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A Pilot Study Using AI for Psychology: ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits

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The relationship between blood type and personality has long been one of the more challenging issues of scientific studies. Several large-scale surveys were conducted to address the issue, and some of them had shown statistically significant associations. Presently, more than half of Japanese people feel that the relationship is legitimate. This pilot study analyzed data from two large-scale surveys (Survey 1: N = 1,859, Survey 2: N = 3,750) to examine the relationship between blood type and personality. AI predicted blood types of participants more than by chance. The ANOVA results of large-scale surveys showed that respondents displayed the personality traits corresponding to their own blood type more strongly than respondents who had different blood types did. This finding was consistent across all traits, and all differences were statistically significant. The same differences in scores were found in the groups who reported no blood type personality knowledge, although the values were smaller. We observed a clear and significant relationship between blood type and personality in large-scale surveys.
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American Journal of Intelligent Systems 2021, 11(1): 1-7
DOI: 10.5923/j.ajis.20211101.01
A Pilot Study Using AI for Psychology:
ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits
Masayuki Kanazawa
Human Sciences ABO Center, Tokyo, Japan
Abstract The relationship between blood type and personality has long been one of the more challenging issues of
scientific studies. Several large-scale surveys were conducted to address the issue, and some of them had shown statistically
significant associations. Presently, more than half of Japanese people feel that the relationship is legitimate. This pilot study
analyzed data from two large-scale surveys (Survey 1: N = 1,859, Survey 2: N = 3,750) to examine the relationship between
blood type and personality. AI predicted blood types of participants more than by chance. The ANOVA results of large-scale
surveys showed that respondents displayed the personality traits corresponding to their own blood type more strongly than
respondents who had different blood types did. This finding was consistent across all traits, and all differences were
statistically significant. The same differences in scores were found in the groups who reported no blood type personality
knowledge, although the values were smaller. We observed a clear and significant relationship between blood type and
personality in large-scale surveys.
Keywords AI, Blood type, Personality, Large-scale survey
1. Introduction
1.1. Blood Type Personality Theory
Currently, the effect of genetic factors on personality is
estimated to be approximately 50% [1-3]. The ABO blood
group, discovered by Landsteiner in 1901, is a genetically
determined and easily measured biological marker. Hence,
much research has been conducted not only on health risks,
but also on its impact on personality.
The relationship between blood type and personality is
studied at an international scale, and the first academic
examination using a statistics base was conducted in 1927
by Furukawa, a Japanese educational psychologist [4-9].
Yet, the epoch that most shapes present-day research is a
Japanese book written by Nomi [10], a Japanese
independent researcher [4-9].
Nomi adopted the multiple method approach (Table 1)
which consisted of a) questionnaires on the tratis of people's
behavior and mindset; b) surveys of blood type distribution
for various occupations and specialties; c) observations of
people's behavior and statistical analyses. The sample sizes
of these studies were claimed to be tens of thousands of
people. He also suggested that there was a d) association
with disease and physical constitution [11].
* Corresponding author:
mkana@kfx.biglobe.ne.jp (Masayuki Kanazawa)
Received: Mar. 12, 2021; Accepted: Mar. 28, 2021; Published: Apr. 2, 2021
Published online at http://journal.sapub.org/ajis
Table 1. Blood Type and Its Major Traits of Personality (Nomi)
Blood
Type
Personality
O
Purpose oriented. Head straight for a target. Great
achievement power. However, do not endure
meaninglessness. Give up early if no good. Weigh losses
against gains correctly. Hold a belief. Articulate and logical,
but somewhat straight. Simple minded in part. Emotions are
usually stable and do not linger. Deeply moved. Lose heart
when cornered.
A
Cautious about new actions, also pursue stability, but
sometimes obsessed and burst into a rage. Desire for
molting. Always try to improve. Take a brave action in an
emergency. Go step by step after convinced. Formula-like.
Prudent judgement, although draw the clear line. Strongly
suppressive outside vs violent inside. Recover slowly after
got hurt. Concentrate on one at a time.
B
Look for a life with much freedom. Particularly dislike rules
or formulas. Do not hesitate to take new actions. Tend to be
absorbed in strongly interested things. Multitasking and go
overboard. Quick and flexible judgements. Pragmatic and do
not draw the line. Emphasize scientific accuracy and
validity. Feelings sway, moody. Frankly express anger or
sorrow.
AB
Good reflexes, business-like efficiency. Quick and easy
understanding. Rationality itself. Good critic and analyst,
multi-angle interpretation. Duality with a calm, cool stable
side and an easily disturbed side with sentimental fragility.
Able to do everything accurately. Good at designing but not
cleaning up. Smiling and soft, but keep a certain distance
from others.
2 Masayuki Kanazawa: A Pilot Study Using AI for Psychology: ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits
His questionnaire results showed that the effect size was
small to medium, with differences by blood type ranging
from 10-20% in absolute response rates. In studies of
blood type distributions, Nomi found that Japanese prime
ministers were more likely to be O, foreign ministers O and
AB, education ministers more likely A or AB; professional
baseball hitters of O or B, high-ranking sumo wrestlers A,
and so forth; all of which were supported by statistically
significant differences. P-values varied widely from below
0.001 to 0.05, dependent upon sample size and other
conditions. He also suggested an association with disease
and physical constitution [11].
Presently, many Japanese people believe in the
relationship between blood type and personality. For
example, in a 2015 online questionnaire conducted by Fuji
Television Networks, one of the major television networks
in Japan, found that 68.7% of a 201,119-person audience
believed in the relationship between blood type and
personality [12]. These results are in accordance with past
observations: a 1986 survey conducted by NHK, the
Japanese public broadcaster, found that 75% of 1,102
respondents believe in the relationship [13].
1.2. Results of Previous Studies
Table 2. Blood Type and Its Major Images of Personality (Psychologists)
Blood
Type
#
Personality
O
1
I have a lot of friends.
I am ready to keep company with everyone.
I cannot be quiet and I make merry when I am delighted.
2
Big-hearted, Laid back, Unassuming
3
Pleasant, Positive, person of action, Passionate, Show
the utmost courage and guts for the target
A
1
I am careful when doing something.
I am serious when I should be so.
I am often worried about things.
2
Meticulous, Nervous, Serious
3
Considerate, careful about everything, Polit, Esteem
principle than practice, Responsible, Introvert
B
1
I often change my mind.
I am not particular about things.
I am not worried by what I was told.
2
Self-paced, Individual, Lukewarm, Egoistic,
Self-centered, Optimistic, Pleasant
3
Lack of prudence, Self-paced, less influenced by the
surroundings, Active and curious; Optimistic
AB
1
I do not change my idea after I present it.
I make an effort toward my goal.
I sometimes burst into a rage.
2
Dual personality, Two-faced, Oddball, Hard to
understand
3
Moody and sometimes seen as dual personality, Cool
and businesslike, Avoid close human relations
Note. #1: Yamazaki and Sakamoto [14]; #2: Sato, Miyazaki and Watanabe [15];
#3: Watanabe [16].
Japanese psychologists reported the following images of
each blood type. Yamazaki and Sakamoto conducted a
survey of 177 college students on 24 personality traits in
the annual opinion poll by JNN Data Bank, a department
of Tokyo Broadcasting Corporation, one of the major
television networks in Japan [14]. Sato, Miyazaki and
Watanabe surveyed 197 college students and the results of
free answers [15]. Watanabe extracted personality traits of
each blood type from three or more books and asked 102
college students whether they were applicable [16]. These
results are shown in Table 2. Generally, the personality
traits studied by Japanese psychologists were consistent
with those of Nomi (Table 1).
1.3. Self-fulfilling Prophecy
Self-fulfilling prophecy refers to the phenomenon in
which a person who believes in a prophecy learns to act in
accordance with the prophecy, thereby bringing the
prophecy to being. An example that psychologists have
studied is astrology [17-19]. If a person's original personality
and his/her sign matches, that tendency becomes stronger.
Even if the personality and the sign do not initially match, the
personality moves toward what has been indicated. In Japan,
South Korea, and Taiwan, roughly half of the people feel the
relationship between blood type and personality is legitimate
[7,9,20-22]. Logically, the self-fulfilling findings among
astrology suggest that one's personality would change in a
direction that fits relevant as personality description of
which shown by blood type.
Utilizing those items (Table 2), several large-scale surveys
in Japan were designed or re-analyzed by psychologists or
other academic researchers after 1990, which clearly
confirmed self-reported personality traits using ANOVA.
Archetypical sample sizes of these were 6,660 [23], 11,766
[24], 32,347 [14,25] and over 200,000 (our estimation; the
exact number was not specified in this report, although it
alluded the size was much larger than preceding ones) [26].
Until now, statistical differences had not been confirmed
in respondents without blood type personality knowledge.
Therefore, the current scientific consensus is that these
differences are self-fulfilling phenomena induced by the
“contamination by knowledge. However, there was little
testing of whether the questions used in these studies were
suitable for examining differences among less
knowledgeable respondents.
1.4. Contemporary Trends and Issues
After 2000, a growing number of studies proved the
previously questioned link between blood type and physical
constitution: this demonstration proposed a new approach to
medicine [27-28]. For example, more than 10 studies had
reported a relationship between susceptibility to COVID-19
and blood type [29-31]. According to these studies, type O
was the least susceptible, and type A the most.
There had also been several studies on biological factors,
which investigated whether physical constitution affected
American Journal of Intelligent Systems 2021, 11(1): 1-7 3
personality. A US researcher examined the linkage of
disequilibrium between the ABO and DBH genes [32-33]. In
2015, using DNA testing technologies, a genotype of ABO
blood type and the personality using the Temperament and
Character Inventory (TCI) [34-35] had been determined to
be related, as predicted by blood type personality theory [36].
In this study, type A was found to be the most “persistent.”
Since blood type is information that is uniquely
determined for each individual, predicting blood type is a
typical example of “supervised learning” for AI. This is a
technique in which the machine learns the personality data
(training data) with the blood type as the correct answer. In
this study on human personality, therefore, we use both
traditional statistical analysis methods and machine learning,
which can theoretically handle data of non-linear models.
With the progress of information technology, conducting
crowdsourced surveys has become much easier. Nowadays,
a larger amount of data can be obtained at a lower cost and in
a shorter period. Since machine learning requires a large
sample size, this study utilizes a crowdsourced large-scale
survey of thousands of people. This makes it possible to
analyze not only conventional statistical analysis methods,
but also the influence of non-linear models such as
self-fulfilling prophecies, gender, and age.
Most Japanese people know their blood type since, until
recently, it had been common practice to test the blood type
of newborns. This means that analyzing the effect of the
phenotype (O, A, B, AB) eliminates physiological type
testing, and therefore our survey can be completed via the
Internet. Presently, computer performance has improved
significantly, and the use of readymade AI, such as the AWS
ML (Amazon Web Service Machine Learning), eliminates
technical and time-consuming issues, e.g. the construction of
training models from scratch.
We make reference to a facial recognition article written
by AI engineers aimed at prediction [37], because there is
virtually no preceding research available to analyze
personality with AI; it is for this reason we utilized AI as an
experimental method.
2. Participants and Methods
2.1. Participants
Each participant’s blood type of was determined by
self-report, because most Japanese people know their blood
type as previously stated.
With the intention of avoiding ethical issues, question
items on blood type traits of this study were extracted from
reviewed academic articles (Table 2). These items were
checked again at the previously stated crowdsourcing
company which has been passed the Japanese privacy mark
(JIS Q 15001). The company confirmed that there was no
problem with the question items. It provides customers
with anonymized data and obtains informed consent from
participants (respondents) prior to its surveys.
Survey 1 was conducted in 2019, and covered 2,000
Japanese people ages 20-59, were asked to rate a total of 12
items representing 4 blood type traits (Table 3), each with
scores of 1-5 for their personality traits (the larger the
number, the more fitting the trait), asked the respondents to
answer which blood type they thought these 12 items would
categorize, and scores of 1 to 4 of relationship and their
knowledge on the level between blood type and personality
(the larger the number, the more related or informed), and
marital status. Survey 2 was conducted in 2020, and covered
4,000, twice as many as the previous one, also Japanese
people ages 20-59, with blood type traits reduced to 8 items
(Table 3). In Survey 2, we changed scores of personality
traits from the 5-point scale to the 7-point.
In Survey 1, 141 out of all the 2,000 respondents, or 7.1%
of the total, did not know their blood type. Thereby the data
of the remaining 1,859 participants with known blood types
were used. In Survey 2, which similarly excluded 250
respondents, or 6.3% of the total, and used 3,750 participants.
The distributions of blood types were almost equal to the
Japanese average measured by the Japan Red Cross Blood
Center; O: 29.4%, A: 39.1%, B: 21.5%, AB: 10.0% [38].
We tried to follow those methods of psychological
personality testing, and deliberately selected the most
suitable traits that would explicitly display the differences: a)
images of traits were consistent to the preceding academic
studies; b) showed large differences in the academic studies
and means were close to 50%; c) did not show extreme
values; d) images of traits were consistent to the preceding
surveys of other studies.
Table 3. Blood Type and Its Major Traits of Personality (Nomi)
Survey
Personality
Survey 1
Positive, Big-hearted, Laid back
Meticulous, Serious, Nervous
Self-paced, Self-centered, Cheerful
Hard to be understood, Dual personality,
Genous-like
Survey 2
Big-hearted, Laid back
Meticulous, Nervous
Self-paced, Self-centered
Hard to be understood, Dual personality
2.2. Analytical Strategy
Firstly, we examine whether AI predict participants’ blood
type more than chance. Secondly, we focused our analysis on
whether personality self-fulfillment was occurring or not:
with data from participants who “have no knowledge of
blood type traits” or “do not believe in the relationship”
(hereinafter abbreviated as “no-knowledge group”).
Our analytical methods on personality were as follows:
Analysis 1: Blood type prediction using AI
Analysis 2: ANOVA of blood type and personality of the
whole participants
Analysis 3: ANOVA of blood type and personality of the
4 Masayuki Kanazawa: A Pilot Study Using AI for Psychology: ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits
“no-knowledge” group
All the data of Survey 1 were stored in Amazon S3, and
with Amazon Machine Learning, all 12 traits, including
gender, age, and marital status, were used as training data for
prediction targeting for the blood type, since Nomi claimed
that these elements affected personalities. Multinominal
logistic regression algorithm was chosen for the prediction.
We divided the whole data into five groups of same sample
size. Each group was estimated as the prediction data, the
rest four groups as the training data, and then the average of
the five predictions was calculated. In these cases, since the
sample sizes of the AI training data were small (this means
that the prediction errors might become larger if we used the
raw data of 1-year increment of age), a dummy variable of
10-year increments was used [20s = 2, 30s = 3, 40s = 4, 50s =
5]. The same methods were used as Survey 2.
An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed with
personality traits scores as the dependent variables and
self-reported ABO phenotypes (O, A, B, AB). We set the
alpha level to 0.05. Before ANOVA analyses, the normality
of distributions was checked for each personality trait score;
this showed a normal distribution. The data were analyzed
using jamovi software version 1.2.27 [39].
3. Results
3.1. Analysis 1: Blood Type Prediction Using AI
In Survey 1, the accuracy rates were 0.450 (F1 = 0.450) in
the group that had good knowledge of blood type traits (542
participants with scores equal to 3 or higher in both item
relation and item knowledge), and 0.401 (F1 = 0.401) in
the entire 1,859 participants (Table 4). When gender, age,
and marital status were excluded from both the learning and
training data, the accuracy rates fell to 0.423 (F1 = 0.423),
and 0.396 (F1 = 0.396) respectively. The most common
blood type among Japanese is type A, which accounts for
0.372 (692 persons) in this survey. Hence, the accuracy rate
became 0.372 if all the participants were assumed to be the
type. Amazon Machine Learning predicted the blood type at
a higher accuracy than this value in all cases.
Table 4. Survey 1 Result of Blood Type Predictions Using AI
Learning Data
Average Accuracy (5 groups)
Well Knowledge
(N=542)
All
(N=1859)
Blood Type, Gender, Age
and Marital Status
0.450 (0.393)
0.401 (0.372)
Blood Type Only
0.423 (0.393)
0.396 (0.372)
Note. Percentages of type A (0.393 and 0.372) are in parentheses.
In Survey 2, the accuracy rates were 0.436 (F1 = 0.436)
in the group that had good knowledge of blood type traits
(1,067 participants; the same methods were used as Survey
1), and 0.404 (F1 = 0.404) in the entire 3,750 participants
(Table 5). When gender, age, and marital status were
excluded from both the learning and training data, the
accuracy rates fell to 0.420 (F1 = 0.420), and 0.393 (F1 =
0.393) respectively. As mentioned above, the most common
blood type among Japanese is type A, which accounts for
0.369 (1,383 persons) in this survey. Amazon Machine
Learning predicted the blood type at a higher accuracy than
this value in all cases.
Table 5. Survey 2 Result of Blood Type Predictions Using AI
Learning Data
Average Accuracy (5 groups)
Well Knowledge
(N=1067)
All
(N=3750)
Blood Type, Gender, Age
and Marital Status
0.436 (0.376)
0.404 (0.369)
Blood Type Only
0.420 (0.376)
0.393 (0.369)
Note. Percentages of type A (0.376 and 0.369) are in parentheses.
3.2. Analysis 2: ANOVA of Blood Type and Personality
of the Whole Participants
In Survey 1, all traits showed the same results as those
shown for blood type traits in the preceding psychology
studies (Table 2). All traits were statistically significant at p
< 0.05 (Table 6). All the responses were consistent with the
most common images of blood types that respondents
expected. All of the responses were consistent with the most
common images of blood types that respondents expected,
except “cheerful”, which was to be type B in academic
studies, but type A got the highest score.
Table 6. Survey 1 ANOVA of the Whole Participants
Blood
Type
Traits
Average Scores by Blood Type
p
O
(N=553)
A
(N=692)
B
(N=434)
AB
(N=180)
O
3.30
3.10
3.12
3.10
<0.001
A
3.26
3.57
3.33
3.45
<0.001
B
3.21
3.13
3.38
3.22
<0.001
AB
3.05
2.91
3.07
3.38
<0.001
Note. Highest scores that match with blood type traits, and p < 0.05 are
highlighted in bold.
Table 7. Survey 2 ANOVA of the Whole Participants
Blood
Type
Traits
Average Scores by Blood Type
p
O
(N=1115)
A
(N=1383)
B
(N=831)
AB
(N=421)
O
4.47
4.03
4.14
4.05
<0.001
A
4.03
4.53
4.03
4.21
<0.001
B
4.25
4.22
4.57
4.30
<0.001
AB
3.70
3.76
3.86
4.33
<0.001
Note. Highest scores that match with blood type traits, and p < 0.05 are
highlighted in bold.
In Survey 2, all traits showed the same results as those
shown for blood type traits in the preceding psychology
studies (Table 2). All traits were statistically significant at
p < 0.05 (Table 7). All the responses were consistent with
American Journal of Intelligent Systems 2021, 11(1): 1-7 5
the most common images of blood types that respondents
expected.
3.3. Analysis 3: ANOVA of Blood Type and Personality
of the “No-knowledge” Group
In Survey 1’s 621 “no-knowledge” participants, all traits
showed the same results as those shown for blood type traits
in the preceding psychology studies (Table 2). Two traits of
all four were statistically significant at p < 0.05 (Table 8).
Table 8. Survey 1 ANOVA of the “No-knowledge” Group
Blood Type
Traits
Average Scores by Blood Type
p
O
(N=168)
A
(N=234)
B
(N=158)
AB
(N=61)
O
3.10
2.92
2.89
2.93
0.044
A
3.29
3.42
3.24
3.20
0.123
B
3.13
3.09
3.16
2.97
0.408
AB
3.01
2.82
2.85
3.21
<0.001
Note. Highest scores that match with blood type traits, and p < 0.05 are
highlighted in bold.
In Survey 2’s 1,474 “no-knowledge” participants, all traits
showed the same results as those shown for blood type traits
in the preceding psychology studies (Table 2). All traits were
statistically significant at p < 0.05 (Table 9).
Table 9. Survey 2 ANOVA of the “No-knowledge” Group
Blood
Type Traits
Average Scores by Blood Type
p
O
(N=419)
A
(N=560)
B
(N=343)
AB
(N=152)
O
4.39
4.04
4.02
4.01
<0.001
A
4.11
4.29
4.14
4.01
0.031
B
4.38
4.27
4.60
4.14
<0.001
AB
3.80
3.74
3.80
4.10
0.012
Note. Highest scores that match with blood type traits, and p < 0.05 are
highlighted in bold.
4. Discussion
Preceding research by psychologists had concluded
that there appeared no difference in personality
among blood types, and that even if there was a difference
predicted by the blood type, it was assumed to be the
result of self-fulfillment prophecy phenomena [14,17-19,20,
23,25-26]. However, the same differences in scores were
found in the “no-knowledge” groups, although the values
were smaller. Therefore, it is highly likely that differences
by blood type are real, not caused by self-fulfilling
prophecy phenomena; no difference in the “no-knowledge”
groups were caused by Type II errors.
In addition, backed on this study’s AI result, it was
suggested that these phenomena occurred not only because
of the wording of question items, but also because gender
and age were not taken into account. Our experimental
blood type predictions by AI (Amazon Machine Learning)
in this study found that adding non-blood type variables,
such as gender or age, to the training data considerably
increased the accuracy (Tables 4 and 5). Moreover, when
performing blood type prediction, AI sometimes failed to
build its machine learning models, if gender or age of the
training and prediction data were different. In this respect,
AI technology may suggest that factors such as gender and
age affect the traits of blood type. Therefore, gender, age,
and other factors may offer a better explanation, even if past
data were inconsistent.
The issue concerning the difference of human personality
affected by gender and age, have been explored in the fields
of personality psychology and social psychology. Although
some people argue that personalities are affected by gender
and age, and the differences are non-linear [40-41], others
argue that they are not affected [42]. In any case, many
researchers seem to agree upon the existence of differences,
at least self-reported. We also believe that there are such
differences.
Our study has several points to be improved. Firstly,
the participants in this study were limited to Japanese
populations only. It is necessary to examine whether the
same results can be obtained in samples of other countries.
Secondly, we used the 2,000- and 4,000-population AI
training data, but these are relatively small sample sizes;
10,000 or more persons are desirable. Lastly, researchers
have not yet found an appropriate method to utilize AI for
personality psychology.
5. Conclusions
AI predicted the blood type of participants more
accurately than chance. We found a clear relationship
between blood type and the self-reported personality of
many question items, which matches traits previously stated.
The same traits were observed in the no-knowledge groups,
though the difference was smaller. Our findings provide a
new, if hypothetical, framework of how genes affect human
personality.
Meanwhile, the sample in this study was limited to
Japanese populations only, the AI training data was small in
sample size, and its use experimental. Additional research
using a larger, global dataset is needed in order to address
true implications, as well as to improve algorithms and
methodologies.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author is grateful to Chieko Ichikawa, Director of the
Human Sciences ABO Center, for her support. The author
also thanks Professor Qinglai Meng of Oregon State
University, as well as Fred Wong, co-founder of AI Hong
Kong Limited, for their kind comments and suggestions.
6 Masayuki Kanazawa: A Pilot Study Using AI for Psychology: ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits
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Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Scientific & Academic Publishing
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... It was discovered by the Austrian pathologist Landsteiner in 1901. Because the genes can be identified by a simple test, hundreds of studies have been conducted to date, and several 10,000-population or over large-scale surveys reported statistical differences, mainly in Japan [4][5][6][7]. One reason is that these studies usually used single-item scales such as simple traits. ...
... As mentioned above, half or more of Japanese, Koreans, and Taiwanese people believe that the relationship between blood type and personality is legitimate [4,12,18,28]. In such cases, self-report question items should show the same differences in responses as blood type traits due to the "self-fulfillment phenomenon" or the "contamination by knowledge" [29][30]. ...
... In such cases, self-report question items should show the same differences in responses as blood type traits due to the "self-fulfillment phenomenon" or the "contamination by knowledge" [29][30]. Moreover, no difference has been found for respondents without knowledge of blood types' influence on personality traits, with only one exception [4]. Therefore, the current consensus is that these differences are caused by the self-fulfillment phenomenon or the contamination by knowledge. ...
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It is estimated that genetic factors account for roughly 50% of an individual's personality. However, statistical analysis has so far failed to show a substantial and consistent relationship between personality tests and genes. Meanwhile, about half or more of Japanese, Korean, and Taiwanese people feel that the relationship between genetically determined ABO blood type and personality is legitimate. In this pilot study, data from a medium-scale survey (N = 1,937) were analyzed using a combination of traditional and alternative statistical methods to examine the relationship. The results showed a clear relationship between ABO blood type and self-reported personality traits on several single question items, consistent with the predicted ones. The same traits were also observed in the "no knowledge" group, although the differences were smaller. People in this group might have less interest in and sensitivity to personality. The impact of the interest level on personality was also discussed.
... Kanazawa, M. (2021). AI-based Analysis on Relationship between Genes and Personality: Evaluation Results with the ABO Blood Type. ...
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AI can be applied in various ways to the measurement of personality in psychology. Measuring the impact of a single gene on personality can be handled by AI technologies, at least technically, i.e., using supervised learning models of machine learning. The ABO blood type is a relatively easy biological marker to examine; therefore, people in many countries know their type, and its impact on the relationship with personality has been the subject of a large amount of research. In this study, we selected the ABO blood type as the target gene, examined its association with personality, and cross-checked the results with previous works. Two scales were used to measure personality: a) blood type personality traits extracted from previous studies, and b) the TIPI-J, a simplified version of the Big Five personality test. In the former, the AI was able to predict the respondents' blood types with a higher probability than chance, while in the latter, the accuracy was within the range of chance. These obtained results were also discussed.
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