PreprintPDF Available
Preprints and early-stage research may not have been peer reviewed yet.

Abstract

Adaptation in forestry, aids in sustainable forest management that has a global climate change focus. Global climate change, over following a hundred years, is predicted to deeply impact forest ecosystems. Climate change, owing to greenhouse gas emissions, lead to extreme, and in some cases, violent, consequences. Strategies should be noted that lead to the mitigation of these damages to the environment. Current projections of temperature change represent an extra increase in average world surface temperature, increase in atmospheric greenhouse emission concentrations and changes in precipitation. Forest ecosystems are one of the most economical systems in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, capturing carbon in soil and biomass, and reducing the vulnerability of individuals and ecosystems. Adapting to global climate change, within the face of the unsure temporal order of impacts means that we need to have a set of promptly accessible choices. Promising tools, to realize this stabilization with social, economic and environmental objectives, would affect forest management methods. Managing and adapting to forest threats need to be highly prioritized to preserve the genetic diversity and stability of forest habitats.
!
!
Article # D24MLY20R13 Article type: Review Accepted: Feb. 2021 Online: March 2021
1!
Forest Management in relation to Climate change
Gyanaranjan Sahoo1*, Afaq Majid Wani 2
1!Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology (OUAT), Angul, Odisha, India.
2 Dept. of Forest Biology & Tree Improvement, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology
and Sciences (SHUATS), Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India.
*Corresponding author, e-mail: gyanaranjan.sahoo3@gmail.com
Citation:
Sahoo, G., and Wani, A. M., 2021. Forest management in relation to climate change. Bioingene PSJ
2:d24mly20r13, 1-10. http://bioingene.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/D24MLY20R13.pdf
Copyright: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution License (CC BY 4.0).
Conflict of Interest: None
Abstract: Adaptation in forestry, aids in sustainable forest management that has a global climate
change focus. Global climate change, over following a hundred years, is predicted to deeply impact
forest ecosystems. Climate change, owing to greenhouse gas emissions, lead to extreme, and in some
cases, violent, consequences. Strategies should be noted that lead to the mitigation of these damages
to the environment. Current projections of temperature change represent an extra increase in average
world surface temperature, increase in atmospheric greenhouse emission concentrations and changes
in precipitation. Forest ecosystems are one of the most economical systems in reducing greenhouse
gas emissions, capturing carbon in soil and biomass, and reducing the vulnerability of individuals and
ecosystems. Adapting to global climate change, within the face of the unsure temporal order of impacts
means that we need to have a set of promptly accessible choices. Promising tools, to realize this
stabilization with social, economic and environmental objectives, would affect forest management
methods. Managing and adapting to forest threats need to be highly prioritized to preserve the genetic
diversity and stability of forest habitats.
Keywords: Climate Change Mitigation, Forest Management, Ecosystem Services, Forest Ecosystems
Introduction
The existence of forests is directly
associated with the health state of
communities, the standard of life in
rural areas and also the atmosphere,
notably the diverseness of fauna and
flora. Challenged with the facts of
world global climate change, that is
additionally occurring due to the great
injury of wood protection everywhere,
caused by the advancement of
agricultural borders and heifers, the
large incidence of rural fires and also
the overuse of resources, not to
!
!
Article # D24MLY20R13 Article type: Review Accepted: Feb. 2021 Online: March 2021
2!
mention the emanations of
conservatory smokes into the
atmosphere from industrial activity,
and also the transport of individuals
and product, the planet needs to make
sure of its survival (Brown et al., 1995)
Earth’s atmosphere has been
undergoing changes due to increasing
human population and its activities; the
most vital changes being the rise in
concentration of carbon oxide and
different inexperienced GHGs in the
troposphere (Brown et al., 1995).
There is a transparent proof for the
changes that have occurred in the
composition of greenhouse gases in
the lower atmosphere throughout the
last century (IPCC 2007) and over the
time scales of glacial and interglacial
periods. Carbon dioxide is one among
the main greenhouse gases, the level
of which is endlessly rising in the
atmosphere since preindustrial times
(Lal and Singh 2000). Human-induced
growth in distinctive carbon dioxide
over the past hundred and forty years
is thought to have contributed to
average world temperature increase
as well as different changes in climate
and is traceable largely to fossil fuel
combustion and deforestation
worldwide. Fossil fuels combustion
causes increase in carbon dioxide
releases, concerning twenty-one billion
tonnes of carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere annually, whereas
deforestation is estimated to account
for 15-30% of annual carbon dioxide
emission (Kindermmann et al., 2008).
Anthropogenic deforestation is
changing the forest from being sinks of
carbon dioxide to its sources. Global
anthropogenic carbon emissions of 12-
20% were reported annually from
anthropogenic desertification and
forest deprivation within the tropics,
throughout the past decade (Paoli et.
al., 2010).
Sustainable forest management
(SFM) provides a versatile, robust,
credible and well-tested framework, at
the same time reducing carbon
emissions, sequestering carbon, and
enhancing adaptation to temperature
change (Ahenken and Boon, 2010). It
promotes the provision of
environmentally sustainable forest
products, the conservation of
biodiversity, protected freshwater
materials and the provision of various
critical ecosystem services at constant
intervals. The SFM covers seven
thematic components: (1) the scope of
forest resources; (2) biological
!
!
Article # D24MLY20R13 Article type: Review Accepted: Feb. 2021 Online: March 2021
3!
diversity; (3) forest health and vitality;
(4) forest productive functions; (5) the
conservation of forest functions; (6)
socio-economic functions; and (7) the
legal, political and institutional context.
It will be applied to forests in which
timber is grown, along with cultivated
forests, still protected forests and
degraded forests in need of
restoration. Protected forest areas
improve the resilience of structures
and ecosystems to climate change and
may, through their genetic resources
and ecosystem services, provide a
'safety net' for climate change
adaptation. However, insufficient
support for the protection of protected
areas poses a major challenge to the
mitigation and adaptation of climate
changes and wants to be discussed.
Wood can be a natural resource
and an economical carbon storage
material until it is harvested from
sustainably managed forests. However
wood-harvesting quickly reduces
carbon storage within the forest, an
outsized a part of the harvested
carbon will be keep in wood products,
probably for several decades (Angst et
al., 2019). Once wood is involved in
long-term items such as housing and
furniture, the reduction in gas
emissions is important compared to
various energy-intensive and carbon-
intensive alternatives such as
concrete, steel, aluminum and plastics.
Valuable, renewable and carbon-
neutral sources of biomass for energy
are sustainable forests.
Compared to different
renewables like solar, hydro and wind,
wood-based bioenergy plantations
need comparatively very little capital or
technological development and will be
a particularly economical land use on
abandoned agricultural land and on
soils too poor to supply annual crops
(Ray et al., 2020). Under SFM,
harvested trees are replaced by others
through regeneration, replanting or
different silvicultural measures; several
forests are managed during this
method for hundreds of years while not
measurable declines in condition or
productivity. Carbon lost throughout
gathering is eventually rebuilt through
new growth. Managed unsustainably,
however, forests will lose carbon stock
and productivity (Campeau et al.,
2019). Forest plantations that provide
over 60% of developed roundwood are
already vital carbon sinks and pools
and their role in temperature change
mitigation is probably going to extend
!
!
Article # D24MLY20R13 Article type: Review Accepted: Feb. 2021 Online: March 2021
4!
in importance. Arid and semi-arid
forests have low carbon values
compared to various woodland biomes
(Huxman et al., 2004). However, such
forests can serve as barriers between
agricultural fields and denser forests,
thereby playing a very important role in
the conservation of carbon. Semi-arid
lands may also be ideal candidates for
forest-based mitigation schemes in
some situations (Eliasch, 2008).
Forest Management for Carbon
Conservation
The economic objectives that
emerge as a result of this objective are
primarily the causes of deforestation
and forest destruction, also connected
to agricultural and grazing land
expansion and degradation, and the
demand for timber products for
subsistence and commodities. It is
critical, in this case, that deforestation
reduction programs take steps to
increase agricultural productivity and
sustainability (Angst et al., 2019).
Measures designed to allow larger
carbon fractions to be maintained can
include increasing the rotation times of
managed forests, reducing damage to
remaining trees, reducing waste
through soil conservation techniques,
and using wood more carbon-
efficiently.
A good example of this kind of
forest management is what can be
often found within the blue gum
planted forests for the availability of
raw materials to the pulp industry.
These short rotation crops wherever
the plant replacement cycle is brief
permits the accumulated carbon to be
preserved, as in point of fact this short
rotation system solely permits the
carbon came to the cycle to be
captured and deposited (Brown et al.,
1996), however doesn't enable a
positive balance towards carbon
fixation for long periods.
Forest Ecosystems and Climate
Change
Climate change could be a
multi-scalar environmental and social
issue that affects completely different
sectors and its impacts is also specific
to individual sectors or regions.
Ahenkan and Boon (2010) have stated
that the most vulnerable sectors to
temperature change are agriculture,
biodiversity, water, health, forests and
energy sectors. The various natural
assets are forests that maintain a
balance between earth and
!
!
Article # D24MLY20R13 Article type: Review Accepted: Feb. 2021 Online: March 2021
5!
environmental processes and also
provide protection for different forest
dwellers. They play a key role in
habitat protection, water quality
management and in preventing or
minimizing the severity of floods,
avalanches, erosion and drought.
Forest habitats provide a broad variety
of economic and social aspects, such
as jobs, forest products and the
preservation of cultural value websites
(FAO, 2006). They home to utmost of
the world’s biodiversity and sustain the
livelihoods of over one billion of the
world’s poorest people (Sahoo et al.,
2019). Degradation of forest resources
incorporates a prejudicial impact on
soil, water and climate that
successively affects human and
animal life.
Forest Management Strategies
Being the biggest store of
telluric stock of carbon once coal and
oil, forests have a significant role to
play within the fight against warming.
The biological science sector cannot
solely sustain its carbon however
conjointly has the potential to soak up
carbon from the atmosphere (Lal and
Singh, 2000). Practical timberland the
board could be a dynamic and
advancing thought that intends to keep
up and improve the financial,
community and ecological worth of
each kind of woods, for the good thing
about gift and future generations.
Effective forest management practices
may end up in certain survival of forest
ecosystems and can conjointly
increase their potential to produce
environmental, socio-cultural and
economic services to human race. It
may also increase the contribution of
those ecosystems to temperature
change mitigation (Mbow et al. 2017),
observing the sustenance of forest-
dependent communities and serving to
them to adapt to new environmental
conditions caused by temperature
change. Community forest
management will considerably
contribute to minimize forest emissions
and intensify forest carbon stocks,
whereas maintaining alternative forest
edges. Outflows for ecology amenities
are also helpful in conserving,
acknowledging and bounties sensible
community forest management
practices. A forest is internet sinks or
internet sources of carbon, looking on
their age, health and status to wildfires
and alternative disturbances,
additionally as on however they're
managed. Forest management
!
!
Article # D24MLY20R13 Article type: Review Accepted: Feb. 2021 Online: March 2021
6!
interventions that lead to carbon
emission reductions or magnified
carbon sequestration might probably
be rewarded by REDD-plus (FAO,
2010). Financial help for temperature
change adaptation of forests,
biological science and forest-
dependent people is provided by
numerous funds managed by the
worldwide atmosphere Facility.
Developing and managing
agroforestry systems on agricultural
lands and farms, urban and rural tree
plantations, trees roads, rivers and
human settlements will considerably
contribute to environmental property.
They guarantee huge opportunities for
providing financial gain, an outsized
range of products and system services
for rural households, food security and
poorness demolition (Ramachandran,
2009). UN agency provides technical
help to enhance the management of
agroforestry systems therefore on
enhance the potential of trees outside
forests to handle world challenges of
poverty, land degradation, temperature
change and biodiversity loss.
Forest, Climate Change and Global
Economy
Forests are our vital terrestrial
storehouses of carbon and play
important role in regulation of climate.
Deforestation and forest degradation
unleash keep carbon into the
atmosphere as carbon dioxide
emissions. The world forest sector
produces an expected 5.8 GtCO2
annually (IPCC, 2006). Deforestation
is going on speedily within the tropics,
wherever an estimated thirteen million
hectares an area the extents of
England – are born-again to alternative
land uses every year (Moutinho,
2005). Deforestation in tropical regions
usually emits considerably a lot of
dioxide than forests elsewhere within
the world. Modelling for the Eliasch
Review estimates that the world
economic price of the global climate
change impacts of deforestation can
rise to around $1 trillion a year by 2100
if intense (Eliasch, 2008). The entire
injury price of forest loss for the world
economy might be $12 trillion in web
gift worth terms (Secretariat of the
Convention on Biological Diversity,
2001). These prices are added to
global climate change injury caused by
emissions from alternative sectors
(Eliasch, 2008).
!
!
Article # D24MLY20R13 Article type: Review Accepted: Feb. 2021 Online: March 2021
7!
To achieve the general
objective of the Framework
Convention (Bodansky 2019), it's of
supreme importance that forest
ecosystems round the world are in a
very state within which their ability to
perform as greenhouse emission sinks
is maintained and increased. This
needs conservation additionally as
sustainable management and
redoubled sinks and storage. it's so
necessary to use the subsequent
general actions:
The development of measures
against geologic process,
deforestation, and forest destruction:
this could aim at the suitable
stabilization of the forest space and
may even increase stabilization;
The promotion of the whole health of
ecosystems: this action particularly
includes actions that counter the
harmful effects caused by, for
instance, contaminants;
The improvement of measures to
counter the debasement and
unreasonable administration of
environments furthermore as
measures that boost the capability of
backwoods to go about as sinks of
ozone depleting substances
(stockpiling densities, biomass
amount, and so forth);
• The promotion of research on forests
as sources, sinks, and reservoirs of
carbon additionally as their sustainable
management. Climate change
adaptation ways is viewed as a risk
management part of sustainable forest
management plans. Including
adaptation in forest management
needs a landscape-level read of the
forest and integration across all
components of the forest sector.
To retain sustainability of timber
and non-timber resources and to
assess economic implications, tools
are necessary to style and measure
choices. In order to use the tools
efficiently, the knowledge gaps on the
susceptibility of species and genotypes
need to be identified and filled. The
impact of global climate change can be
compounded by reconciling behavior if
implemented foolishly or by not having
a decent understanding of the
biophysical consequences.
Conclusion
Forest restoration and sustainable
forest management are thought-about
vital measures for mitigating global
climate change. They are not meant
!
!
Article # D24MLY20R13 Article type: Review Accepted: Feb. 2021 Online: March 2021
8!
just for mitigating global climate
change except for providing numerous
productive services like production of
products, protecting services
comprising protection of soil and
water, environmental services together
with biodiversity conservation, and
socio-cultural services by supporting
the livelihood of individuals and
economic condition alleviation. At the
side of these services, forest
ecosystems are a deposit of assorted
opportunities for the economic welfare
of people. Hence, forestry is simply not
a bridge to the future; it should be a
vital part of any management strategy
required to mitigate global climate
change. We need the tools to change
local and planted forests to evolve with
global climate change. Climate change
mitigation and adaptation measures
should balance between local and
national forest objectives with
synergistic approach. The biological
science community has to judge the
long effects of global climate change
on forests and verify what the
community may do currently and in the
future to retort to the current threat.
Reference:
1. Ahenkan, A. and Boon, E.
(2010): Climate Change
Adaptation through Sustainable
Forest Management: A Case
Study of Communities around
the Sui River Forest Reserve,
Ghana. 18th Commonwealth
Forestry Conference.
2. Angst, G., Mueller, K.E.,
Eissenstat, D.M., Trumbore, S.,
Freeman, K.H., Hobbie, S.E.,
Chorover, J., Oleksyn, J.,
Reich, P.B. and Mueller, C.W.
(2019). Soil organic carbon
stability in forests: Distinct
effects of tree species identity
and traits. Glob. Chang. Biol.
25, 15291546.
3. Bodansky, D. (2019). The
United Nations framework
convention on climate change:
A commentary. Yale J. Int. Law.
1993, 18, 451. Sustainability.
11, 5276.
4. Brown, S., Sathaye, J., Cannell,
M. and Kauppi, P. (1995).
Management Forests for
Mitigation Greenhouse Gas
Emissions; Cambridge
University Press: Cambridge,
UK.
5. Brown, S., Jayant S., Melvin C.,
and Pekka E. K. (1996).
Mitigation of carbon emissions
!
!
Article # D24MLY20R13 Article type: Review Accepted: Feb. 2021 Online: March 2021
9!
to the atmosphere by forest
management. Commonwealth
Forestry Review, 75:80–91.
6. Campeau, A., Bishop, K.,
Amvrosiadi, N., Billett, M.F.,
Garnett, M.H., Laudon, H.,
Öquist, M. and Wallin, M.B.
(2019). Current forest carbon
fixation fuels stream CO2
emissions. Nat. Commun. 10,
1876.
7. Eliasch, J. (2008): Climate
Change: Financing Global
Forests, The Eliasch Review,
Earthscan Publication, UK.
8. FAO (2006). Global Forest
Resources Assessment -
Progress towards sustainable
forest management. FAO
Forestry Paper 147. Food and
Agriculture Organisation of the
United Nations, Rome.
9. FAO (2010). (Food and
Agricultural Organization).
Managing forest for climate
change. I1960E/1/11.101960E.
10. Huxman, T. E., Snyder, K. A.,
Tissue, D. et al. (2004).
Precipitation pulses and carbon
fluxes in semiarid and arid
ecosystems. Oecologia 141,
254268.
11. IPCC (2006). 2006 National
Greenhouse Gas Inventory
Guidelines (S. Eggelston, L.
Buendia, K. Miwa, T. Ngara, K.
Tanabe (eds.)). Institute of
Global Environmental
Strategies (IGES), Kanagawa,
Japan, 20 pp.
12. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change), 2007.
Climate Change (2007):
Impacts, adaptation and
vulnerability. Contribution of
Working Group II to the Fourth
Assessment Report of the
IPCC. Cambridge, UK,
Cambridge University Press.
13. Kindermmann, G. M.,
Obersteiner, M., Sohngen, B.,
Sathaye, J., Andrasko, K.,
Rametsteiner, E.,
Schlamadinger, B., Wunder, S.
and Beach, R. (2008): Global
cost estimates of reducing
carbon emissions through
avoided deforestation.
Proceedings of the national
Academy of Sciences, 105 (30):
1030210307.
14. Lal, M. and Singh, R. (2000)
Carbon sequestration potential
of Indian forests. Environmental
!
!
Article # D24MLY20R13 Article type: Review Accepted: Feb. 2021 Online: March 2021
10!
Monitoring and Assessment, 60:
315327.
15. Mbow, H.-O.P., Reisinger, A.,
Canadell, J. and O’Brien, P.
(2017) Special Report on
Climate Change,
Desertification, Land
Degradation, Sustainable Land
Management, Food Security,
and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in
Terrestrial Ecosystems (SR2);
IPCC: Geneva, Switzerland.
16. Moutinho, P. (2005). Tropical
Deforestation and Climate
Change. Amazon Institute for
Environmental Research. 1-113.
17. Nowak, D. J., Hirabayashi, S.,
Bodine, A. and Greenfield, E.
(2014). Tree and forest effects
on air quality and human health
in the United States. Environ.
Pollut. 193, 119–129.
18. Paoli, G. D., Wells, P. H.,
Meijaard. E., Struebig, M. J.,
Marshall, A. J., Obidzinski, K.,
Tan, A., Rafiastanto, A., Yaap,
B., Slik, F. J. W., Morel, A.,
Perumal, B., Wielaard, N.,
Husson, S. and D'Arcy, L.
(2010). Biodiversity
Conservation in the REDD.
Carbon Balance and
Management, Vol. 5 No. 7.
19. Ramachandran, N. P., Mohan
Kumar, B. and Nair, V.D.
(2009). Agroforestry as a
strategy for carbon
sequestration. J. Plant Nutr. Soil
Sci. 172, 10–23.
20. Ray, M., Prusty, M. and Sahoo,
G.R. (2020). Climate Change
and its Impact on Agriculture.
Global Environmental
Governance, Policies and
Ethics. 52–62.
21. Sahoo, G.R., Wani, A.M.,
Kishore, P. and Vijay, R. (2019).
Biodiversity Conservation and
Climate Change Approach.
International Archive of Applied
Science and Technology. 10(4):
1–9.
22. Secretariat of the Convention
on Biological Diversity (2001).
The Value of Forest
Ecosystems. Montreal, SCBD,
p67 (CBD Technical Series no.
4).
23. The Eliasch Review. (2008).
Climate Change: Financing
Global Forests. 15–33.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Climate change has been linked to well-documented changes in physiology, phenology, species distributions, and in some cases, extinction. Projections of future change point to dramatic shifts in the states of many ecosystems. Accommodating these shifts to effectively conserve biodiversity in the context of uncertain climate regimes represents one of the most difficult challenges faced by conservation planners. A number of adaptation strategies have been proposed for managing species and ecosystems in a changing climate. However, there has been little guidance available on integrating climate change adaptation strategies into contemporary conservation planning frameworks. In the last 100 years average global temperature has increased by 0.74°C, rainfall patterns have changed and the frequency of extreme events increased. Change has not been uniform on either a spatial or temporal scale and the range of change, in terms of climate and weather, has also been variable. Biodiversity is crucial to human wellbeing, sustainable development and poverty reduction. Acknowledging the important role of biodiversity and its inextricable linkage to human survival in the face of significant impacts of biodiversity loss on the survival of human beings such that biodiversity can shape the path economic development takes in a country i.e. the plants, animals and ecosystems within a country influence the type of livelihoods available to people and the types of industries that emerge. The paper reviews the different approaches being used to integrate climate change adaptation into conservation planning, broadly categorizing strategies as continuing and extending on "best practice" principles and those that integrate species vulnerability assessments into conservation planning. We describe the characteristics of a good adaptation strategy emphasizing the importance of incorporating clear principles of flexibility and efficiency, accounting for uncertainty, integrating human response to climate change and understanding trade-offs. INTRODUCTION India, known for its rich heritage of biological diversity. The varied edaphic, climatic and topographic conditions and years of geological stability have resulted in a wide range of ecosystems and habitats such as forests, grasslands, wetlands, deserts, and coastal and marine ecosystem. The key criteria for determining a hotspot are endemism (the presence of species found nowhere else on earth) and degree of threat [5]. Out of the 34 global biodiversity hotspots, four are present in India. Climate change is a serious environmental challenge that could undermine the drive for sustainable development. Since the industrial revolution, the mean surface temperature of Earth has increased an average of 1° Celsius per century due to the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Furthermore, most of this change has occurred in the past 30 to 40 years, and the rate of increase is accelerating, with significant impacts both at a global scale and at local and regional levels.
Article
Full-text available
Stream CO2 emissions contribute significantly to atmospheric climate forcing. While there are strong indications that groundwater inputs sustain these emissions, the specific biogeochemical pathways and timescales involved in this lateral CO2 export are still obscure. Here, via an extensive radiocarbon (¹⁴C) characterisation of CO2 and DOC in stream water and its groundwater sources in an old-growth boreal forest, we demonstrate that the ¹⁴C-CO2 is consistently in tune with the current atmospheric ¹⁴C-CO2 level and shows little association with the ¹⁴C-DOC in the same waters. Our findings thus indicate that stream CO2 emissions act as a shortcut that returns CO2 recently fixed by the forest vegetation to the atmosphere. Our results expose a positive feedback mechanism within the C budget of forested catchments, where stream CO2 emissions will be highly sensitive to changes in forest C allocation patterns associated with climate and land-use changes.
Article
Full-text available
During the past three decades, agroforestry has become recognized the world over as an integrated approach to sustainable land use because of its production and environmental benefits. Its recent recognition as a greenhouse gas–mitigation strategy under the Kyoto Protocol has earned it added attention as a strategy for biological carbon (C) sequestration. The perceived potential is based on the premise that the greater efficiency of integrated systems in resource (nutrients, light, and water) capture and utilization than single-species systems will result in greater net C sequestration. Available estimates of C-sequestration potential of agroforestry systems are derived by combining information on the aboveground, time-averaged C stocks and the soil C values; but they are generally not rigorous. Methodological difficulties in estimating C stock of biomass and the extent of soil C storage under varying conditions are compounded by the lack of reliable estimates of area under agroforestry. We estimate that the area currently under agroforestry worldwide is 1,023 million ha. Additionally, substantial extent of areas of unproductive crop, grass, and forest lands as well as degraded lands could be brought under agroforestry. The extent of C sequestered in any agroforestry system will depend on a number of site-specific biological, climatic, soil, and management factors. Furthermore, the profitability of C-sequestration projects will depend on the price of C in the international market, additional income from the sale of products such as timber, and the cost related to C monitoring. Our knowledge on these issues is unfortunately rudimentary. Until such difficulties are surmounted, the low-cost environmental benefit of agroforestry will continue to be underappreciated and underexploited.
Article
Full-text available
The forestry sector can not only sustain its carbon but also has the potential to absorb carbon from the atmosphere. India has maintained approximately 64 Mha of forest cover for the last decade. The rate of afforestation in India is one of the highest among the tropical countries, currently estimated to be 2 Mha per annum. The annual productivity has increased from 0.7 m3 per hactare in 1985 to 1.37 m3 per hectare in 1995. Increase in annual productivity directly indicates an increase in forest biomass and hence higher carbon sequestration potential. The carbon pool for the Indian forests is estimated to be 2026.72 Mt for the year 1995. Estimates of annual carbon uptake increment suggest that our forests and plantations have been able to remove at least 0.125 Gt of CO2 from the atmosphere in the year 1995. Assuming that the present forest cover in India will sustain itself with a marginal annual increase by 0.5 Mha in area of plantations, we can expect our forests to continue to act as a net carbon sink in future.
Article
Full-text available
In the arid and semiarid regions of North America, discrete precipitation pulses are important triggers for biological activity. The timing and magnitude of these pulses may differentially affect the activity of plants and microbes, combining to influence the C balance of desert ecosystems. Here, we evaluate how a "pulse" of water influences physiological activity in plants, soils and ecosystems, and how characteristics, such as precipitation pulse size and frequency are important controllers of biological and physical processes in arid land ecosystems. We show that pulse size regulates C balance by determining the temporal duration of activity for different components of the biota. Microbial respiration responds to very small events, but the relationship between pulse size and duration of activity likely saturates at moderate event sizes. Photosynthetic activity of vascular plants generally increases following relatively larger pulses or a series of small pulses. In this case, the duration of physiological activity is an increasing function of pulse size up to events that are infrequent in these hydroclimatological regions. This differential responsiveness of photosynthesis and respiration results in arid ecosystems acting as immediate C sources to the atmosphere following rainfall, with subsequent periods of C accumulation should pulse size be sufficient to initiate vascular plant activity. Using the average pulse size distributions in the North American deserts, a simple modeling exercise shows that net ecosystem exchange of CO2 is sensitive to changes in the event size distribution representative of wet and dry years. An important regulator of the pulse response is initial soil and canopy conditions and the physical structuring of bare soil and beneath canopy patches on the landscape. Initial condition influences responses to pulses of varying magnitude, while bare soil/beneath canopy patches interact to introduce nonlinearity in the relationship between pulse size and soil water response. Building on this conceptual framework and developing a greater understanding of the complexities of these eco-hydrologic systems may enhance our ability to describe the ecology of desert ecosystems and their sensitivity to global change.
Article
Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations have increased interest in the potential for forest ecosystems and soils to act as carbon (C) sinks. While soil organic C contents often vary with tree species identity, little is known about if, and how, tree species influence the stability of C in soil. Using a 40‐year‐old common garden experiment with replicated plots of eleven temperate tree species, we investigated relationships between soil organic matter (SOM) stability in mineral soils and 17 ecological factors (including tree tissue chemistry, magnitude of organic matter inputs and their turnover, microbial community descriptors, and soil physico‐chemical properties). We measured five SOM stability indices, including heterotrophic respiration, C in aggregate‐occluded particulate organic matter (POM) and mineral‐associated SOM, and bulk SOM δ¹⁵N and ∆¹⁴C. The stability of SOM varied substantially among tree species and this variability was independent of the amount of organic C in soils. Thus, when considering forest soils as C sinks, the stability of C stocks must be considered in addition to their size. Further, our results suggest tree species regulate soil C stability via the composition of their tissues, especially roots. Stability of SOM appeared to be greater (as indicated by higher δ¹⁵N and reduced respiration) beneath species with higher concentrations of nitrogen and lower amounts of acid‐insoluble compounds in their roots, while SOM stability appeared to be lower (as indicated by higher respiration and lower proportions of C in aggregate‐occluded POM) beneath species with higher tissue calcium contents. The proportion of C in mineral‐associated SOM and bulk soil ∆¹⁴C, though, were negligibly dependent on tree species traits, likely reflecting an insensitivity of some SOM pools to decadal‐scale shifts in ecological factors. Strategies aiming to increase soil C stocks may thus focus on particulate C pools, which can more easily be manipulated and are most sensitive to climate change. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Climate Change Adaptation through Sustainable Forest Management: A Case Study of Communities around the Sui River Forest Reserve
  • A Ahenkan
  • E Boon
Ahenkan, A. and Boon, E. (2010): Climate Change Adaptation through Sustainable Forest Management: A Case Study of Communities around the Sui River Forest Reserve, Ghana. 18th Commonwealth Forestry Conference.
  • J Eliasch
Eliasch, J. (2008): Climate Change: Financing Global Forests, The Eliasch Review, Earthscan Publication, UK.