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Dynamic Effect of Rapid Urbanization on City Logistics: Literature Gleened Lessons for Developing Countries

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Abstract

This paper reviews literature on the effect of urbanization on city logistics globally and highlight lessons for developing countries to consider. The literature is structured in categories that arise from the effect of urbanization in city logistics such as traffic congestion, road safety concerns, urban economy, environmental impact and energy consumption. Though the study of city logistics has been widely done in many developed Countries, very few studies have been done on city logistics in many developing countries. It is evident through literature that the expansion of the urban areas and cities to accommodate growing urban population is increasing the demand for freight transport and affect the amount of freight flows in many cities and impact negatively on the flow of goods and supplies to the cities. Cities therefore need comprehensive transport logistics plans and management that will help to maximize its positive impact to the society. The study findings help to understand the dynamic challenges of rapid urbanization to city logistics as well as propose solutions on city logistics measures and initiatives that aid to reduce the effect of rapid urbanization. Further, City Logistics have been noted to be critical as the population of cities grow, optimization and efficiency become key to future urban transport as more people demand mobility.
Journal of City and Development, 2021, Vol. 3, No. 1, 37-47
Available online at http://pubs.sciepub.com/jcd/3/1/5
Published by Science and Education Publishing
DOI:10.12691/jcd-3-1-5
Dynamic Effect of Rapid Urbanization on City Logistics:
Literature Gleened Lessons for Developing Countries
Evans Mwamba1, Gift Masaiti2, Francis Simui1,*
1Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia
2School of Education, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia
*Corresponding author:
Received February 19, 2021; Revised March 22, 2021; Accepted March 30, 2021
Abstract This paper reviews literature on the effect of urbanization on city logistics globally and highlight lessons
for developing countries to consider. The literature is structured in categories that arise from the effect of
urbanization in city logistics such as traffic congestion, road safety concerns, urban economy, environmental impact
and energy consumption. Though the study of city logistics has been widely done in many developed Countries,
very few studies have been done on city logistics in many developing countries. It is evident through literature that
the expansion of the urban areas and cities to accommodate growing urban population is increasing the demand for
freight transport and affect the amount of freight flows in many cities and impact negatively on the flow of goods
and supplies to the cities. Cities therefore need comprehensive transport logistics plans and management that will
help to maximize its positive impact to the society. The study findings help to understand the dynamic challenges of
rapid urbanization to city logistics as well as propose solutions on city logistics measures and initiatives that aid to
reduce the effect of rapid urbanization. Further, City Logistics have been noted to be critical as the population of
cities grow, optimization and efficiency become key to future urban transport as more people demand mobility.
Keywords: dynamic, city logistics, congestion, urbanization, transport, developing countries
Cite This Article: Evans Mwamba, Gift Masaiti, and Francis Simui, Dynamic Effect of Rapid Urbanization
on City Logistics: Literature Gleened Lessons for Developing Countries.” Journal of City and Development,
vol. 3, no. 1 (2021): 37-47. doi: 10.12691/jcd-3-1-5.
1. Introduction
This article is a Literature Review excerpt from the
principal researcher’s Doctoral Thesis. The Doctoral
programme was offered by the University of Zambia
(UNZA) in collaboration with the Zimbabwe Open
University (ZOU) and had been running since 2014
[1,2,3,4]. The study explores the dynamic effect of rapid
urbanization on City Logistics worldwide to inform
developing countries in the 21st century in line with the
Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.
2. Literature Review
2.1. Understanding Urbanization
Urbanization is a global growing problem and it has
been growing throughout the twentieth century worldwide
with an estimation of 180,000 people joining global urban
population every day. This is according to [5] on the study
of urban sustainability in which he made contributions to
new thinking about urbanization and cities through
accessing, measuring and profiling urban sustainability.
He further states that cities have become critical places for
the survival of humanity as they provide possibilities for
prosperous of humanity globally. However this can only
happen if there is new rethinking on urban development.
The [6] and [7] world urbanization prospects reports states
that 3.9 billion people lives in urban areas today compared
to 746 million in 1950. The reports further estimated that
by 2050, more than 70 % of the world’s population will
live in urban areas compared to 55% today. [8] in his book
on sustainable-urban-logistics evaluation and engineering
has therefore highlighted that the expected continued
increase in urban population will affect the expansion of
the urban areas and cities and this will increase the
demand for freight transport and affect the amount of
freight flows in many cities and impact negatively on the
flow of goods and supplies to the cities. Cities will
therefore, need comprehensive transport logistics plans
and management that will help to maximize its positive
impact to the society. It is for this reason that city logistics
has been realized to be a competitive way of managing
business and development in the cities so as to help
contribute positively to rapid urbanization and achieve
sustainable economic development.
The [9] report on harnessing Africa’s opportunity from
rapid urbanization indicates that Africa is currently the
fastest urbanizing region after Asia, and urbanization is
thus a defining trend for Africa. The report further states
that apart from northern Africa, urbanization in Africa has
38 Journal of City and Development
doubled between 1995 and 2015 and this is projected to
double again in 2035. In a related report by [10], it is
highlighted that African urban population has been
growing by 14 fold from 32 million in 1950 to over 450
million in 2014 and this is expected to double by 2030 and
triple by 2050 respectively. This will be absolutely the
fastest urban population in the physical footprint of
African cities according to [11] report on policy makers’
road map for building a resilient sustainable cities.
However, economic progress in many African countries
and cities have lagged behind this urban population
growth for several years as quoted in the [10] report. This
is because urban population growth has brought various
implications for many African governments especially in
their quest to finance vital urban infrastructure like
transport infrastructure. [12] Study on urban environment
in Africa has also stated that low and poor investment in
vital urban transport infrastructure has brought many
problems in many African cities and traffic congestion and
road crashes is no exception.
Despite this wide implication of urbanization in many
African cities, urbanization has been a major driver of
development and poverty reduction throughout modern
history [13]. Though urbanization has been a major driver
of development and poverty reduction throughout modern
history many African countries are not utilizing the full
potential of urbanization due to the fact that though many
cities are growing fast, they are not making them
productive as highlighted in the [9] report on harnessing
Africa’s opportunity from rapid urbanization. According
to [10] report, historic experience has shown that though
urbanization and industrialization are closely related in a
mutual beneficial manner in developed countries it is not
so in many Africa countries. However the potential of
urbanization in strengthening economic growth and
development in African cities has only been grasped
recently. It has now been realized that African countries
must take advantage of urbanization to drive industrial
development and growth so as to achieve sustainable
urbanization. Realizing this opportunity of urbanization
therefore, requires more concerted efforts and this should
result in major investment in urban infrastructure like
transport network and other services and initiatives [14].
This is because, when urban population increases, urban
freight transport issues becomes important as it supports a
better life for people.
According to [15] report on unleashing the potential of
urban growth, urbanization has been defined as a gradual
shift in residence of human population from rural areas to
urban areas. Urbanization do not only cause a sharp
increase in the population but also commercial activities
and mobility services. In modern times rapid urbanization
has taken place due to the fact that most developmental
project are taking place more in cities. This has resulted in
the development of more cities and it is evident that these
cities will experience the challenges of traffic congestions,
road crashes and many other. The cost that will be
incurred as a result of freight traffic jams will be high in
these cities and this requires these cities to develop
comprehensive logistics system. This is because freight
traffic is not only the driver of infrastructure overload but
is also the victims of it and the question therefore is
whether the concept of city logistics which has its history
in Germany and some of its neighboring countries during
mid-1990 could help to reduce this problem [16].
Based on the above highlighted reports and study
findings, it is evident that though urbanization has brought
economic growth and development in developed countries
through increased commercial activities and mobility
services, it has brought various implications for many
developing African governments. This is mainly due to
increase in mobility demand for the flow of people, goods
and other supplies to the cities which requires huge
investment to finance vital infrastructure like urban
transport network.. It is for this reason that city logistics
has been realized to be a competitive way of managing
business and development in the cities so as to help
contribute positively to rapid urbanization and achieve
sustainable economic development.
2.2. Effects of Urbanization on City Logistics
The world has experienced rapid urbanization in the
past 100 years as highlighted in the [17] report on world
urbanization prospects. Despite urbanization creating
opportunities for both migrators and city business owners,
it also comes with a lot of challenges as it is affecting how
consumers do the shopping, what type of product and
service they need and how those goods are delivered.
Companies in cities also need to understand the
characteristics, preference and buying patterns of
consumer that will result from urbanization. Furthermore
these companies need to know how this shifting
demographics will affect their business and organization
footprint as they need to know where there customers live
and work from.
According to [9] report on harnessing Africa’s
opportunity from rapid urbanization, though industrial
success supports the growth of the city, many cities do
have challenges to cope up with rapid urban population
growth. This is because population increase through
urbanization has turned transportation freight from, to and
within urban areas a major challenge. Despite freight
transportation being a life line for urban retail and industry,
it causes traffic congestion, emission and road crashes
which results in significant negative impacts on the
quality of living in urban areas. As the population of the
city grows, optimization and efficiency will therefore be
key to future urban transport as more people will be
demanding mobility. It is for this reason that city logistics
has emerged as the solution to the future mobility of
people and goods in the cities. [18] on the study of recent
trends and innovations in modelling city logistics has
defined City logistics as a process of totally optimizing the
logistics and transport in urban areas by increasing the
logistic operations of the city but with less vehicle
movements while considering the effect on the
environment, traffic congestion, safety and energy
consumption within the context of a market economy. [19]
on the study of how City logistics changes how we supply
further defines City logistics as the process of managing
and optimizing urban freight and passenger transport
while taking into account the impact those movements
have on the environment, society and economic activity of
that particular city. City logistics is therefore an emerging
field of research, with its major focus being the efficient
Journal of City and Development 39
management and movement of goods from origins to
destinations in urban areas and interest in its problems and
concept is growing each year [20]. This is because cities
are places of largest concentration of population
and logistics is therefore very important for the cities
socio-economic sustainability.
Urbanization is currently causing exceptional challenges
to urban transport systems especially in developing
countries. Many cities in Africa therefore requires massive
public investment in road infrastructure to accommodate
the ever rising population in a compact environment.
According to [13] report conducted in Kenya on the state
of cities, it was reviewed that cities that are rapidly
growing fast have two distinct factors: they appear to have
above average car ownership rates in relation to income
and they also tend to have below average proportions of
land space devoted for road infrastructure and this too
results in high traffic congestion This current increase in
urban population has increased the demand for goods and
services and this demand increases goods delivery
commercial trips in the city resulting into more congestion,
high energy consumption, pollution and reduction in
accessibility and safety. This expected increase in freight
deliveries in the city as a result of increased demand for
goods and services supports the importance of city
logistics decisions. This is because the movement of
goods is affected by transport infrastructure condition and
industrial arrangement while on the other hand this results
in traffic congestion, high energy consumption and
pollution. The economic geography of many cities which
comprises of urban, suburban, peri-urban and surrounding
rural areas is a source of common pool of both labor
market and demand consumption and this affect city
logistics through the demand for movement of goods as
well as people in search of other services. Modern cities
hence requires the efficient and timely distribution of
freight for them to survive, grow, flourish and be
sustainable because an improvement in transport network
will expand the functional space of the growing cities and
generate economic momentum of the city. According to
[21] study on urban growth and sprawl from remote
sensing data, urban areas growth is usually dynamic and
complex in nature as is influenced by many drivers and
underlying factors and transport is considered as one of
these factors.
Traditionally urban transportation was focused on
passengers due to the fact that cities were viewed as
locations of human interactions, however cities are also
locations for production, distribution and consumption and
this is linked to freight mobility. Though many African
countries are struggling to develop adequate housing and
transport infrastructure, many developed countries have
invested in urban transport so as to support and sustain
productivity. According to [9] report on harnessing
Africa’s opportunity from rapid urbanization, the fast
development of many slums in many African cities are
done without adequate plan for transport infrastructure
and this affect city logistics The lack of adequate planned
housing results in poor transport infrastructure because
planned housing and urban infrastructure also include
transport infrastructure. It is therefore evident from the [16]
study on major challenge for logistics in global
urbanization and [23] that demographic changes through
urbanization will have a great impact on logistics and
supply chain as it will not only affect how goods and
services are bought and sold but also on how they are
delivered to the consumer in the city and this trend will
bring challenges to movement of freight in the city.
This dynamic development in urban areas due to rapid
urbanization is therefore posing serious challenges in the
provision of transport services for the growing population.
However the findings from [24] study on reduction of
social and environmental impacts of urban freight
transport gives evidence that increased road freight is also
responsible for a number of negative impacts ranging from
traffic congestion, high energy consumptions, air pollution,
public health, accidents and city accessibility. Furthermore,
the conflicts between trucks, passenger vehicles, cars,
pedestrian and cyclists usually occurs in these highly
populated urban cities and this is mainly due to high
vehicle volume and inadequate capacities in transport
infrastructure. While urbanization brings many social and
economic benefits, it also brings challenges as it puts
excessive pressure on infrastructure and its mobility
system of the cities. These challenges affects not only the
freight distribution efficiency but also the quality of life
and safety in the city. This increased urban traffic flow
due to urbanization results in congestion which lengthen
journey time, increase energy consumption and pollution
as well as traffic accidents [24].
Throughout the history of mankind, freight traffic have
developed hand-in-hand with urbanization and city
development. Factors that results in rapid urbanization in
cities also leads to high levels of traffic congestion as the
interplay of number of vehicles against available road
capacity determines the level of road traffic congestion.
This is highlighted in the study on understanding
congested travel in urban areas conducted by [25]. In this
study, it was reviewed that rapid urbanization increases
the demand for transportation and this burdens urban road
infrastructure as a result of increased number of vehicles
against road capacity and this results in traffic congestion.
The [26] report on managing urban traffic congestion
further indicates that effective urban governance requires
a balance between the benefit of urbanization and the dis-
benefits of excessive congestion. It is therefore prudent to
look into solutions that will help manage congestion as a
result of increased motorization due to rapid urbanization
in the city. According to [23] study on causes of traffic
congestion in urban areas in Poland, congestion is defined
as the breaking down in the flow of motor vehicle traffic
which results in reduction in speed due increase in vehicle
volume. This ultimately results in vehicle volume
exceeding road capacity. Congestion in city logistics
arises when transport users compete for the available
limited transport capacity and this leads to economic cost
through the increase in travel time, unreliability of travel
time and addition fuel consumption. The concentration of
population and economic potential in the cities results in
the occurrence of large transport needs and in the event
that these needs are met, a phenomenon of road
congestion occurs.
City logistics in many developing countries have many
challenges and this is mainly due to increased urban
population and increased motorization. This increased
motorization due to increased population, the existing of
40 Journal of City and Development
road transport infrastructure capacity in many of these
cities have reached critical levels and is usually unable to
meet the increasing demand of vehicles on the road. The
[27] urban transport and city efficiency strategic review
report on urban population growth reviewed that may
cities have increased motor vehicle ownership and this has
resulted in traffic congestion in developing countries.
Though this urban transportation system have positive
affect on the efficiency logistics system and customer
satisfaction of the city it has negative consequences on the
social economic development of the country as it brings
about high level of congestion. This has also been reported
by [28] study on congestion toll pricing models and
methods for variable demand networks report that was
done in in Florida. In order to improve city logistics
therefore, we need to improve urban transport network
system because congestion increases man-hours and
forces business to raise prices of their products and
services and this affect much needed time and place utility
in supply chain. Traffic congestion also increases public
transport operation cost because traffic congestion extends
travelling time, delays placement of products in the
market and increases delivery costs [23].
Urbanization process presents a tendency that increases
urban traffic flows. This increased urban traffic flow due
to urbanization results in congestion which lengthen
journey time, increase energy consumption and pollution
as well as traffic accidents. If no measure is taken to
control traffic congestion ,not only individual journey cost
and cost of trade will increase but also the entire city
transportation system will be paralyzed and this will affect
urban sustainable development. It is therefore necessary to
balance transportation supply and demand. Though one of
the practical way of matching supply and demand is by
constructing more roads, constructing more roads actually
attracts more transportation demand which results in
traffic congestion and this calls for more demand
management methods of controlling traffic in the city.
This is reported in [29] study on urban road traffic
congestion charging based on sustainable development
conducted in China. In this study Sun Ye suggested that
increase road supply is only one kind of solution to
alleviate supply and demand. This is because it has been
proved in various countries that constructing of more
roads attracts more traffic and this results in a vicious
circle of traffic congestion road building and congestion
alleviations. It is for this reason that the study on city
logistics will not only look at road construction as the
answer to city logistics but also in other solutions of
alleviating congestion in the city.
[30] on the study of the cause, effect and possible
solution to traffic congestion reviewed that as the
population of the country increases, the demand for road
travelling also increases. This therefore causes traffic
congestion where the demand for population growth has
not been accompanied by the construction of new road
network. This traffic congestion according to the study
results in waste of time, delay movements, road accidents,
inability to forecast travel time, high fuel consumption,
and road rage and environmental pollution. However
though this study pointed out that increase in road
capacity and traffic control are the major solution to traffic
congestion, there are many other city logistics solutions
that the study did not highlight. [31] and [21] also in their
study on measurement of traffic congestion on high dense
urban corridors in Hyderabad city, urban growth and
sprawl from remote sensing data respectively states that
urbanization has brought an increase in the number of
vehicles on the roads and this rise in traffic volume causes
roads to be congested. It was reviewed in their study that
urban population growth affects transport through the
increased travel and goods demand pattern and this causes
infrastructure pressure due to traffic congestion. Though
motorization is still low in many developing countries like
Zambia, road infrastructure is still underdeveloped
compared to developed countries and this results in
congestion. Despite developed countries having high
motorization in their cities which results in road
congestion than developing countries, they tend to afford
also a well-developed road and rail based mass transit
systems and this helps to reduce road transport congestion
according to [32] study on transportation in developing
countries.
According to [33] study on vehicle routing problems
for city logistics there are many strategies that many
countries have implemented so as to help address the
challenges congestion in city logistics. These strategies
ranges from infrastructure, operational, technology and
policies. However, though these City logistics solutions
are common worldwide, each country has its uniqueness
in implementing what can work in its geographical,
demographical, political, environmental, social, cultural
and economic context. Some countries have concentrated
on infrastructure, operational, technology while others in
policy execution Though many authors and researchers
have come up with their own city logistics initiatives that
will reduce congestion, [34] in the study of city logistics
concept selection, reviewed that city logistics solutions
cannot be implemented with same policies and initiatives
in all cities. This is because different demographic,
geographic, economic, sociological, cultural and historical
features as well as many different stakeholders in city
logistics who usually have conflicting interest.
Furthermore, City logistics solutions and requirements
that will help reduce congestion are different from one
city to another mainly due to specific local characteristics
like size of the city, dimension and structure of the city,
existence of specific facilities and urban road network,
shops and products in the city [35].
It should therefore not come as a surprise that
increasing city population is straining urban transportation
system due to the increase in the movement of people and
goods. However, according to the above study findings,
building of road infrastructure to reduce congestion is not
sustainable because it has been proved in various countries
that constructing of more roads attracts more traffic and
this results in a vicious circle of traffic congestion.
Furthermore, building of more roads to reduce traffic
congestion is not sustainable because construction of road
infrastructure is very costly especially for developing
countries. Managing city traffic congestion solely by
developing road infrastructure is not viable because in
urban areas space is limited and infrastructure expansion
is enormously expensive and this signifies the importance
of proper planning so as to implement other sustainable
initiatives and solutions. This study, has therefore not
Journal of City and Development 41
given comprehensive city logistics solutions that can help
reduce congestion and its effects in developing countries
cities like Lusaka city. This is because, though other
solutions have been reviewed in other related studies, they
are not a one size fits all solutions because the political,
geographical, social, cultural, economic and design of
each city will determine the city logistics. This study will
therefore focus on the solutions of city logistics of Lusaka
which will help accommodate the expected increasing rate
of motor vehicle ownership but with transportation
efficiency that will avoid the cost of transport delays due
to congestion.
2.3. Contribution of City Logistics to Road
Safety in Urbanized Cities
According to [36] report on road traffic injuries, global
urban population have grown hand in hand with
motorization in recent years as the number of motor
vehicles worldwide has grown from 0.85 billion in the
year 2000 to about 2.1 billion in 2016.This has led to an
increase in traffic and posing serious challenges to road
safety resulting in 1.35 million people dying each year due
to road traffic crashes and more than half of these
accidents occur in urban areas. This high rate of fatal
accidents in urban areas is mainly due to high urban
population resulting in mixed traffic and more than half of
them involve pedestrian, cyclist and motor cyclist. The
report further indicates that developing economies records
higher rates of traffic accidents with 93% of fatalities
coming from low to medium income countries. These
accident do not only cause human suffering through
fatalities and road traffic injuries, they also incur heavy
economic burden on family and national economy. The
report also highlights that there are proven measures to
reduce the risks of road traffic crashes as indicated in 2020
Agenda for sustainable development targets for reduction
of road traffic crashes.
[36] Further reviewed that road accident poses serious
economic problems especially in low and middle income
countries as the death rates in these countries due to road
crashes and injuries are three times higher than in higher
income countries. It is actually estimated that road traffic
crashes have serious impacts on national economies as its
cost is approximately 3% of their annual gross domestic
product in developing countries like Zambia.
According to [37] report on good practices for
reducing road safety risks caused by road users distraction,
the number of road accident in cities have grown and it is
mainly vulnerable people like pedestrian and cyclist who
are mainly victims. [38] Report on action plan on mobility
reviewed that 69% of road accidents occur in cities. This
is because vulnerable road users have increased in many
cities especially in developing countries like Zambia due
to rapid urbanization. City logistics solution should
therefore be planned so as to help protect road crashes
caused by other venerable road users. [39] Study on road
traffic safety in Africa countries further states that road
crashes constitute a major health, economic and
development problem for many African countries. It
further states that though Africa has only 4% of the global
motor vehicle population, it accounts for more than 10 %
of world’s total collisions and fatalities and increased
motorization in Africa as a result of increased urbanization
will result in the increase of number of road traffic crashes.
[39] Further states that more than 40% of these fatalities
on African roads are pedestrians.
[28] study on congestion toll pricing models and
methods for variable demand networks report that was
done in Florida observes that though urban transportation
system positively affects the efficiency logistics system
and customer satisfaction of the city, it has negative
consequences on the social economic development of the
country as it brings about high level of road safety
challenge with an estimated of 69 % of road traffic crashes
occurring in urban areas. This represents about 500,000
deaths and up to 15 million people injured in urban road
accidents in developing countries each year as highlighted
in the [40]. These accidents as underlined in the [41] are
estimated at a direct economic cost of between 1 and 2
percent of worldwide gross domestic product. It is further
estimated that the loss due to road crashes at 1 to 2 percent
of worldwide global domestic product (GDP) is estimated
at $65 billion and this is equal to the total annual aid and
lending’s the international institutions gives to these
countries.
[42] study on urban growth, travel practice and
evolution of road safety reviewed that the harmful effect
of transport in urban planning need to be taken more into
account. This is because road safety has become the
priority in urban travel. However while the influence of
urban planning on road safety has become a major issue,
very little study has been under taken on this subject.
Though road network has often been studied for its
influence on road safety other urban characteristics like
population, land use, housing density have not received
comprehensive studies [43,44]. [45] In the study of
uncovering the behavior of road accidents in urban areas
reviewed that, despite the fact that road accidents being a
global challenge, many researchers have not answered the
question on how the number of accidents in urban areas
increases with the increase in population in cities. This is
because, when quantifying the different aspect of the cities,
simple per capital measures are used though these only
assume implicitly that urban characteristics increases
linearly with population size. This assumption however is
not entirely correct as it ignores the inherent nonlinear
nature of the organization and dynamics of the cities with
different population sizes. [46] in the study of factors
influencing traffic accident frequencies on urban roads
has reviewed that in order to reduce the occurrence of
traffic accidents and its impact on traffic in urban areas, it
is necessary to analyze the vital, factors that affect the
occurrence of traffic accidents so as to put forward the
corresponding accident analyzing model. This will help to
provide scientific basis for optimizing traffic management
as well as provide useful information in the development
of traffic regulations.
According to [47] Zambian annual road traffic crash
statistics report, reported that Zambia has been
experiencing rapid growth in both human and motor
vehicle population over the last 10 year with an average of
45,000 motor vehicle being registered each year. Further
[48] report also indicates that the population has been
growing at 3% per annum. However this growth in vehicle
and human population in Zambia like in many African
42 Journal of City and Development
countries has not grown at the same level with road and
other transport infrastructure and this brings about safety
challenges especially in urban areas. In 2019, Zambia
recorded a total number of 30,648 road traffic crashes
which resulting in 1,746 fatalities and more than 50 % of
the road crashes occurred in urban areas. Despite many
continuance road upgrading and constructions as well as
road safety interventions that the Government and road
transport and safety agency has introduced in Lusaka city,
the rate of accident has not improved and pedestrians and
cyclist are the most venerable road users [47].
Improved city logistics therefore helps reduce road
crashes and this may have a positive effect on the
economy of the country and the city because increase in
traffic due to urbanization do not only cause congestion
but also causes a high risk of accidents in the city. The
study of city logistics of Lusaka city should therefore be
conducted so as not to look into how city logistics can
help improve road safety but also on how road safety can
be improved by reducing risks caused by venerable road
user’s distraction. This is because characteristics and
behavior of venerable road users in Lusaka city are unique
to other countries and region due to social, demographic,
economic and political setup of the country.
2.4. Contribution of City Logistics to Urban
Economy
According to [49] transportation is a very essential
logistical driver of supply chain as it contributes to
economic growth in the urban areas. Effective urban
transportation system affects the efficiency of logistics
system and customer satisfaction of the City. This is
because a lot of economic activities in urban areas depend
on the movement and delivery of goods and services and
these movements depends on urban freight. Despite many
Cities being developed and organized with the priority on
human mobility, the cities economical activities through
freight transport remain vital to the success of many urban
areas. It is for this reason the rapid growth of China and
other Asian Countries’ and urbanized city economies
have been attributed to highly developed transport
infrastructure and logistics system [50].
[51] Study on Logistics Inefficiencies of Urban
Transportation System in Ghana further states that City
logistics plays a important role in the development of the
economy of the City because urban transport is a crucial
driver of supply chain as it helps to facilitate socio-
economic development and enables business
competitiveness in the global economy. The study also
highlights that cities are the engine of economic growth in
most developing countries and to this effect urban
transport is the oil that prevents the engine from stopping
to run. It is for this reasons that deteriorating transport
conditions in many developing countries are not helping
in improving urban economies. Transport logistics is
therefore very vital to the life of city citizens in every
society because it does not only affect urbanization but it
is also one of the major provider of wealth [52]. As the
world economy improves and technology increases and
the way we do our business should also change. City
logistics can therefore help to promote innovative schemes
that will reduce the total cost of economic activities, social
and environmental cost of goods movement in the city
[53]. According to [54] transport is the blood stream of
every economy as it keeps the economy running by
carrying goods, people and services. It is the blood stream
because the movement of goods, people and services is
one of the major activity that affect every economy and
society as it connects supplier to customer and
accomplishes the objective of the supply chain. Freight
transport is therefore very critical to economic growth in
any Country because its efficiency can strengthen the
countries business competitiveness [55].
According to [56] study in the challenges of logistics
performance, logistics system is negatively affected by
underinvestment in transport infrastructure of the city and
this has the negative effect on the social and economic
activities of the city. The immediate effect of
underinvestment in transport infrastructure is the
ineffective transportation and this results in rising cost of
logistic activities and business. Delays in the delivery of
goods such as perishable goods to destination results in
goods not being delivered in the same fresh condition and
this reduces shelf life of the products as poses a great risk
to business as products are not sold at economic price.
In many developing Countries, the pressure on urban
transport systems due to urbanization is increasing. Motor
vehicle ownership and use has been increasing with
vehicle ownership growing at 15 to 20 percent per year in
some developing countries. Though freight transport in
urban areas due to increase in urban populations plays an
important role in the economic and social development of
our cities, its impact on the quality of life, accessibility
and attractiveness of local communities has received little
attention in comparison to passenger transport especially
in developing countries like Zambia [26]. However it is
evident that city logistics can help improve the economy
of the city by optimizing transportation of goods and
services so as to reduce congestion, loading and unloading
operations and energy use. This is because the aim of city
logistics is to minimize or reduce transportation operation
cost in the city [57] (Francis & Antonio 2020).
Additionally, City logistics should be part of economic
policy of every country because transport is one of the
basic factor determining the level of economic
development social and environmental impacts. [58]
Taniguchi, Thompson, 2001). According to [33] 7% of
the gross domestic product (GDP) in 2009 in EU was due
to transport industry with a total employment capacity of
5%.
2.5. Urbanized and Environmental Impact
and Energy Consumption
Transport has a positive role to the economy, as
highlighted by [51] study on Logistics inefficiencies of
urban transportation system in Ghana, however despite
this positive role of transport to the urban economy, the
large number of freight in major cities due to urbanization
often bring about externalities and cause huge challenges
like high energy consumption and pollution. This is
because transport is one of the major contributor of global
GHG emissions as it accounts for 29% of GHG emission.
It is further estimated that 60% of global oil consumption
and 25% of energy consumption is due to transportation.
Journal of City and Development 43
[50] As cities grows in population more challenges in
combating GHG arises due to increase in transport.
According to [59] global emission are rising and the
global target of reducing 50 % of carbon emission by 2030
and net zero by 2050 will be hard to achieve. Urbanized
cities therefore need comprehensive transport logistics
plans through city logistics so as to help maximize its
positive impact to the society. It is for this reason that City
logistics has been realized to be a competitive way of
managing business and development in the cities while at
the same time achieving the much needed sustainable
economic development urban areas.
Though urban transportation system affects the
efficiency logistics system and customer satisfaction of
the City it has negative consequences on the social
economic development of the city as it brings about high
level of environmental impact. The major environmental
impact in City Logistics are fuel consumption, noise and
pollution emission [60]. According to [61], freight
transportation is a major contributor of climate change.
[62] Study further estimates that approximately 10% of
energy related emission comes from fright transport.
These negative impacts of freight activities has great
influence in the attractiveness of the city and its livability.
Though modern cities account for 2 percent of the world’s
land mass, they are responsible for over 80 percent of
global energy consumption and around 70 percent of
worlds greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions [13]. In Europe,
urban freight is responsible for 25 percent of urban
transport related carbon dioxide emissions and about 30-
50 percent of other transport related pollutants like
nitrogen oxide. It also accounts for significant part of
ambient noise and this cause a lot of discomfort to City
dwellers especially at night.
As quoted from [63] City logistics is the process of
totally optimizing the logistics and transport in urban
areas while considering the effect on the environment and
other externalities. This total optimization of transport and
logistics activities will not only help to minimize the
overall total costs of city logistics but also other
environmental factors that are generated by transport
logistics activities. City Logistics will aim at increasing
the efficiency logistics process and activities of the city as
well as help mitigate the negative effects of transport
logistics [18]. This is because smooth functioning of cities
without efficient logistics is currently impossible. City
logistics activities must therefore be adapted to the
requirement of sustainable development. The objective of
sustainable freight transport in City logistics is to reduce
energy consumption per ton-kilometer, reduce ton-
kilometer of less sustainable transport modes and increase
in the use of transport modes that are environmental
friendly [55].
Traffic congestion in the city do lead to substantial
increase in CO2 emissions for freight vehicles as there is
always a relationship between emissions, distance
travelled and travel speed for large truck [65]. Total
energy inputs and greenhouse emissions have been
estimated to be contributing 63% through tailpipe
operations for on-road vehicles [66] During congestion,
higher level of acceleration and baking during congestion
leads to high fuel consumption on freight Since freight
vehicles can produce significant amount harmful emission
of sulphur oxide, nitrogen oxide and particulate matter,
there is need to reduce the level of emission is harmful to
the population living and working in cities. According to
[67] in the study of the relationship between the features
of urban freight transportation and negative impacts of
urban freight transport operations, air pollutant emissions
per vehicle kilometer and fossil fuel consumption per
vehicle kilometer have been identified as a major
influence in vehicle air pollution.
Implementing effective city logistics measure and
policies could help in combating environmental damage
from the increase vehicular pollution emission. It is
therefore evident that logistics solutions like development
of logistics network design and sustainable logistics
management policies help to reduce carbon emission
through determination of optimal configuration of
logistics infrastructure.
2.6. City Logistics Framework in Urbanized
City of Lusaka
In order develop city logistics, there is need to look into
city logistics framework. There are many aspects in the
designing, assessing, implementing and evaluating city
logistics frameworks. They range from infrastructure,
regulatory, logistical, cooperative, technical, and
behavioral approaches [68]. The report further states that,
City logistics framework development should be divided
into design, assessment, implement and evaluate stages.
The design stage involves the identification of problems
its causes and setting of goals. This also involves listening
to public voices so as to identify problems and its causes
in city logistics. The assessment stage involves the use of
a pilot project so as to help determine side effects. This
helps to monitor if restricting of trucks in some city
locations does not result in the increase in a high number
of small trucks resulting into congestion and negative
environmental impact. Implementation stage is a stage that
needs collaboration between public authorities and private
companies because the success of any city logistics
measure depends on the mutual understanding and
cooperation of stake holders in the city. Evaluation stage
require multiple criteria so as to help assess policy
measures as well as cost for freight carriers,
environmental impact, traffic safety and energy
consumption. Key performance indicators (KPI) like life
quality in the city, economic development, accessibility
and transport efficiency will therefore play a very
important role in evaluating city logistics policy measures
[68].
According to [69] a number of studies have proposed
frameworks or metric for evaluating road network .While
some studies have focused on the modeling and
computational aspect as highlighted by [70] other
research studies have developed mathematical modeling
and optimization techniques to identify worst-case road
network scenarios, or best responses to such scenarios
[71]. However, despite the above suggested models and
frameworks, many studies have emphasized on the road
network vulnerability evaluation itself as highlighted by
[72]. Road network vulnerability is a risk to road
infrastructure disruptions in the society and the impact of
this disruptions for individuals are evaluated in economic
44 Journal of City and Development
terms. This urban transport network system consists of
four main categories, namely facility networks, route
network, organization network and demand network.
There are two major types of models that are used in
city logistics. These are optimization model and
simulation model. According to [73] Solomon (1997)
optimization model is the model that makes the best use of
available resources under constraints circumstance. In
order to make best use of available resources during
constraining circumstances so as to achieve efficient
routine and scheduling, analyzing of road network
vulnerability is necessary as it helps in prioritizing the
planning and preparing for emergency responses.
Analyzing of road vulnerability therefore helps in
developing mitigating measures through maintaining of
road network, prioritizing, budgeting and preparing of
emergency responses in the city [74]. According to [75]
road network vulnerability is defined as the susceptibility
of the road network to incidences as a result of
considerable reductions in road network serviceability.
Road network disruptions is usually caused by a wide
range of events and some of them originate from transport
system like traffic accidents and traffic failures while
others are external caused by nature like floods due to
heavy rains which makes the road fully or partially
impassable. It is therefore important to conduct road
network vulnerability analysis by comparing and
aggregating the various aspects of disruption impacts for
under different scenarios. Evaluation of road network
vulnerability is done through mathematical models and
optimization techniques so as to respond scenarios. Road
network performance modeling is therefore essential in
transport planning as it will help develop mitigating
measure in the city. This will help city planners in
understanding how the road network in the city can absorb
disturbances and also adapt so that the road network
retains essentially the same capacity [74].
2.7. City Logistics Solutions in Urbanized
Cities
Arising from [55] study, it is therefore evident that city
logistics help promote urbanization as it improve the
sustainable economy of the city through optimization of
transport. This helps to reduce cost of doing business in
the city through the reduction of cost of traffic congestion,
energy consumption and time saving. According to [75]
the amount and characteristic of freight transport demand
is determined by logistics decisions along the supply chain.
The trends of City development are exogenous and they
have exacerbated the challenges of urban freight system.
In an effort to respond to these challenges, city logistics
planners and providers have of late been devoted to
finding appropriate solutions to promote sustainability,
effectiveness, safety and security.
In recent times many modeling techniques for planning
and evaluating the city policy measures have been
developed and Interest in the problems and conceptual
solutions for city logistics is increasing each year.
According to [18] there are a number of techniques and
approaches to help solve city logistics problems. However
some initiatives require a high infrastructure support to be
launched while others try to improve the existing
situations by assessing different scenarios and established
solutions that aim at optimizing their efficiency [76]. [77]
Also states that city logistics initiatives can also be
divided into 2 groups. These are initiatives within the
current urban context and initiatives with changing urban
context. Initiatives of current urban context are focused on
better utilization of available infrastructure like road,
vehicles and warehouses. These do not require large
investments and are easy to apply. They include policy
initiatives like road pricing, loading and unloading zones,
carrier cooperation, vehicle routine improvements and
technological vehicle innovation. Initiatives with changing
urban context are complex and difficult to implement and
apply as they require significant financial investment like
infrastructure and the involvement of different
stakeholders. This includes construction of infrastructure
like logistics centers, road network and underground
system. However managing city logistics solely by
developing road infrastructure is not viable because in
urban areas space is limited and infrastructure expansion
is enormously expensive and this signifies the importance
of proper planning so as to implement other sustainable
initiatives and solutions. Urban goods transport planning
and management is therefore one of the way to achieve
city logistics as it will help reduce transport costs,
congestion and environmental impact of this activity City
logistics initiatives can further be classified to their level
of contributions to improve environmental, economic,
social sustainability or transport efficiency. These are
Environmental zones, time windows, vehicles restrictions
by weight, length or area, load restrictions, night
distribution, loading and unloading zones, segmentation to
traffic and road pricing. [77].
According to [33] there are many strategies that many
countries have implemented so as to help address the
challenges of city logistics. These strategies ranges from
infrastructure, operational, technology and policies. These
City logistics solutions are common worldwide, however
each country has its uniqueness in implementing what can
work in its environmental, social, cultural and economic
context. Some countries have concentrated on infrastructure,
operational, technology while others in policy execution
Though many authors and researchers have come up with
their own city logistics initiatives, city logistics cannot be
implemented with same policies and initiatives in all cities
[34]. This is because different demographic, geographic,
economic, sociological, cultural and historical features as
well as many different stakeholders in city logistics who
usually have conflicting interest [34]. Furthermore, City
logistics needs and requirements are different from one
city to another mainly due to specific local characteristics
like size of the city, dimension and structure of the city,
existence of specific facilities and urban road network,
shops and products in the city [35]. There is therefore
need to find specific solutions for city logistics of Lusaka
city owing to the geographical, political cultural,
demographical, and economical and design of the city.
2.8. Urban Population and Freight Trends in
Zambia
In many developing counties transport challenges might
be similar in the cities with a large deficit between
Journal of City and Development 45
demand and supply, congestion, lack of unloading and
loading spaces due to high density, insufficient planning
and logistics sprawl leading to longer distances to the final
receiver [79]. Of late many developing countries Zambia
inclusive have experienced the increasing pressure on
urban transport systems. Motor vehicle ownership and use
has been increasing with vehicle ownership growing at 15
to 20 percent per year in some developing countries. This
growth is exceeding the ability and the rate of road space
and it results in major impediment to efficient working of
urban economies in cities due to high levels of congestion
and road safety concerns [47]. Though freight transport in
urban areas plays an important role in the economic and
social development of our urban areas, its impact on the
quality of life, accessibility and attractiveness of local
communities and cities has received little attention in
comparison to passenger transport especially in
developing countries like Zambia [26].
Transport and urban growth are always strongly related
with a reciprocal relationship between them. On one hand
transport infrastructure attracts urban population and
growth while on the other hand urban population and
growth attracts transport infrastructure by causing an
increase travel demand and movement of goods .Studies
has indicated that transport infrastructure expansion and
urban growth highly correlates. This is because it is
evident from the studies that population growth in urban
areas increases urban trips and freight movement and this
usually creates an imbalance between transport
infrastructure supply and travel demand results in
congestion [80]. Transport plays an important role in
urban development by providing the essential mobility
options for people and goods and this influences the
pattern and growth of urban economy. It is therefore
evident that understanding transport urban dynamics is
important in increasing necessary conditions for
developing urban strategies [81].
Zambia’s population stands at 18, 3 million people [82].
Zambia has also been categorized as one of the most
urbanized country in sub-Sahara Africa. Its urban
population stands at 45.3 percent and it is growing at a
rate of percent 3 percent 82]. Though urbanization in
Zambia has provided massive advantages to drive
socio-economic development, it has also brought
challenges in the cities like Lusaka due to the increase in
demand for freight and passenger transport and this has
affected the amount of freight flows in the cities and
impact negatively on the flow of goods and supplies. It is
estimated that from the 45% of the Zambian population
that live in the urban areas, most of this urban population
depends on public transport for their daily transit and
goods delivery [48]. However public transport service in
Zambia is of relatively low quality and is more expensive
compared with developed countries. As a result, the city
has experienced increased usage of private motor vehicles
in both freight and passenger transport leading to traffic
congestion and road safety concerns [83]. Zambia’s
population is projected to increase from the current 18
million people to 24 million people by the year 2030.
Urbanization in Zambia is also growing at a rate 4.3 %
annually and the urban population is projected to reach 11
million by 2030 [84]. With the growth of urban population
in Zambia, traffic flows will increase and it is for this
reason that city logistics is required so as to optimize the
movement of goods and people and achieve the much
need sustainable urban economy.
3. Conclusion
Emergent from this study is clear evidence that
demonstrates a wealth of literature on the dynamic effect
of rapid urbanization on City Logistics predominantly in
developed world. Despite its empirical evidence of how
city logistics make the city viable by improving the
economy of the city while reducing transport cost,
congestion, improving safety and environmental impact
the efficient urban goods transport planning and
management, many developing countries have not
examined how city logistics can help city be viable. Thus,
cities in developing world must therefore respond to these
challenges due to growth in mobility by not only
expanding transportation supply through building
transport network that will accommodate the increasing
number of people and vehicles but also through other city
logistics solutions.
4. Implications for developing Countries
Arising from the above review, it is evident that:
1. Rapid urbanization comes with high motorization
related challenges in many cities because
urbanization process presents a tendency that
increases urban traffic flow.
2. Tailor-made studies on the effect of urbanization on
city logistics should be conducted so as not only
look into how urban population affect city logistics
but also find the city logistics solutions that could
help reduce the challenges that comes with high
motorization like, traffic congestion, energy
consumption, road accident and environmental
pollution.
3. Equally, urbanization contributes to exceptional
challenges to urban transport systems in many cities
like Lusaka. Cities must therefore respond to these
challenges due to growth in mobility by not only
expanding transportation supply through building
transport network that will accommodate the
increasing number of people and vehicles but also
through other city logistics solutions.
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... This is against the expectation of the passenger transport industry were passengers are picked at many multiple points. Enforcement of the law in such an environment is unattainable [40]. ...
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