large bandgap in the range of (7.3 eV-7.8 eV) and higher breakdown
field (12 MV/cm) compared to the commonly used dielectric layer. Magnesium oxide
nanoparticles can be applied in electronics and coatings fields [10].
Figure 9. Molecular structure of a magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticle [10].
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The most common mechanical properties for the purpose of the examination of any material are
the hardness which is the resistance of the material to penetrate by an earlier material,
durability which is the ability of the material to absorb the impact of the impact, and formation
of a formation before the occurrence of fracture [7,8]. The resin is fragile and its resistance to
external loads is very low. But when phenol-formaldehyde is added, the resistance to composite
material will improve significantly because it is characterized by its low elasticity. This
resistance is increased by increasing the added weight ratio because it occupies more space
inside the resin, allowing better distribution of the load. It is known that fragile materials
contain a small elastic deformation area. The elasticity coefficient valuesincrease with the
increase in the ratio of the reinforced material due to the increase in bonding density, which
greatly affects fibers elasticity. Therefore, the material becomes solid at low voltage rates and
thus increases the elasticity coefficient. As for the hardness characteristics of the mixtures, the
resin is a low-hardening material, but when reinforced with fibers, the hardness properties of
the compound material are clearly improved because they occupy more space within the resin,
allowing better distribution of the load. Figure (10) shows the hardness of composite materials
by the type of fibers, where it is observed to be fairly close, and the highest values of the
hardness were composite materials supported by carbon fibers followed by glass fibers and
then Kevlar fibers [9].
International Journal of Nanoelectronics and Materials
Volume 13, No. 1, Jan 2020 [91-100]
97
Figu re 10. The ha rdn ess of c ompound materi als by fibers typ e .
The nature of fibers has a great role in determining the values of hardness because the hardness
of these fibers vary by type. Some fibers are made of ceramic materials while the other fibers
are made of polymeric materials. The hardness test was carried out using the regression
method and by four readings per sample. This was the most suitable method for measuring
hardness because the hardness values obtained reflect the condition of the material as a whole
and not just the surface state. Fibers orientation has an influential role in hardness values. The
statistical pattern (90° - 0°) gave the highest values of hardness compared to samples of the
random pattern. This indicates that the use of fibers in a concrete pattern gives more positive
results in the reinforcement process. It is also noted that the fibers reinforcing system increases
the hardness value of the fracture specimens. Its total volumetric volume increases the hardness
value with the increasing number of layers of reinforcement, which confirms the positive effect
of the arming process with these fibers [10]. Figure 11 illustrates the impact of fibers on impact
resistance. Kevlar fibers gave the highest impact values of glass fibers and carbon fibers. The
reason for this is that Kevlar fibers have the greatest ability to absorb shock energy. The shock
test is one of the most dynamic mechanical tests in which the material is subjected to rapid
engine load. Shock testing of Charpy samples was performed at room temperature, where the
value of shock resistance decreases as the volumetric fraction of the supporting molecules
increases because they are weak intolerance of the permissible load [11].
Figure 11. The impact of compound materials by fibers type.
The failure of the non-reinforced resin material under the impact of the shock test results in the
breakdown of the bonds or forces in the polymer by the growth of the initial cracks that arise as
a result of the impact of the shock pressures. These cracks grow and multiply rapidly towards
Mustafa A. Rajab, et al. / Effect of Nanoparticles and Fibers Types on Hybrid Blend
98
the interfaces between the polymer fibers because the forces between these fibers are (Van der
Waals), which require a small amount of energy to overcome them, and the cracks extend in a
direction perpendicular to the direction of polymer fibers to break these fibers during the
propagation process, it is worth mentioning that this requires more energy to overcome
covalent bonding. Figure 12 shows the tensile relationship of the stress curve of the composite
material to the epoxy resin with phenol-formaldehyde resin by (5%) and the reinforcement of
the various nanoparticles (Magnesia and Zirconia Oxide) resulted in improved properties.
Zirconia oxide particles gave the best resistance to stress through the stress curve compared to
the magnesium oxide and composites without addition, because polymer nanoparticles as an
interactive mixture of polymer with nanoparticles are characterized with a small size of fillings
leading to a widening of the interstitial area, thus creating a large part of the polymer's
interaction with nanoparticles in the structure of polymeric molecules, which play an important
role in enhancing the strength of the polymer structure, polymeric nanomaterials improve the
mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties clearly, without increasing the density
[12].
Figure 12. The tensile stress-strain curve of compound materials by nanoparticle type.
Figure 13 shows the relationship of the stress-stress curve to the composite material contained
on epoxy resins with phenol-formaldehyde by (5%) and the reinforcement of various
nanoparticles (magnesium oxide and zirconia oxide). Zirconium oxide nanoparticles gave better
bending resistance than magnesium oxide particles and composite matter without addition,
assuming that the properties of the material were uniform by uniformly distributed power.
Figure 13. The bending stress-strain curve of compound materials by nanoparticle's type.
strain(%)
strain(%)
International Journal of Nanoelectronics and Materials
Volume 13, No. 1, Jan 2020 [91-100]
99
5. CONCLUSIONS
i. Toughness increases with the increased in the weight ratio of fibers.
ii. The elasticity value increases when fibers are reinforced due to increased bonding
density.
iii. Fibers-reinforced leads to a decrease in material hardness due to the generation of
pores.
iv. The cracks grow and multiply rapidly towards the interfaces between the polymer fibers
because the forces between the fibers are strong Van der Waals.
v. The reinforcement of the various nanoparticles (magnesia and zirconia oxide) resulted
in improved properties.
vi. Zirconium oxide nanoparticles gave better-bending resistance than magnesium oxide
particles and composite matter without addition.
REFERENCES
[1] M. P. Groover, “Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: Materials”, Processes and
Systems, Wiley and Sons, USA, (2010).
[2] W. Soboyejo, “Mechanical Properties of Engineered Materials”, Marcel Dekker, Inc.,
(2002).
[3] D. Gross & T. Seelig, “Fracture Mechanics with an Introduction to Micromechanics”,
Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, (2006).
[4] E. P. De. Garmo, J. T. Black & R. A. kohser, “Materials and Processes in Manufacturing”, 10th
Edition, John Wiley & Sons, (2008).
[5] N. Perez, “Fracture Mechanics”, Kluwer Academic Publishers Boston, (2004).
[6] W. F. Hosford, “Mechanical Behavior of Materials”, William F. Hosford, (2010).
[7] A. F. Liu, “Mechanics and Mechanisms of Fracture: An Introduction”, ASM International,
(2005).
[8] S. L. kakapli & A. kakani, “Material Science and Engineering”, New Age International (P)
Ltd., (2004).
[9] J. F. Shackelford, “Introduction to Material Science and Engineering”, USA, (2005).
[10] E. S. Al-Hasani, “Study of Tensile Strength and Hardness Property for Epoxy Reinforced
with Glass Fiber Layers”, Eng. & Technology 25, 8 (2007) 988- 997.
[11] A. Basarkar & J. Singh, "Poly (Lactide-Co-Glycolide)-Polymethacrylate Nanoparticles for
Intramuscular Delivery Plasmid Encoding Interleukin Co. to Prevent Autoimmune
Diabetes in Mice", Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 26, 1 (2009) 72-81.
[12] R. Kochetov, “Thermal and Electrical Properties of Nanocomposites”, Including Material
Processing, (2012) 197.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Tensile strength and hardness property were studied in an epoxy (DGEBA) resin as a matrix reinforced with glass fibers for different volume fraction as layers. A comparison was done between woven roven samples, random layers samples and sandwich composite samples which consists of (woven roven and random). Finally the results show that the sandwich composite gives higher tensile strength, while the composite reinforced with woven roven fiber has maximum hardness values.
Article
Full-text available
The research described in this thesis is part of a state-funded IOP-EMVT project in cooperation with industrial companies, aiming at the design, assessment and implementation of new, environmental friendly (e.g. oil and SF6 - free) solid dielectric materials. A large disadvantage of solid polymer dielectrics is their relatively low thermal conductivity. Therefore, the focus in this thesis is on if and how nanotechnology can improve the thermal conductivity without deteriorating existing electrical properties. Epoxy resin, which is very common polymer material in the electrical and power industry, has been used as a host to create new insulating materials: nanocomposites. In order to improve the thermal conductivity of epoxy resin, thermally conducting but electrically insulating nanofillers, such as aluminum and magnesium oxides (Al2O3 and MgO), silicon dioxide (SiO2), boron and aluminum nitrides (BN and AlN) were used to dope the polymer matrix. Good compatibility and adhesion was achieved by surface modification of the nanoparticles, using a silane coupling agent. Proper dispersion of nanoparticles is a vital factor for the final properties of nanocomposites. Good and stable dispersion of nanoparticles in polymer matrices have been achieved by mechanical mixing and ultrasonic vibration. The quality of the dispersion of nanoparticles was satisfactory for most of the nanocomposite samples. The fabricated composites were classified into three types, according to the average particle size and the extent of agglomerates observed inside the polymer matrix. Dielectric spectroscopy revealed that the relative permittivity of many nanocomposites is lower than that of the pure epoxy. This surprises, since the relative permittivity of the bulk materials of the fillers used is higher than that of the epoxy. The anomalous dielectric behaviour of nanocomposites was explained by the existence of an interface layer between polymer matrix and inorganic filler, and its influence on the macroscopic properties of the composite. The dielectric spectroscopy investigations demonstrated a reduction of the real and imaginary parts of the complex permittivity for all samples after subjecting the samples to postcuring. The postcuring process leads to evaporation of absorbed water and finalizes the process of epoxy curing. It was postulated that the interface polymer volume, which is affected by the alignment of polymer chains around surface treated nanoparticles, conducts the heat much better than an amorphous polymer that is not altered by nanoparticles. We proposed a three-phase Lewis-Nielsen model to fit the thermal conductivity behaviour of nanocomposites, which have a third phase of aligned polymer layers. The model fits the experimental data very well and takes the thermal resistance of the interface into account. Besides the interfacial layer and its nature, the size of the particles, their aspect ratio, crystal structure and alignment inside the polymer as well as surface modification are important aspects in determining the thermal conductivity of composites. Several ways are proposed to optimize the nanocomposite processing to enable scaling up to large industrial volumes. Finally, possible harmful effects of nanoparticles on health and required precautions for the workplace are discussed in the course of this thesis.
Article
This textbook is for courses on Mechanical Behavior of Materials taught in departments of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science. The text includes numerous examples and problems for student practice. The book emphasizes quantitative problem solving. End of the chapter notes are included to increase students' interest. This text differs from others because the treatment of plasticity has greater emphasis on the interrelationship of the flow, effective strain and effective stress and their use in conjunction with yield criteria to solve problems. The treatment of defects is new. Schmid's law is generalized for complex stress states. Its use with strains allows for prediction of R-values for textures. Another feature is the treatment of lattice rotations and how they lead to deformation textures. The chapter on fracture mechanics includes coverage of Gurney's approach. Much of the analysis of particulate composites is new. Few texts include anything on metal forming.
Introduction to Material Science and Engineering
  • J F Shackelford
J. F. Shackelford, "Introduction to Material Science and Engineering", USA, (2005).