Critical Success Factors for Safety Training in the
Algan Tezel 1, * , Esra Dobrucali 2, Sevilay Demirkesen 3and Isik Ates Kiral 4
Citation: Tezel, A.; Dobrucali, E.;
Demirkesen, S.; Kiral, I.A. Critical
Success Factors for Safety Training in
the Construction Industry. Buildings
2021,11, 139. https://doi.org/
Academic Editors: Paulo Santos and
Received: 8 February 2021
Accepted: 25 March 2021
Published: 30 March 2021
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1Department of Architecture and 3D Design, University of Huddersﬁeld, Huddersﬁeld HD1 3DH, UK
2Department of Civil Engineering, Sakarya University, Sakarya 54050, Turkey; firstname.lastname@example.org
3Department of Civil Engineering, Gebze Technical University, Gebze 41400, Turkey; email@example.com
4Department of Civil Engineering, Istinye University, Istanbul 34010, Turkey; firstname.lastname@example.org
Construction is a hazardous industry. The project-based nature and fragmentation in the
industry lead to change and uncertainty requiring special expertise. To handle those, construction
ﬁrms must develop strategies and action plans along with the experience gained from lessons learned.
Among the risks, safety risks are of critical importance leading to accidents. Hence, ﬁrms need
to strengthen their safety programs, review their strategies for safety management, and develop
effective safety training sessions to protect their workers. This study focuses on the success factors
promoting safety performance. In this respect, a questionnaire was designed and administered
to the Engineering News-Record (ENR) 2020 Top 400 Contractors. The questionnaire data was
utilized in conducting a factor analysis to group and name the factors considering the total variance.
The analysis of the factors resulted in six-factor groups; namely, project and ﬁrm-related factors,
demographic factors, practical factors, motivational factors, organizational factors, and human-
related factors. Project and ﬁrm-related factors were found to be the most essential factor group in
terms of promoting the effectiveness of safety training. The results of this study are expected to guide
industry practitioners in terms of reviewing and revising their safety training programs.
Keywords: safety; construction; safety training; critical success factors
The construction industry is one of the riskiest industries due to the high number
of work-related hazards and injuries [
]. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) [
reported that the total number of fatal work injuries in the U.S. was 5250, 1008 of which
were in construction. Moreover, the total number of non-fatal work injuries was recorded as
2,834,500, 199,100 of which were in construction [
]. The work-related injuries and fatalities
mostly stem from the fact that workers fail to comply with the rules in safety programs [
Heinrich’s (1931) [
] study on safety indicated that a sequence of factors on worker mistakes
combined with dangerous or unsafe behavior is the main cause of accidents. Bird and
Germain (1990) [
] further mentioned that work accidents are preventable provided the
underlying factors of accidents are well determined. Alarcón et al. (2016) [
that the occurrence of work accidents is not random and due to several controllable factors.
Durdyev et al. (2017) [
] mentioned that contractors might have taken early action towards
promoting construction safety, if the factors affecting construction safety performance were
studied. Similarly, Øien et al. (2011) [
] stated that studying the factors leading to
accidents beforehand shall be effective in preventing major accidents. As a result, these
studies raised a growing interest in construction safety (Guo et al., 2016) [
]. The study of
factors leading to a high rate of injuries and fatalities in the construction industry revealed
that inadequate training is one of the most important factors causing accidents [
this end, Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) has various programs
Buildings 2021,11, 139. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11040139 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/buildings
Buildings 2021,11, 139 2 of 24
and initiatives towards creating a legal framework to regulate worker behavior and ensure
work safety .
These programs focus on different attributes of safety management including safety
], which is an essential attribute of safety management [
]. It is possible to
reduce the frequency of work-related injuries and fatalities with an effective safety training
]. Hence, it is critical to identify the underlying factors that make a safety
program effective for the trainees and trainers. To identify those factors, observing the
perception of workers on safety training is of the utmost importance [
]. Effective safety
training results in better outcomes in the ﬁeld in the context of safety management [
Rodríguez-Garzón et al. (2015) [
] suggested that training is an essential factor for
improving safety climate, impacting safety perceptions, and changing safety behavior in
construction projects. Recent studies also found that safety training can help to enhance
the use of PPE among construction workers [
]. They further stated that training is
essential to correct biased safety perceptions of construction workers and reinforce their
safety knowledge such as motivating them to properly use personal protective equipment
(PPE). Hasanzadeh et al. (2020) [
] emphasized that reducing human errors is possible
through increasing the level of protective safeguards such as organizing safety training
for workers, setting safety standards, and fostering the use of PPE. These have potential to
avoid injuries resulting in a reduced total recordable injury rate. Reiman et al. (2017) [
highlighted the essential role of safety training in developing different learning styles
and affect individuals’ behavior in safety. Man et al. (2019) [
] underline that safety
training programs help increase workers’ risk perception, resulting in minimized risk-
taking behavior. Hence, this study aims to reveal the factors contributing to the success of
safety training sessions, which eventually lead to enhanced safety performance.
Even though previous studies assessed safety training methods for construction
workers, the studies aiming to scrutinize the factors leading to a more effective safety
training are scarce. To ﬁll this gap in the literature, this study conducts an in-depth
literature review regarding the factors affecting the performance of safety training and
presents a comprehensive list of factors accordingly. Moreover, the study groups these
factors to associate them with the categories of safety-related facts. The study is expected
to assist construction practitioners in terms of creating a successful safety program by
revealing the most critical factors to consider. The results of the study might also prompt
researchers to focus more on safety training, which is an essential element of reducing
work-related injuries and fatalities in the construction industry.
2. Materials and Methods
The majority of work-related accidents on construction sites stem from unsafe ac-
tions and conditions [
]. Both researchers and industry practitioners are seeking new
methods against the high number of accidents in the construction industry [
]. There are
various methods mentioned in the previous works to enhance the performance of safety
practices. For example, Lai et al. (2011) [
] focused on human resource (HR) practices
(recruitment, incentives and rewards, safety training, communication, and feedback, etc.).
In their study, they pointed out the importance of establishing safety policies based on
effective HR practices to improve safety management on construction sites. Hinze et al.
] focused on key indicators to assess construction safety and proposed a simple
formula for “percent of worker observations that were safe,” and “the number of positive
reinforcements provided per 200,000 h”. A considerable portion of the studies developed
models or present strategies for increased safety performance such as the safety culture
interaction (SCI) model [
], plan-prevent-protect strategy [
], fatigue assessment scale
for construction workers (FASCW) [
], and social-ecological model of safety performance
improvement (SEM-SPI) .
Some studies investigated the factors affecting safety practices in the construction
industry. These factors include but are not limited to:
Buildings 2021,11, 139 3 of 24
•Fall protection systems
•Regular safety controls and effective communication
•Clear and acceptable objectives
•Appropriate supervision and safety training
•Lack of training
•Poor safety awareness of management
•Unwillingness for safety and improper operations
•Site supervision and site condition
•Organizational and individual characteristics
•Management and organization, resources, site management and workforce
•Safety awareness, training and conducting safety control
•Social support and production pressure
Work characteristics, knowledge, idiosyncratic perception of work and safety manage-
•Safety incentives and rewards
Leadership, organizational commitment, management commitment, resource alloca-
tion and safety training
•Personal awareness and communication
Work experience, type of accident, and unsafe behavior and conditions
Being the main focus of this study, safety training holds an important place among
the factors affecting safety performance. Several studies have already implied the critical
role of the training in reducing the number of unsafe acts and behavior. For example,
Sollis-Carcadio and Franco-Poot (2014) [
] found that workers who had limited safety
training and developed a poor safety culture are more vulnerable to being involved in
accidents. Moreover, workers who had proper safety training are more likely to identify
hazards and develop a safety risk perception [
]. Tam and Fung (2012) [
that compulsory training raises construction workers’ interest in safety. Training designed
following the needs of workers having different levels of knowledge yields a higher
efﬁciency in terms of safety [
]. Hence, workers who received safety training were
critical to the development of safety programs and management [
]. Ho and Dzeng
] proved that a suitable safety training has the potential to promote safe behavior.
Kaskutas et al. (2013) [
] concluded that foremen who had completed safety training
developed more effective safety communication practices. A signiﬁcant portion of previous
studies shows that incorporating technology and speciﬁcally virtual reality (VR) in a
safety training session is an effective means of enhancing the efﬁciency and quality of the
]. VR is effective in attracting trainees’ attention and strengthening learning
in construction safety training .
Previous studies also focused on the impact of safety training on immigrant construc-
tion workers [
]. Williams et al. (2010) [
] revealed that immigrant workers are
willing to improve their knowledge of safety. The study also found that the number of
hazardous behaviors among immigrant workers had reduced after an effective safety train-
ing session. Furthermore, Han et al. (2008) [
] stated that training is essential for a better
communication with immigrant construction workers. O’Connor et al.’s (2005) [
showed that immigrant workers are generally less trained in terms of safety compared to
other workers on the site.
Learning constitutes an important part of an effective safety training [
workers might fail to practice what they learned from the training when they returned
to work [
]. Therefore, several studies highlighted the critical role of transfer of train-
ing, concluding that the involvement of stakeholders positively affects the training trans-
Given this general background, this study focuses on determining the critical success
factors (CSF) of an effective safety training program. In this context, both qualitative and
Buildings 2021,11, 139 4 of 24
quantitative methods were adopted. As part of the qualitative methods, a content analysis
and an in-depth literature review were conducted. Moreover, expert interviews were
conducted to create a consensus for the identiﬁcation of the safety training variables. Then,
a survey study with factor analysis was employed. The survey helped assess and quantify
the variables identiﬁed. Moreover, statistical data was analyzed based on the responses
collected. The survey also revealed information regarding the position, background, and
experience of the respondents. The factor analysis was conducted to group the variables in
a coherent factor and name as a categorical group. The scarcity of resources investigating
the variables making a safety training program effective and the gap in the literature are
the main motivations for the study. The study assesses these critical factors with a careful
consideration of the recent research in this domain, revealing the need for such research in
the construction industry. Table 1presents the safety training success variables adopted for
this study based on an in-depth analysis of the previous studies.
Table 1. Safety training success variables.
Variable Explanation References
Age is listed as an essential parameter in terms of affecting the
success of safety training for the fact that there may be a signiﬁcant
difference in the safety training perceptions of younger and older
Gender is indicated as an important parameter in the success of
safety training since differences might be observed in safety
training success depending on workers’ genders.
Country of Origin
Country of origin is another essential factor affecting the success of
training sessions since people from different origins might develop
different perceptions of safety.
The level of education might be a strong indicator of safe behaviors.
Hence, educational background is listed as an important parameter
for safety training success.
There is strong evidence that language might become a barrier in
safety training sessions. Thus, language is considered as an
important component of safety training success.
Work experience is a directly related parameter with safety training
since experienced workers are more likely to promote safety
Perception of Safety
Perception of safety training is critical in terms of putting the
training into practice. A strong/positive perception of safety
training leads to a successful implementation of what was learned
in a safety training session.
Hands-on training is an effective practice in terms of promoting
safety training since it is linked with real cases on construction sites
leading to a better training session considering worker needs.
Training frequency is important for the success of safety training
sessions. More frequent training results in better reinforced
learning of safety.
Methods and Materials
Methods and materials used in safety training sessions are of
utmost importance in terms of promoting safety. They help
elucidate essential safety information for workers through learning,
strategies, and equipment.
Training satisfaction is directly related to safety training as the level
of satisfaction, comprehension, and emotional engagement in
training contributes to the success of safety training sessions.
Buildings 2021,11, 139 5 of 24
Table 1. Cont.
Variable Explanation References
Safety Awareness and
Safety awareness and motivation are crucial for the success of
safety training. This is simply described as the level of knowledge
concerning unsafe acts or behaviors and the need for motivation for
Number of Unsafe Acts
Developing a prior knowledge of unsafe acts and accidents
constitutes an important part of safety training success. Hence, the
number of unsafe acts and incidents affects the effectiveness of
safety training sessions.
Effectiveness of Training
The success of safety training depends on the effectiveness of
training. Effectiveness represents the developed understating of the
severity and consequences of safety-related accidents after
Coordination and collaboration in safety training sessions lead to
information sharing and observational environment among
trainees. This eventually contributes to the success of
Feedback is an essential part of safety training sessions. Providing
feedback after a training session, especially regarding the trainee
performance, leads to a higher success in the training.
Effective training is only possible with strong management support.
This contributes to higher performance in the training sessions. [3,58,64]
Use of Personal
One of the most important subjects in safety is to promote the use
of PPEs through safety training sessions. Providing workers with a
core training section of the PPE use is strongly related to safety
Firm size is associated with the scope and content of safety training
considering the budget and resources spared for the training
sessions. This in turn affects the success of training sessions.
Safety training sessions differ depending on project type. Hence, it
is important to design safety training content by the different
requirements of project types
Project duration determines the ability to design training sessions
in varying durations and content. This directly affects the success of
Leadership is effective in terms of promoting safer practices.
Exemplary leadership has a positive impact on the success of safety
Project size refers to the scale of projects in regards to budget and
workload. Project size shapes the content and duration of safety
training, which in turn affects the success of training sessions.
Incentives for Safety Incentives for safety have the potential to promote safety training
sessions and safe behaviors through positive reinforcement. [26,37,38,64,65,70]
Training language is directly related to the success of safety training
sessions since some trainees fail to practice what they learned in
training sessions when the training language is not their
3. Research Methodology
This study explores the CSFs in safety training sessions in the construction industry.
To determine these factors and cluster them in a coherent scheme, an online survey was
designed and administered to the construction ﬁrms listed in the Engineering News-Record
(ENR)’s 2019 Top Contractors List. According to the data on the ENR website, the ﬁrms
Buildings 2021,11, 139 6 of 24
listed in the Top 400 Contractors in 2018 generated a revenue of US$405 billion in 2018,
where this was US$373.98 billion in 2017 [
]. This indicates that these ﬁrms on the list
generate most of the construction value and shows their extensive presence in the industry.
The survey consists of two sections, namely the general information about the respondents
and the success factors in safety training. The survey designed is presented in Appendix A.
The ﬁrst sections aimed at collecting data regarding the characteristics of the respondents
such as respondent age, total turnover, number of employees, educational background, and
years of operation in the construction industry. The second part consists of questions about
the success factors in safety training sessions. In the second part, a 5-point Likert Scale was
adopted to rate the success factors, where 1 represents very low and 5 represents very high.
A total of 400 surveys were sent out and 93 responses were collected at a response rate of
23%. The survey data was analyzed using the Factor Analysis tool of SPSS 23. The factor
analysis was utilized to identify which underlying factors are measured by a considerably
larger number of observed variables. The analysis of the data collected through the survey
is provided in the following sections.
3.1. General Information about the Respondents
The respondent characteristics were sought to better interpret the results. Table 2
presents the respondents’ characteristics such as the age of the ﬁrm, annual turnover, and
the number of employees. According to Table 2, the average ﬁrm age is 45, whereas the
maximum and minimum ages are 69 and 27, respectively. The annual turnover of the
responding ﬁrms was reported as US$181.81 million on average, where the maximum
turnover is US$806 million, and the minimum is US$1 million. Finally, the total number of
employees was reported as 876 on average, where the maximum number is 3700 and the
minimum is 58.
Table 2. Respondent Characteristics.
Characteristic Maximum Minimum Average Median
Age of the Firm (Years) 69 27 45 45
Annual Turnover (in Million US$) 806.00 1.00 181.81 113.00
Number of Employees 3700 58 876 847
The ﬁrst part of the survey also collected information regarding the respondent’s
gender, origin, and educational level. Figure 1presents data regarding the gender of the
respondents. According to Figure 1, 82% of the respondents are male, whereas 18% of
the respondents are female. Figure 2presents the origin of the respondents. According to
Figure 2, the majority of the respondents’ origin is United States (81.7%) and the remaining
origins are from other countries.
Figure 1. Respondents’ gender.
Buildings 2021,11, 139 7 of 24
Figure 2. Origin of the respondents.
Figure 3exhibits the level of education of the respondents, where 63% of the respon-
dents hold an MSc. degree, and 29.0% BSc., 6.5% Ph.D., and 1.5% of the respondents are
high school graduates, respectively. Figure 4presents the respondents’ current role in the
construction industry. According to this, 39.8% of the respondents are project managers,
23.7% are engineers, 12.9% are general managers, and 23.6% have other roles such as
foreman, safety directors, safety supervisors, and architects. The analysis of both ﬁgures
revealed that the majority of the respondents hold an MSc degree and work at the project
Figure 3. Education level of the respondents.
Figure 4. Respondents’ current role in the construction industry.
Buildings 2021,11, 139 8 of 24
Figure 5shows the years of operation of the responding ﬁrms in the construction
industry. According to this, 37.6% of the ﬁrms have been operating in the construction
industry for more than 20 years, where 30.1% have been operating in the industry between
15–20 years, 22.6% have been operating in the industry between 10–15 years, 8.6% have
been operating in the industry between 5–10 years, and 1.1% of the ﬁrms reported the
years of operation less than 5 years. The respondents were further categorized accord-
ing to their years of experience in the construction industry as shown in Figure 6. The
majority of the respondents (33.3%) have been working in the construction industry for
. Twenty-nine percent of the respondents reported an experience interval of
. A considerable percentage of the respondents (17.2%) reported that they have
of experience in the construction industry. The remaining respondents
of experience (10.8%) and less than 5 years of experience (9.7%) in the
construction industry. The analysis of both ﬁgures indicated that the majority of the ﬁrms
are quite experienced in the construction industry and a major portion of the respondents
have much experience in the industry.
Figure 5. Years of operation in the construction industry.
Figure 6. Respondents’ years of experience in the construction industry.
In the survey, the respondents were asked whether there were previously involved
in a safety training session. All respondents indicated they have previously participated
in a safety training session. Moreover, the number of safety training attended by the
respondents was assessed. According to the data collected, 52.7% of the respondents
have previously participated in safety training sessions one to three times, 36.6% of the
respondents reported three to ﬁve times, and 10.8% indicated that they had been involved
in a safety training session more than ﬁve times.
The survey also collected the satisfaction level of the respondents regarding the
previous safety training that they had. Figure 7presents the satisfaction level reported by
the respondents. According to this, a major portion (90.3%) of the respondents implied that
Buildings 2021,11, 139 9 of 24
their satisfaction was high with the previous training they had. Of the respondents, 4.3%
indicated that they had very high satisfaction with the previous training, whereas 5.4%
reported that they had a medium satisfaction level with the training they had received.
Figure 7. Respondents’ satisfaction level with previous training.
The respondents responded to the main causes of unsafe behaviors or acts such as
low perception of safety, inattention, and improper use of personal protective equipment
(PPE). The respondents emphasized that effective safety training helped them avoid unsafe
behaviors and increased their ability to detect unsafe conditions. Moreover, the respondents
were asked to report whether they had been involved in a work-related accident. The
analysis of the results indicated that 35.5% of the respondents had already been involved
in a work-related accident, whereas 64.5% reported they had not been involved in a work-
related accident before. The respondents who reported that they had been involved in a
work-related accident, also stated that safety training helped them detect mistakes and
avoid unsafe behavior to a great extent.
The survey further assessed the increase in safety awareness after safety training.
Figure 8presents that the safety awareness increased by 51–70% after having at least one
safety training session for the majority of the respondents (57%). Of the respondents, 35.5%
indicated that the safety awareness increased by more than 71% after participating in a
safety training session; 7.5% reported an increase between 31–50% in safety awareness as a
result of a completed safety training session.
Figure 8. Increase in safety awareness rate after safety training.
The survey raised questions to the respondents regarding whether realistic examples
from construction sites were provided in their safety training sessions. Of the respondents,
98.9% responded that realistic examples were included in the safety training sessions,
Buildings 2021,11, 139 10 of 24
whereas 1.1% reported that non-realistic examples were provided in the training sessions.
Another question in the survey aimed to reveal whether the respondents had had any
language problems in the safety training sessions. The analysis of the data showed that
11.8% of the respondents had problems in understanding the language of the safety training,
where 88.2% reported that they did not have such a problem. Moreover, the respondents
were asked to indicate whether they needed motivation to eliminate unsafe behavior. All
respondents reported the need for motivation to eliminate unsafe behavior.
The survey further assessed the safety training methods utilized in the training ses-
sions (Figure 9). All respondents reported that more than one training method was utilized
in the training sessions. Accordingly, computer-based training (94.6%) and on-the-job
training (91.4%) are the most commonly used methods in the training sessions.
Figure 9. Safety training methods used in safety training sessions.
3.2. Success Factors in Safety Training Sessions
Safety training is challenging for several reasons such as content and audience issues.
Considering the impact of safety training in increasing safety performance, more emphasis
needs to be put on improving safety training effectiveness. This requires a critical analysis
of the underlying factors for successful safety training sessions. Within this context, this
study identiﬁes a set of critical success factors (CSFs) for successful implementation of
safety training. The CSFs of safety training sessions were identiﬁed through an in-depth
analysis of the previous studies and interviews with the safety directors and managers.
The interviews were conducted with safety directors and safety managers. The stratiﬁed
sampling was used to identify the interviewees. A total of eight experts were selected for
the interviews, where ﬁve of them are safety managers and three are safety directors. The
inclusion criteria were to have experience with at least three safety training programmes in
a project and a minimum of 5 years of experience in construction safety. Each interview
was allotted 30 min and was conducted online. The interviews with the experts revealed
the need for improvement regarding the training sessions so that trainees better learn and
conceive the content and implement what they learned in the construction sites. In the
initial step, a total of 41 variables were identiﬁed such as reward mechanisms for safety,
training content, and training tools and techniques. After reviewing these 41 factors with
industry experts and academics, some of the variables were merged into one variable,
or some were removed to represent a coherent list of variables. For example, reward
mechanisms and promotions were merged into one single variable as safety incentives.
Moreover, communication was synthesized with coordination and collaboration variable.
A similar approach was followed for the remaining variables. A ﬁnal list composed of
25 safety training variables was produced after carefully revising the list (Table 3).
Buildings 2021,11, 139 11 of 24
Table 3. Descriptive Statistics of Safety Training Variables.
Code Variable Mean Std. Deviation Std. Deviation/Mean
V18 Use of Personnel Protective
Equipment 4.95 0.23 0.05 0.05
V19 Leadership 4.92 0.27 0.05 0.07
V12 Safety Awareness and
Motivation 4.91 0.32 0.07 0.10
V10 Methods and Materials 4.90 0.30 0.06 0.09
V11 Training Satisfaction 4.86 0.38 0.08 0.14
V14 Effectiveness of Training 4.83 0.38 0.08 0.14
V15 Coordination and
Collaboration 4.74 0.46 0.10 0.22
V17 Management Support 4.71 0.48 0.10 0.23
V8 Hands-on Training 4.69 0.49 0.10 0.24
V24 Incentives for Safety 4.65 0.58 0.12 0.34
V16 Feedback 4.65 0.50 0.11 0.25
V13 Number of Unsafe Acts and
Accidents 4.62 0.59 0.13 0.35
V25 Training Language 4.61 0.63 0.14 0.39
V7 Perception of Training 4.60 0.51 0.11 0.26
V9 Training Frequency 4.54 0.64 0.14 0.40
V6 Work Experience 4.41 0.63 0.14 0.40
V4 Educational Background 3.77 0.72 0.19 0.53
V5 Language 3.68 0.85 0.23 0.72
V20 Project Type 3.59 0.98 0.27 0.96
V22 Project Duration 3.58 1.01 0.28 1.03
V21 Project Size 3.58 1.00 0.28 1.01
V23 Firm Size 3.54 1.02 0.29 1.03
V2 Gender 3.37 1.00 0.30 1.00
V3 Country of Origin 3.35 0.96 0.29 0.93
V1 Age 3.32 0.98 0.30 0.96
Table 3presents descriptive statistics for the CSFs based on the 93 responses collected.
The results indicate that the use of PPE, leadership, safety awareness, and motivation
are the most important success drivers in safety training sessions, whereas demographic
variables such as age, country of origin, and gender are less important in terms of impacting
the success of safety training sessions. A further investigation of the descriptive statistics
indicated that the coefﬁcient of variation (CV) for the variables lies between 0.05–0.30,
representing a signiﬁcant variability and dispersion in the data set.
In the second phase, the factor analysis method was carried out to determine the
underlying factors for safety training success. Factor analysis is a multivariate statistical
method to reveal the correlated variables along with some independent factors, which
represent a combination of the original variables [
]. The factor analysis helps group
the variables into a meaningful and considerably smaller number of factors, which is
also called factor extraction, by representing the relations among a set of interrelated
variables. Factor analysis has two types, namely the exploratory factor analysis (EFA)
and conﬁrmatory factor analysis (CFA). EFA is carried out by identifying a set of factors
maximizing the amount of variance required. CFA rather considers the factors based on
an a priori hypothesis, which is an indication of the evaluation of the factors being mostly
driven by the theory. This study adopts the EFA to identify the factors for safety training
success. In this respect, the suitability of the data was assessed ﬁrst by conducting the
Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin (KMO) and Barlett’s tests for sphericity. The KMO test presents the
sampling adequacy with values lying between 0–1, indicating the extent of prediction of
one variable by other variables without error. Higher values of the test prove that the
factor analysis is likely to produce more reliable and distinct factors. According to the
Buildings 2021,11, 139 12 of 24
scale deﬁned by [
], KMO test values that are greater than 0.5 are acceptable, whereas the
values between 0.5–0.7 are mediocre, and the values between 0.7–0.8 are considered to be
good . Bartlett’s test checks whether the correlation matrix is an identity matrix .
The results of the KMO statistic were found to be 0.818 in this study. This value proves
that the dataset is suitable for the factor analysis. The Barlett’s test generated a Chi-square
value of 2533.228 and the level of signiﬁcance was found to be small (p< 0.0005) [
values indicate that the factor analysis is an appropriate method for the dataset. The factor
analysis was conducted using the SPSS 23 software. The analysis generated several ﬁles
such as correlation matrix, total variance, component matrix, rotated component matrix,
and the component plot in rotated space. The determinant value for the correlation matrix
helps assess the singularity effect. It is considered that there is no singularity effect for
the determinant values greater than 0.00001 [
]. The analysis of the data generated a
determinant value of 5.22
, which is greater than 0.00001, proving that there is
no singularity effect. This also removes the need for eliminating any variables from the
deﬁned list of variables. The correlation matrix presents the total variance explained by
a set of factors. However, the motivation behind the factor analysis is to come up with
an optimal number of factors to explain a signiﬁcant portion of the variance. The high
intercorrelations detected between some variables also led to the dimension reduction of
Table 4presents the total variance explained by components. The components are
shown based on the initial Eigenvalues, variance, and cumulative variance. The table
proves that the components having an Eigenvalue of greater than 1 explain the major
portion of the variance, which accounts for 77.070% of the total variance. This amount is
acceptable for the analysis based on the values provided in the literature [
]. Hence, a
total of six components were investigated for the analysis.
Table 4. Total Variance Explained by Components.
Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings
Total % of
%Total % of
%Total % of
1 9.76 39.041 39.041 9.760 39.041 39.041 4.484 17.935 17.935
2 3.271 13.083 52.124 3.271 13.083 52.124 3.671 14.686 32.621
3 2.488 9.952 62.076 2.488 9.952 62.076 3.499 13.995 46.615
4 1.376 5.504 67.579 1.376 5.504 67.579 3.341 13.363 59.978
5 1.325 5.301 72.881 1.325 5.301 72.881 2.616 10.462 70.441
6 1.047 4.190 77.070 1.047 4.19 77.070 1.657 6.630 77.070
Note: Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Table 5shows the rotated components matrix, which was generated with the Varimax
rotation method. The matrix is composed of six groups with 25 variables. The ﬁrst common
group is called “project and ﬁrm related factors”, explaining 39,041% of the total variance.
This factor corresponds to the variables impacting the trainee performance in the success
of safety training sessions. The second common group is called “demographic factors,”
explaining 13,083% of the total variance. The third common group is called “practical
factors” explaining 9952% of the total variance. The fourth common factor group is called
“motivational factors”, corresponding to 5504% of the total variance. The ﬁfth-factor group
is called “organizational factors” (5301%) focusing on the factors related to an organization
in terms of affecting safety training success. Finally, the sixth-factor group is called “human-
related factors” comprising of the variables for human-related parameters on safety training
success with a variance of 4.190%. The values in bold in the rotated component matrix
represent the factor loadings of the variables.
Buildings 2021,11, 139 13 of 24
Table 5. Rotated Component Matrix.
Common Factor Variable Components
1. Project and Firm
Project Type 0.920 0.263 0.111 0.151 0.133 0.002
Project Size 0.921 0.267 0.090 0.139 0.146 0.011
Project Duration 0.923 0.243 0.127 0.110 0.165 0.014
Firm Size 0.884 0.325 0.090 0.158 0.052 −0.008
2. Demographic Factors
Age 0.504 0.769 0.197 0.077 0.024 0.043
Gender 0.390 0.838 0.169 0.020 0.078 0.141
Country of Origin 0.284 0.815 0.295 0.091 0.174 0.010
0.287 0.703 0.386 −0.021 0.157 −0.149
Language 0.316 0.509 0.498 −0.039 0.198 −0.361
Work Experience 0.098 0.231 0.511 0.254 0.189 −0.465
Perception of Training 0.081 0.179 0.794 0.160 0.057 −0.165
Hands-on Training 0.048 0.352 0.838 0.143 0.069 0.155
Methods and Materials 0.044 0.070 0.565 0.187 0.499 −0.103
Safety Awareness and
Motivation 0.035 0.496 0.052 0.559 0.312 −0.268
Number of Unsafe Acts
and Accidents 0.280 0.053 0.290 0.518 0.261 0.319
Effectiveness of Training
0.101 0.110 0.062 0.842 −0.007 −0.028
Collaboration 0.141 0.015 0.242 0.689 0.077 0.331
Feedback 0.088 0.028 0.053 0.715 0.256 0.166
Management Support 0.319 −0.213 0.339 0.622 0.199 −0.105
5. Motivational factors
Training Satisfaction −0.157 0.099 0.289 0.461 0.601 0.024
Incentives for Safety 0.268 0.118 0.102 0.148 0.825 0.142
Training Language 0.236 0.236 0.258 0.199 0.780 −0.047
Training Frequency 0.223 0.230 0.724 0.192 0.187 0.170
6. Human related and
Use of Personnel
Protective Equipment −0.079 0.029 0.073 0.355 0.004 0.731
Leadership 0.198 0.020 −0.179 0.010 0.438 0.543
Note: Rotation method: Varimax with Kaiser normalization. Bold numbers represent the highest variance values.
5. Discussion of Findings
In this study, a total of 25 variables were determined through an in-depth literature
review and interviews with safety experts to reveal the success factors for safety training
sessions. Then, the factor analysis was executed to ﬁnd the common factor groups. The
analysis resulted in six common factor groups namely, the project and ﬁrm-related factors,
demographic factors, practical factors, motivational factors, organizational factors, and
human-related factors. The discussion of each factor group is presented below.
5.1. Project and Firm Related Factors
This factor group constitutes 39,041% of the total variance based on the data presented
in Table 4. Project type (mean: 3.59), project size (mean: 3.58), and project duration
(mean: 3.58) were found to be the most signiﬁcant variables in this factor group with
factor loadings of 0.920, 0.921, and 0.923, respectively (Table 5). According to 75% of the
survey participants, the project type, size, and duration are listed as the most important
components in a successful safety training session. Teo and Feng (2009) [
] stated that
project duration and size have an impact on safety culture and climate. Moreover, Jannadi
and Assaf (1998) [
] explained that safety awareness differs depending on construction
project size and safety practices, which is considerably lower for small-sized construction
projects. Love et al. (2018) [
] further stated project type has a strong correlation with
the number of injuries and accidents. This may be due to the fact that the innate nature
of particular project types forces organizations to allocate more resources and attention
Buildings 2021,11, 139 14 of 24
to the training sessions. For instance, Kang et al. (2018) [
] implied that fall accidents
are more common in residential projects than other project types. Firm Size (mean: 3.54)
was determined as the fourth important variable among the other variables.
Khosravi et al.
] mentioned that ﬁrm size is directly associated with unsafe acts and accidents.
Several other studies also emphasized that large-sized ﬁrms are less likely to experience
unsafe acts and accidents [
]. This may be due to the fact that large-sized ﬁrms
generally have more established safety management practices overall. With the evidence
from previous studies and the analysis of the survey data, one may assert that project and
ﬁrm-related factors have a strong effect on the success of a safety training session. Hence,
both practitioners and organizations in the industry must be aware of this for their safety
5.2. Demographic Factors
The demographic factors strongly affect unsafe acts and accidents [
Wilkins (2011) [
] stated that the demographic composition of workers is important
in terms of construction safety training. According to Table 4, the demographic factors
constitute 13,083% of the total variance. Among the variables of the demographic factors
group, gender (mean: 3.37) was listed as the most important variable with a factor loading
of 0.838. Loosemore and Malouf (2019) [
] underlined that gender differences are of great
importance for the improvement of accident prevention strategies such as safety training.
Gender might also act as a parameter to discriminate between the severity levels of work
Country of origin (mean: 3.35) was determined as the second most important variable
among demographic factors with a factor loading of 0.815. Mahalingam and Levitt (2007)
stated that the origin country of workers is an important factor in construction safety due
to cultural differences. Some other studies implied that immigrant workers are more likely
to be involved in accidents than local workers [
]. Byler (2013) [
] found that the
number of fatal accidents is 66% higher for Latin American workers who are foreign-born
than for US-born ones. Hence, one may claim that country of origin is an essential factor
needing careful consideration for safety training sessions.
Age (mean: 3.32) is the third most important variable with a factor loading of 0.769.
Khosravi et al. (2015) [
] stated that age is closely related to the number of unsafe acts
and accidents. Khodabandeh et al., 2016 [
] indicated that the age of workers might be
investigated to distinguish between different severity levels of work accidents. Kale and
Baradan (2020) [
] emphasized that the frequency of work injuries decreases as the age
of workers increases. According to Zhang and An (2012) [
], as workers grow older,
safety observation and intelligibility decrease. Moreover, Lossemore and Malouf (2019) [
underlined that older workers are less motivated by the safety training than other age
groups. Hence, safety training content and approaches tailored for different age groups
should be considered.
The educational background (mean: 3.77) of workers was determined as the fourth
important variable (factor loading: 0.703). Educational background is one of the essential
factors for the formation of risk perception
. Some other studies found that the edu-
cational background of construction workers is directly related to safety awareness
Given this background, educational background is considered as an important factor af-
fecting the success of safety training. Thus, one may advocate that as educational level
increases, safety awareness becomes higher.
Finally, language (mean: 3.68; factor loading: 0.509) of workers was determined as
the last important variable among the demographic factors. Keng and Razak (2014) [
reported that one of the problems in safety applications on construction sites is the language
barrier among workers. However, immigrant workers might be motivated to conduct
bilingual safety training [
]. Hence, language is an important factor that needs to be
carefully considered in safety training sessions to increase the success of safety training.
Buildings 2021,11, 139 15 of 24
5.3. Practical Implementation Factors
The practical implementation factors constitute 9.952% of the total variance as shown
in Table 4. Among this factor group, hands-on training (mean: 4.69; factor loading: 0.838)
was determined as the ﬁrst important variable. Burke et al. (2006) [
] reported that
safety training becomes more effective with hands-on training. According to [
structors of safety training must try to develop not only traditional paper-based but also
on-site assessment and engagement techniques. Cameron et al. (2011) [
] indicated that
learning methods driven by visual cues and tools facilitate safety training. Since hands-
on-training provides a practical dimension for safety, it has the potential to increase safety
Perception of training (mean: 4.60; factor loading: 0.794) was found to be the second
important variable of the practical factors. According to 97% of the survey participants,
the perception of training constitutes an important place in safety training implementation.
Mushayi et al. (2018) [
] highlighted that employees’ perceptions of health and safety
training create a considerable impact on their health and safety behavior and compliance.
Demirkesen and Arditi (2015) [
] also highlighted the importance of safety training percep-
tion in developing a safe behavior. Employees perceiving the beneﬁts of training sessions
have the potential to develop safe behavior and avoid themselves from being involved in
hazardous situations. They may also pay better attention during the sessions. Therefore,
developing a positive safety training perception is a critical variable in terms of conducting
more effective safety training and must be considered by safety professionals.
Methods and materials (mean: 4.90; factor loading: 0.565) were determined as the
fourth important variable of the practical factors. Jeelani et al. (2017) [
] revealed that
there is a great need to improve the methods and efﬁciency for safety training. Hussain
et al. (2018) [
] reported that a minor increase in training transfer results in a major
increase in workers’ safety performance. Therefore, authorities should focus on additional
methods to maximize the level of safety training [
]. Tam and Fung (2012) [
] stated that
alternative training methods should be included in safety training sessions. They further
mentioned that different methods (such as multimedia aids) should be used in safety
training sessions to provide a more effective training and attract participants’ attention.
Jeelani et al. (2017) [
] recommend realistic and immersive training environments to
improve the efﬁciency of safety training. Furthermore, safety procedures must be well
written and understandable to all workers [
]. Hence, the methods and materials used in
training sessions should be wisely selected and implemented to attract workers’ interest in
safety training. This is also linked with workers’ perception of safety training.
Work experience (mean: 4.41; factor loading: 0.511) of workers was determined as the
ﬁfth important variable on the rotated component matrix. Previous studies proved that
the experience of workers affects work safety and safety perception. In Hare et al. (2013)’s
], it was found that there are signiﬁcant differences among workers in terms of
understanding safety pictures. They further indicated that workers with more than 5 years
of experience were successful in deﬁning safety pictures than those with less experience.
According to [
], the possibility of work injuries decreases as the experience of workers
increases. Aligned with these studies, it is of utmost importance to grow experience in
safety and safe practices in parallel to the experience in construction. Therefore, one needs
to carefully consider the impact of the experience of trainees on safety training success
while tailoring safety training sessions.
5.4. Organizational Factors
The organizational factors constitute 5.504% of the total variance as shown in
Effectiveness of training (mean: 4.83; factor loading: 0.842) was determined as the ﬁrst
important variable explaining the motivational factors group. Haslam et al. (2005) [
stated that poor safety knowledge is the main cause of at least 70% of the accidents on
construction sites. According to [
], effective training increases workers’ knowledge
of safety. Moreover, it was further implied that effective training practices and training
Buildings 2021,11, 139 16 of 24
transfer elements should be adopted together to maximize risk perception and hazard
]. Demirkesen and Arditi (2015) [
] underlined that necessary attention
must be given to the effectiveness of learning in training sessions to improve construction
site safety. Tam and Fung (2012) [
] further mentioned that training content and methods
must be carefully designed and reevaluated when necessary to increase the effectiveness
of training sessions. As proven by the previous studies, increasing the effectiveness of
training is one of the critical elements to provide a more successful safety training session.
This variable should be considered carefully by practitioners and organizations.
Feedback (mean: 4.83; factor loading: 0.715) was determined as the second impor-
tant variable explaining the motivational factor group. Providing feedback is critical to
improving the safety performance of workers [
]. Lai et al. (2011) [
] reported that
feedback is an important reminder to workers about their unsafe acts. Demirkesen and
Arditi (2015) [
] also mentioned that feedback is one of the most essential components of
effective safety training. Therefore, safety trainers must ensure having effective feedback
mechanisms in their safety training programs.
Coordination and collaboration (mean: 4.74; factor loading: 0.689) was determined
as the third important variable of the motivational factors. According to 99% of the
survey participants, coordination and collaboration play a critical role in safety training
implementation. Sun et al. (2017) [
] showed that construction ﬁrms will not be able to
provide vocational (skill and safety) training without government involvement concluding
that the government, workers, professional organizations, and ﬁrms need to cooperate
for vocational training. A good coordination and a collaborative environment lead to
effective safety training sessions, allowing trainees to better conceive the essence of a
training session, where they feel empowered and motivated to learn about safety.
Management support (mean: 4.71; factor loading: 0.662) was found to be the fourth im-
portant variable of the motivational factors group. Keng and Razak (2014) [
] reported that
the problems on construction sites usually stem from the lack of safety awareness and ﬁnan-
cial resources for safety management. Copper (2006) [
] indicated that safety performance
is better when management support is high. Several studies have already highlighted the
critical role of management commitment to reducing the number of safety-related acci-
]. As evidenced by previous studies, management support is critical
in terms of creating a workplace safety culture and promoting safety training practices.
Therefore, ﬁrms aiming to increase their safety performance through training sessions
must beware of the fact that they need to commit to safety management programs with
Safety awareness and motivation (mean: 4.91; factor loading: 0.559) was found to
be the ﬁfth important variable of the motivational factors. A major portion of the survey
respondents indicated that safety awareness and motivation constitute an important part
of safety training implementation. Namian et al. (2016) [
] found that motivation is one of
the necessary transfer elements for hazard recognition and safety training. Demirkesen
and Arditi (2015) [
] expressed that large construction ﬁrms in the U.S.A. are responsive to
worker issues such as motivating workers and raising awareness for safety. Kim (2009) [
showed that worker personality affects safety awareness of construction workers. Hence,
safety awareness and motivation are essential elements in achieving a successful safety
training session. Trainees would better learn in an environment, where awareness for
safety is raised and motivation is promoted.
The number of unsafe acts and accidents (mean: 4.62; factor loading: 0.518) was
determined as the last important variable of the motivational factors. Kale and Baradan
] showed that unsafe conditions and unsafe acts inﬂuence work injury severity.
Hence, awareness of unsafe acts and accident numbers leads trainees to being alerted
during safety training sessions. Moreover, trainees would better concentrate during train-
ing sessions, where the number of unsafe acts and accidents are presented in the training
sessions. This raises the potential for taking preventive measures towards a speciﬁc type of
accident or develop measures for different unsafe acts.
Buildings 2021,11, 139 17 of 24
5.5. Motivational Factors
The organizational factors constitute 5.301% of the total variance as presented in
. Incentives for safety (mean, 4.65; factor loading: 0.825) was found to be the ﬁrst
important variable of the organizational factors. Khosravi et al. (2015) [
that incentives are directly associated with unsafe acts and accidents. Sectoral incentives
such as rewards and punishments encourage construction ﬁrms to provide vocational
(skill and safety) training [
]. Teo et al. (2005) [
] concluded that one of the most
important factors affecting construction site safety is the incentives. Hence, the presence of
incentives deserves special emphasis to raise motivation for safety training and to increase
the effectiveness of training sessions. Firms seriously considering incentives to reward
workers for their safe behavior are more likely to experience enhanced safety performance.
Thus, organizations should take incentives into account and consider having an incentive
structure linked with their safety training programs.
Training language (mean: 4.61; factor loading: 0.780) was found to be the second
important variable for the organizational factors group. A signiﬁcant portion of studies
in the literature proves that immigrant construction workers experience difﬁculties in
understanding the language of training in safety training sessions. Demirkesen and Arditi
] advocated that safety training participants’ language problems in their training
sessions might be solved using translators and visual aids. Moreover, Hussain et al.
] proposed that immigrant workers can be encouraged to go through bilingual
safety training provided their ﬁrms are able to offer such training opportunities.
Training frequency (mean: 4.54; factor loading: 0.724) was determined as the third
important variable of the practical factors. Pandit et al. (2019) [
] emphasized that a
positive safety climate affects construction workers’ perception of risk, leading to increased
awareness for risks and hazards. Furthermore, as the frequency of training increases,
construction workers’ attitude towards safer practices changes positively [
]. Tam and
Fung (2012) [
] further implied that regular training is essential for promoting safety and
positively affecting workers’ safety behavior. Therefore, regular/frequent safety training
arrangements must be considered carefully.
Training satisfaction (mean: 4.86; factor loading: 0.601) was found to be the third
important variable of the organizational factors group. The statistics obtained from this
research showed that 95% of the participants in the study, who are mostly managers, indi-
cated that they are satisﬁed with the safety training they had before. Nevertheless, Wilkins
] evaluated the satisfaction of construction workers with safety training and stated
that a high proportion of workers are actually not satisﬁed with the training provided to
them. Moreover, Lossemore and Malouf (2019) [
] mentioned that there are minimum
positive changes in workers’ behavioral intentions before and after safety training, indicat-
ing that workers’ emotional engagement with safety is high at the beginning of the safety
training. Hence, it is essential that trainees are satisﬁed with the training provided to them
so that they commit to the training efforts. Measuring the training satisfaction during or
after a safety training session and acting for change and improvement are critical to tailor
effective training sessions. Because training satisfaction is a variable affecting training
success, it is of greater importance to show efforts in measuring training satisfaction.
5.6. Human Related and Behavioral Factors
The ﬁnal factor group is the human-related and behavioral factors, which consti-
tute 4.190% of the total variance. This factor consists of the use of personnel protective
equipment (PPE) (mean: 4.95; factor loading: 0.731) and leadership (mean: 4.92; factor
loading: 0.543) variables. According to all survey participants, using PPE and leadership
have high importance in safety training implementation. Previous studies also show the
importance of these two factors in construction safety. Yap and Lee (2019) [
] stated that
the most critical variable for safety awareness is the use of PPE. Wu et al. (2017) [
revealed that leadership positively affects construction safety management. The use of
PPE in training sessions is a way to demonstrate to trainees how life-saving equipment
Buildings 2021,11, 139 18 of 24
might be correctly used. This would reinforce the safety knowledge of the trainees leading
to a visual representation of what needs to be done on-site. By utilizing PPE in training
sessions, one might increase the session’s success. Leadership is another essential vari-
able in terms of affecting the success of safety training. Leaders are people who have the
potential to affect a broad community with essential safety information by championing
safety and setting an example. Good leadership results in good practice and enhanced
safety performance. Consequently, training success would be higher in the existence of
good leaders and leadership skills.
The construction industry suffers from a high number of work-related injuries and
accidents. Even though various efforts have been put in place to eliminate work-related
accidents, there still needs to be serious measures to completely protect workers from
being involved in hazardous situations. One of the most commonly utilized efforts in this
respect is safety training provided within an organization. Knowing this great potential
for preventing work-related injuries and fatalities, organizations must develop ways to
improve their safety programs and speciﬁcally, their safety training sessions. However,
there are still difﬁculties in designing effective safety training sessions and enhancing safety
performance through these sessions. Especially, different learning styles of construction
workers render safety trainings more challenging and risk their safety knowledge gained
through those trainings. One other concern is that the workers are not still motivated and
fostered towards employing safeguards such as use of PPE, following safety standards,
and stopping the line in unsafe situations. The language barrier also presents a critical
risk for foreign workers, leading to poor safety learning. Therefore, this study explores the
CFs for effective safety training sessions for the construction industry. In this respect, a
total of 25 variables were identiﬁed for the success of safety training based on an in-depth
literature review and interviews with safety experts. Then, a survey was designed and
administered to the ENR Top 400 Contractors List. The survey participants were selected
from this group since the top contractors are the ones that provide regular safety training
to their employees. The survey resulted in a response rate of 23%. This study targets the
responses provided by the top contractors for the fact that their successful practices become
examples to those aiming to promote their safety programs. Moreover, the study puts
safety training to the forefront of safety programs since different learning styles leading to
safe and unsafe acts are best observed during training sessions.
Based on the analyses of the survey responses, it was found that most of the responses
were collected from construction professionals having over 20 years of experience in the
construction industry. The respondents also reported that they are highly satisﬁed with the
previous safety training they had and implied that safety training helped them increase
their safety awareness. The respondents further mentioned that they were trained with
different safety training methods such as computer-based training, on-the-job training, and
equipment-use simulation. For the safety training success variables, the factor analysis
was executed to group the factors and name them accordingly. The analyses of the factors
resulted in six-factor groups, namely the project and ﬁrm-related factors, demographic
factors, practical factors, motivational factors, organizational factors, and human-related
factors. Among the factor groups, project and ﬁrm-related factors were found to be the
most inﬂuential factors for safety training success. This factor group consists of variables
such as project type, project size, project duration, and ﬁrm size. The other factor groups
were also found to be signiﬁcant, but their relative importance is lower compared to the
project and ﬁrm related factors group.
The motivation behind this study is to assess the factors leading to a higher success
in safety training sessions for the fact that effective training provides trainees with better
safety performance, eventually reducing work-related injuries and fatalities. Since this is a
serious concern in the construction industry, the investigation of the parameters affecting
safety performance plays a critical role in rendering a better safety performance. To this end,
Buildings 2021,11, 139 19 of 24
the results of this study are expected to guide construction industry practitioners in terms
of reviewing their safety programs and revise their safety training assessment accordingly.
This also contributes to the reputation of an organization and increases their work reliability.
However, this study has also some limitations as the results generated are based on the
perceptions and experiences of the 400 Top Contractors in the U.S. The results could differ
with another data set collected in a different region. Moreover, the survey was conducted
with a relatively small sample reﬂecting the perceptions of a small group. On the other
hand, the results are generalizable since the 400 Top Contractors are industry leaders with
their well-developed safety programs and safety management experience. Hence, their
insights into safety training might provide a roadmap for a broader community. As future
work, the results of this study might lead researchers to investigate safety training practices
in other countries/regions and the results might be compared. Similar studies focusing on
different ﬁrm sizes and project types might be useful. Moreover, the performance of safety
training sessions from both the trainer’s and trainee’s perspectives might be assessed. The
success factors provided in this study might be used to assess whether ﬁrms considering
these parameters in designing their safety training perform better or not.
Conceptualization, A.T. and S.D., Methodology, I.A.K. and E.D., Writing—
Original Draft Preparation, A.T., Writing—Review & Editing, S.D., I.A.K., E.D. All authors have read
and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.
Funding: This research received no external funding.
Institutional Review Board Statement: Not applicable.
Informed Consent Statement: Not applicable.
Data Availability Statement:
The data presented in this study are available on request from the
corresponding author. The data are not publicly available due to privacy and ethical restrictions.
Conﬂicts of Interest: The authors declare no conﬂict of interest.
Survey of critical success factors in safety training
1. Please indicate your age _______________
2. Please indicate your gender.
3. Please indicate your country of origin _______________
4. Please indicate your level of education.
5. How long has your company been operating in the construction industry?
__Above 20 years
6. What is the total turnover of your company (in Million USD) _______________
7. What is the total number of employees in your company? _______________
Buildings 2021,11, 139 20 of 24
8. Please indicate the importance level of below listed factors in the success of safety training implementation.
Variables Very Low Low Medium High Very High
Country of Origin
Perception of Training
Methods and Materials
Safety awareness and motivation
Number of unsafe acts and accidents
Effectiveness of training
Coordination and collaboration
Use of Personnel Protective
Incentives for safety
9. Have you ever been involved in a safety training session? If so, how many times?
__1–3 __3–5 __More than 5 times
10. Did you have any problem to understand the language of safety training?
__Yes __Partly __No
11. How long have you been working in the construction industry?
__Above 20 years
12. Were realistic examples from construction sites provided during safety training sessions that you attended?
Buildings 2021,11, 139 21 of 24
13. How long was the duration of the training you got? _______________
14. Which methods of training were used during the sessions?
__Computer based training
__Equipment use simulation
__Games and simulations
__On the Job Training
15. What is your satisfaction level with your safety training?
__Very low __Low __Medium __High __Very High
16. Do you think you need motivation to eliminate unsafe behavior?
17. Have you ever involved in a work-related accident? If so, how did the training affect your chance of being involved in a
work-related accident? _______________
18. Did training increase your ability to detect unsafe acts or behaviors? If so, what were the main unsafe acts or behaviors you
19. Did the training help increase your safety awareness? If so, what percent of increase would you specify for the awareness?
__%10 and less
__%71 and more
20. Would you be willing to get more safety trainings for increasing your safety performance?
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