Article

Emotional Maturity, Forgiveness, and Marital Satisfaction among Dual Earner Couples

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This study investigated the role of emotional maturity and forgiveness as correlates and predictors of marital satisfaction among dual earner couples. Using quantitative correlational survey research design, a sample of 50 couples (N=100; Husbands n=50 & Wives n=50) was approached through the non-probability purposive sampling strategy. Participants completed Emotional Maturity Scale (Waheed, Rasheed, & Kausar, 2015), Heartland Forgiveness Scale (Thompson et al., 2005) and Relationship Assessment Scale (Hendrick, 1988). Emotional maturity and forgiveness had a significant positive relationship with marital satisfaction (p < .05). Results also showed that forgiveness of others (β = .20; p < .05) and forgiveness of situations (β = .22; p < .05) were significant predictors of marital satisfaction among dual earner couples. Findings of this study imply that family life educators, in the future, should consider emotional maturity and forgiveness when contemplating about enhancing marital quality.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
This paper attempts to explore the impact of role conflict on marital quality of dual career couples in Peshawar, Pakistan. Role conflict i.e. family to work and work to family conflict was taken as independent variable and marital quality was selected as dependent variable. Marital quality was operationalized through four components including satisfaction, communication, togetherness and marital disagreement. Data was gathered through structured questionnaire on three-point Likert type scale from 388 respondents in 6 universities and 3 hospitals in Peshawar city of Pakistan. Results of uni-variate analysis suggest that the study participants were experiencing family to work and work to family conflict. The data further shows that majority of the study participants were having high level of marital quality; nonetheless lower scores were also obtained on all the components of marital quality. Regression analysis suggests that role conflict was significantly and negatively related with marital satisfaction, communication, togetherness and positively related with marital disagreements. Likewise, correlation analysis shows that marital satisfaction, communication and marital togetherness are positively correlated while negatively correlated with marital disagreements. It is concluded from the study that role conflict experienced from either domain reduces marital satisfaction, communication and marital bond while increases marital disagreements between dual career couples.
Article
Full-text available
Many studies have examined that how the simultaneous demands of occupational role and family obligations are affecting dual career couples, there is very limited studies exploring this issue in Pakistan. This study was carried out to examine the lived experiences of marital partners having dual career marriages in Peshawar city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The main objective underlying this study was to explore how husband and wives having dual career marriages experience the demands of multiple roles and how they cope with the simultaneous demands of family and occupational role. A qualitative research protocol was adopted and 22 study participants including wives and husbands having dual career marriages were interviewed in the three selected universities of the targeted locale. Analysis of the interview transcripts revealed five themes including 1) Role balancing is difficult; 2) Child care is difficult to manage with occupational role; 3) Have little but quality time together: 4) Friendly communication is helpful: 5) Coping mechanisms are very useful. It was concluded from the study that the simultaneous demands of family and occupational role was challenging and problematic for the study participants. Moreover, the storyline of the study participants revealed that role balancing became more challenging when parenting role was added to the existing workload because of the lack of organizational support and non-availability of child care assistance in the workplace. The best possible coping strategies reported by the study participants were role sharing, friendly negotiation, positive communication, proper planning and appropriate scheduling.  Since few decades, the traditional boundaries between work and family have been constantly changing while new family pattern and work organization is immensely emerging. The labor market in the current time is comprised of a considerable numbers of women as a consequence
Article
Full-text available
The present study is focused on the factors leading to a happily married life. The sample included a married woman drawn from convenient sampling. Semi-structured interview was conducted to investigate her experience of being happily married and what factors she thinks are important to be happily married. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was applied as a research method. Sixteen categories emerged after coding the data were Similarities of Religious
Article
Full-text available
This study examined self-compassion and forgiveness versus marital satisfaction in 200 couples aged 20-40 years, with a marriage history of 1-10 years. We collected the data, using the Enrich couple, self-compassion and family forgiveness scales. Pearson’s correlation and multiple regressions for women showed that marital satisfaction was associated with self-compassion; however, forgiveness predicted marital satisfaction in men. Self-compassion primarily and forgiveness, to a lesser extent, could predict marital satisfaction in the total samples. These variables were the predictors of marital satisfaction in the young couples. Family counselors should encourage couples to improve upon these attributes to enhance their marital relationships.
Article
Full-text available
Forgiveness, as a response to interpersonal transgressions, has multiple societal and individual benefits. Individual differences in attachment have been identified as a predictor not only of forgiveness but of state responses frequently associated with forgiveness. The current meta-analysis is the first systematic analysis of the effect of attachment dimensions (i.e., anxiety and avoidance) on forgiveness of others. Analysis of published and unpublished studies (k = 26) identified significant, small-to-medium effects of attachment anxiety (r = −.25) and attachment avoidance (r = −.18) on forgiveness of others. No significant difference was obtained between measures of state and trait forgiveness. The moderating effects of study paradigm, attachment measure, publication type, and sample population were also investigated. The findings of a stable negative effect of insecure attachment dimensions on forgiveness of others provide a base for future research that may focus on reducing attachment anxiety and avoidance to support forgiveness.
Article
Full-text available
Emotions play key role in families functioning and mantalUfe. Thus, emotional maturity may be considered a basis in marital adjustment and a happy marital life. As such, the present study is an attempt to understand the relationship between marital adjustment and emotional maturity in Indian cultural context. For this purpose hundred (100) couples (husband & wife) with at least graduation quahfication from Varanasi district of Uttar Pradesh were randomly sampled to check the predictability of the various measures of quahty of marital hfe (marital consensus, affectionexpression, marital satisfaction, marital cohesion,& overall marital adjustment), each measure at a time as criterion (dependent variable) by the facets of 'emotional maturity' (emotional unstability, emotional regression, social maladjustment, personality disintegration & lack of independence) as predictors (independent variables). Step wise (back ward) regression analysis was applied and results revealed that emotional unstability, social maladjustment and personality disintegration facets of emotional maturity most predicted the overall marital adjustment in married couples.
Article
Full-text available
The study aims to do an extensive literature review on emotional maturity, the study also attempts to review the relationship of emotional maturity with other variables such as; mental well-being, stress, self-confidence, self-esteem etc. The main findings of the study are to find the gap areas where further research can be done by the researchers to explore the area of emotional maturity more deeply. Finally, a conceptual model has been derived on the basis of the review of literature on emotional maturity. As per the conceptual model, the relationship between emotional maturity, stress and self –confidence are three main areas which still needs to get attention by the researchers. Conceptual model explains that importance of studying the emotional maturity because it affects the self-confidence and stress level of a person while self-confidence is the variable that affects the stress level of a person. Therefore, if we work on the emotional maturity level of a person, the self-confidence of a person can be improved and thus stress can be minimized.
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the effect of self-esteem on subjective well-being, with focus on confirmation of mediator roles of interpersonal forgiveness and self-forgiveness among a sample of 475 college students. The participants completed a questionnaire packet that includes Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Heartland Forgiveness Scale, and Subjective Well-Being Scale. Results revealed that self-esteem, interpersonal forgiveness, and self-forgiveness were all significantly correlated with subjective well-being. Bootstrap results indicated that both interpersonal forgiveness and self-forgiveness partially mediated self-esteem to subjective well-being. Structural equation modeling analysis also revealed significant paths from self-esteem to subjective well-being through both interpersonal forgiveness and self-forgiveness.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between married men’s level of male role norms and their level of marital adjustment. Male role norms were examined as predictors of marital adjustment in Turkish married men using a Turkish version of the Marital Adjustment Scale and the Male Role Norms Inventory. Academic and managerial staff from Ondokuz Mayıs University participated in the research. The study sample consisted of 183 male participants, all of whom had been married to a member of the opposite sex for at least one year. The correlations among the study variables indicate that avoidance of femininity, restrictive emotionality, aggression, achievement status, self-reliance, and attitudes toward sex are significantly related to marital adjustment. Additionally, the results reveal that male role norms are a predictor of marital adjustment. We conclude that marital adjustment is determined by avoidance of femininity, restrictive emotionality, aggression, achievement status, and attitudes toward sex.
Article
Full-text available
Based on cross-sectional data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce, this study investigates relationships between gender, age, and work-family conflict across 6 family life stages. Participants were 690 married/partnered employees who worked 35 or more hours a week. Results indicated a small but negative relationship between age and work-family conflict. Work-family conflict was also associated with family stage, with the least amount of conflict occurring during the empty nest stage and the most occurring when the youngest child in the home was 5 years of age or younger. Gender differences were also observed. Specifically, men reported more work interference with family than did women when the youngest child in the home was a teen. Women overall reported more family interference with work than did men. Results concerning age and gender revealed a different pattern demonstrating that family stage is not simply a proxy for age. Age had a main effect on work-to-family conflict that was monotonic in nature and on family to-work conflict that was linear in nature. In conclusion, the results indicate gender, age, and family stage each uniquely relate to work-family conflict. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Full-text available
People in different cultures have strikingly different construals of the self, of others, and of the interdependence of the 2. These construals can influence, and in many cases determine, the very nature of individual experience, including cognition, emotion, and motivation. Many Asian cultures have distinct conceptions of individuality that insist on the fundamental relatedness of individuals to each other. The emphasis is on attending to others, fitting in, and harmonious interdependence with them. American culture neither assumes nor values such an overt connectedness among individuals. In contrast, individuals seek to maintain their independence from others by attending to the self and by discovering and expressing their unique inner attributes. As proposed herein, these construals are even more powerful than previously imagined. Theories of the self from both psychology and anthropology are integrated to define in detail the difference between a construal of the self as independent and a construal of the self as interdependent. Each of these divergent construals should have a set of specific consequences for cognition, emotion, and motivation; these consequences are proposed and relevant empirical literature is reviewed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
The construct of interpersonal forgiveness is operationalized and tested with 197 college students and 197 of their same-gender parents in the Midwestern United States. The Enright Forgiveness Inventory (EFI) showed strong internal consistency reliability. The EFI correlates significantly and negatively with anxiety particularly when a person is experiencing deep hurt in a developmentally relevant area. Age differences also were observed. Particularly when the hurt concerns a developmentally relevant area, college students are less forgiving and have more anxiety than their same-gender parents. The EFI thus appears to have sound psychometric properties.
Article
Full-text available
The authors used a vulnerability-stress-adaptation framework to examine personality traits and chronic stress as predictors of the developmental course of physical aggression in the early years of marriage. Additionally, personality traits and physical aggression were examined as predictors of the developmental course of chronic stress. Data from 103 couples collected 4 times over the first 3 years of marriage were analyzed with an actor-partner interdependence model and structural equation modeling techniques. Personality traits of husbands predicted their own physical aggression and stress trajectories, as well as their wives' levels of stress and physical aggression. Personality traits of wives predicted their levels of stress and physical aggression and predicted changes in their physical aggression over time. Both husbands' and wives' changes in stress predicted changes in physical aggression over time. Implications for employment of a vulnerability-stress-adaptation model in the study of physical aggression and for improvement of the efficacy of therapies targeting physical aggression in intimate relationships are delineated.
Article
Full-text available
Although a large number of studies show a correlation between marital status and mental health, the relative magnitude of the relationship, as compared to the strength of the relationship of other variables related to mental health, is not known. In this empirical evaluation, it is shown that in the present data, marital status is the most powerful predictor of the mental health variables considered. Data are then used to show that it is the quality of a marriage and not marriage per se that links marriage to positive mental health. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the psychological functions of marriage.
Article
Full-text available
Although much has been learned from cross-sectional research on marriage, an understanding of how marriages develop, succeed, and fail is best achieved with longitudinal data. In view of growing interest in longitudinal research on marriage, the authors reviewed and evaluated the literature on how the quality and stability of marriages change over time. First, prevailing theoretical perspectives are examined for their ability to explain change in marital quality and stability. Second, the methods and findings of 115 longitudinal studies--representing over 45,000 marriages--are summarized and evaluated, yielding specific suggestions for improving this research, Finally, a model is outlined that integrates the strengths of previous theories of marriage, accounts for established findings, and indicates new directions for research on how marriages change.
Article
Full-text available
Interpersonal forgiving was conceptualized in the context of a 2-factor motivational system that governs people's responses to interpersonal offenses. Four studies were conducted to examine the extent to which forgiving could be predicted with relationship-level variables such as satisfaction, commitment, and closeness; offense-level variables such as apology and impact of the offense; and social-cognitive variables such as offender-focused empathy and rumination about the offense. Also described is the development of the transgression-related interpersonal motivations inventory--a self-report measure designed to assess the 2-component motivational system (Avoidance and Revenge) posited to underlie forgiving. The measure demonstrated a variety of desirable psychometric properties, commending its use for future research. As predicted, empathy, apology, rumination, and several indexes of relationship closeness were associated with self-reported forgiving.
Article
Full-text available
Forgiveness and related constructs (e.g., repentance, mercy, reconciliation) are ripe for study by social and personality psychologists, including those interested in justice. Current trends in social science, law, management, philosophy, and theology suggest a need to expand existing justice frameworks to incorporate alternatives or complements to retribution, including forgiveness and related processes. In this article, we raise five challenging empirical questions about forgiveness. For each question, we briefly review representative research, raise hypotheses, and suggest specific ways in which social and personality psychologists could make distinctive contributions.
Article
Full-text available
The extant data linking forgiveness to health and well-being point to the role of emotional forgiveness, particularly when it becomes a pattern in dispositional forgivingness. Both are important antagonists to the negative affect of unforgiveness and agonists for positive affect. One key distinction emerging in the literature is between decisional and emotional forgiveness. Decisional forgiveness is a behavioral intention to resist an unforgiving stance and to respond differently toward a transgressor. Emotional forgiveness is the replacement of negative unforgiving emotions with positive other-oriented emotions. Emotional forgiveness involves psychophysiological changes, and it has more direct health and well-being consequences. While some benefits of forgiveness and forgivingness emerge merely because they reduce unforgiveness, some benefits appear to be more forgiveness specific. We review research on peripheral and central nervous system correlates of forgiveness, as well as existing interventions to promote forgiveness within divergent health settings. Finally, we propose a research agenda.
Article
Forgiveness is a universal construct. A forgiveness measure should ensure good and diverse cultural representation and inclusivity in its development, validation and usage. The 15-item Bolton Forgiveness Scale (BFS) assesses dispositional forgiveness. Items came from interviews with 53 Nigerian and British people, existing scales and the research literature. Exploratory factor analysis with a student sample (n = 733) was followed by confirmatory factor analysis with a general sample (n = 2,017). This indicated a robust three-factor structure. Factors were, coming to terms and letting go (CLTG), developing positive feelings (DPF) and giving benefit of the doubt (GBD). Scale Validity was established and a new forgiveness definition emerged as a process that involves developing and strengthening the capacity to give benefit of the doubt that enables the offended come to terms with and let go of hurt with its negative affect thereby giving way gradually to positive feelings towards the transgressor.
Article
This study assessed associations between both work demands (pressure, hours) and work resources (self-direction) and marital satisfaction in a sample of 164 African American dual-earner couples who were interviewed annually across 3 years. Grounded in the work–home resources and family systems frameworks, results from longitudinal actor–partner interdependence models (APIM) revealed main effects of spouses’ work experiences on their own marital satisfaction, but these effects were qualified by the interactive effects of spouses’ and partners’ work experiences. Some interactive effects were consistent with an amplifying pattern, for example that, beyond the main effects of actor self-direction, marital satisfaction was highest when both spouses experienced high work self-direction. Other effects were consistent with a comparative pattern, such that shorter work hours were linked to lower marital satisfaction only when partners worked longer hours. Gender moderation also was evident in findings that wives’ work pressure was negatively linked to marital satisfaction only when their husbands reported high pressure, but husbands’ work pressure was negatively linked to marital satisfaction only when their wives reported low pressure. This study advances understanding of work–marriage linkages in African American couples, an understudied group with a distinctive connection to the labor force. Analyses demonstrate what can be learned from investigating the couple as a unit and illustrate how family systems concepts can be addressed via APIM.
Article
The impact of dual-earner couples’ unequal division of paid and family labor after the transition to parenthood is inconsistently linked to well-being outcomes. We argue that this relationship can be better understood by examining the congruence between the post-child division of labor and pre-child expectation for the division of labor. Based on a met expectations framework, this idea was tested with 137 dual-earner heterosexual couples with young children. Hypotheses were testing using polynomial regression analyses with well-being considered in both affective (career, marital, and family satisfaction) and health-related (depressive and physical health symptoms) terms. Results suggested that congruence in the paid labor and childcare domain mattered most for wives’ well-being, whereas congruence with household labor mattered most for husbands’ well-being. Crossover analyses revealed a similar trend in that wives’ expectations-division of paid labor congruence was significantly related to husband's well-being and husbands’ expectations-division of household labor congruence was significantly related to wives’ well-being. Hypotheses were also tested with pre-child desires for division of labor instead of pre-child expectations. The pattern of results was similar albeit stronger for expectations. Implications include the importance of comprehensively assessing division of labor and the fact that pre-child attitudes are relevant to post-child outcomes.
Article
The aim of the study was to analyze the relationships between the propensity to forgive and life satisfaction in different age groups. Polish versions of the Heartland Forgiveness Scale (adapted by Kaleta,Mróz, and Guzewicz, 2016) and of The Satisfaction with Life Scale by Diener et al. (SWLS, 1985) adapted by Juczyński (2012), were used. The sample consisted of 436 individuals aged 19–67. The analyses were performed separately for all age groups. Positive and negative dimensions of forgiveness of self, of others, and of situations beyond anyone's control were considered. The results revealed relationships between different aspects of the disposition to forgive and life satisfaction across the entire sample. In addition, significant positive correlations between positive and negative aspects of forgiveness and life satisfaction were observed in individuals aged 19–30 and 41–50. On the other hand, in the group of respondents aged 31–40 a significant positive relationship between reduced unforgiveness and satisfaction with life, whereas in the group aged 50 and over, between positive forgiveness and life satisfaction, were revealed.
Article
Marriages are often characterized by their positive and negative features in terms of whether they elicit feelings of satisfaction and happiness or conflict and negativity. Although research has examined the development of marital happiness, less is known about the development of negativity among married couples. We examined how marital tension (i.e., feelings of tension, resentment, irritation) develops within couples over time and whether marital tension has unique implications for divorce. Specifically, we examined marital tension among husbands and wives within the same couples from the first to the sixteenth year of marriage, as well as links between marital tension and divorce. Participants included 355 couples assessed in years 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 16 of marriage. Multilevel models revealed that wives reported greater marital tension than husbands. Marital tension increased over time among both husbands and wives, with a greater increase among husbands. Couples were more likely to divorce when wives reported higher marital tension, a greater increase in marital tension, and greater cumulative marital tension. Findings are consistent with the emergent distress model of marriage, but indicate that despite the greater increases in marital tension among husbands, wives' increased marital tension over the course of marriage is more consistently associated with divorce. (PsycINFO Database Record
Article
Parents’ adjustment, co-parenting conflict, and parenting style are often intervention targets for parents following divorce. However, little is known about how these three aspects together relate to child outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine how parent adjustment (distress and anger), parenting conflict, and parenting style (laxness and over-reactivity) predict child internalising, externalising, and prosocial behaviours. Participants were a community sample of 109 divorced parents with a child aged 4–17 years. Results showed that increased parental distress and co-parent conflict predicted increased child emotional and behavioural problems; and increased lax parenting also predicted increased externalising behaviour problems. However, greater prosocial behaviour was predicted only by lower lax parenting. The results highlight the differential impact of parenting factors on child outcomes following divorce and have implications for the content and tailoring of interventions for divorced parents.
Article
Despite a large literature investigating how spouses’ earnings and division of labor relate to their risk of divorce, findings remain mixed and conclusions elusive. Core unresolved questions are (1) whether marital stability is primarily associated with the economic gains to marriage or with the gendered lens through which spouses’ earnings and employment are interpreted and (2) whether the determinants of marital stability have changed over time. Using data from the 1968 to 2013 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I consider how spouses’ division of labor, their overall financial resources, and a wife’s ability to support herself in the event of divorce are associated with the risk of divorce, and how these associations have changed between couples married before and after 1975. Financial considerations—wives’ economic independence and total household income—are not predictive of divorce in either cohort. Time use, however, is associated with divorce risk in both cohorts. For marriages formed after 1975, husbands’ lack of full-time employment is associated with higher risk of divorce, but neither wives’ full-time employment nor wives’ share of household labor is associated with divorce risk. Expectations of wives’ homemaking may have eroded, but the husband breadwinner norm persists.
Article
Results of numerous studies have demonstrated a positive relation between religiosity and marital well-being. In this study, the authors examined direct effects on marital satisfaction of religious homogamy, prayer for spousal well-being, and forgiveness. They also examined the degree to which religiosity buffered against risks to marital well-being. The results indicated significant positive linear relations between each indicator of religiosity and marital satisfaction. Furthermore, religiosity moderated, or buffered against, the negative effects of risk factors; specifically, religious homogamy buffered against previous divorce; prayer buffered against having a high-stress marriage; and spousal forgiveness buffered against cohabitation before marriage, previous divorce, and stressful marriage.
Article
This paper reports the results of a decade replication of research investigating the relationship between both spousal and self-rated emotional maturity and the marital adjustment of both spouses. Data for this paper are based upon responses of a random sample of 143 husband-wife pairs in the same community in which Dean (1966) did his original study, using a random sample of 117 husband-wife pairs. Using the Dean Emotional Maturity Scale and the Locke-Wallace Short Form, it was determined that husband's emotional maturity (self-rated) correlated .33 with his and .28 with his wife's marital adjustment; husband's emotional maturity (rated independently and confidentially by wife) correlated .27 with his and .51 with his wife's marital adjustment; wife's emotional maturity (self-rated) correlated .39 with her and .09 with her husband's; wife's emotional maturity (rated independently and confidentially by husband) correlated .20 with her and .23 with her husband's marital adjustment. Marital adjustment of husband and wife correlated at .50.
Article
A new equilibrium model of relationship maintenance is proposed. People can protect relationship bonds by practicing 3 threat-mitigation rules: Trying to accommodate when a partner is hurtful, ensuring mutual dependence, and resisting devaluing a partner who impedes one's personal goals. A longitudinal study of newlyweds revealed evidence for the equilibrium model, such that relationship well-being (as indexed by satisfaction and commitment) declining from its usual state predicted increased threat-mitigation; in turn, increasing threat mitigation from its usual state predicted increased relationship well-being. Longitudinal findings further revealed adaptive advantages to uncertain trust. First, the match between trust and partner-risk predicted the trajectory of threat mitigation over time. People who hesitated to trust a high-risk partner became more likely to mitigate threats over 3 years, but people who hesitated to trust a safe partner became less likely to mitigate threats. The match between threat mitigation and partner-risk also predicted when being less trusting eroded later relationship well-being. Namely, when women paired with high-risk partners became more likely to mitigate threats, being less trusting at marriage lost its capacity to erode later relationship well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
This article presents a framework for emotional intelligence, a set of skills hypothesized to contribute to the accurate appraisal and expression of emotion in oneself and in others, the effective regulation of emotion in self and others, and the use of feelings to motivate, plan, and achieve in one's life. We start by reviewing the debate about the adaptive versus maladaptive qualities of emotion. We then explore the literature on intelligence, and especially social intelligence, to examine the place of emotion in traditional intelligence conceptions. A framework for integrating the research on emotion-related skills is then described. Next, we review the components of emotional intelligence. To conclude the review, the role of emotional intelligence in mental health is discussed and avenues for further investigation are suggested.
Article
This study uses a nationally representative sample of individuals involved in dual-earner marriages to examine the relationship between perceived fairness of housework completion, marital happiness, and divorce. The authors expected to find that perceived inequality in the division of housework causes tension between spouses that leads to decreased marital quality for both men and women. They further speculated that an unfair division of household labor might contribute to a greater likelihood of divorce. Results indicate that perceived inequity in the division of household labor is negatively associated with both husbands[#X2019] and wives[#X2019]reported marital happiness but is positively associated with the odds of divorce among wives only. Little evidence indicates that marital happiness mediates this relationship. The authors propose that unfair perceptions of the division of household labor not only decrease women[#X2019]s marital quality but also lead to role strain that makes them more likely to end unsatisfying marriages.
Article
Developed scales to measure forgiveness of others (FOO) and forgiveness of self (FOS) as part of an inventory to sample personality disorders. Based on the responses of 237 outpatient counseling clients, these scales have adequate internal consistency reliabilities and correlate with each other only .37. This suggests that although the scales are somewhat related, they are predominately sampling different classes of behavior. Deficits in FOO and FOS correlated significantly with several scales on the MMPI and with ratings done by therapists and peers. These deficits were related to increased amounts of psychopathology, such as depression, anxiety, and negative self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated characteristics of 1st marriages of over 20 yrs duration. A survey instrument was developed and administered to 147 couples whose responses were analyzed. The 10 most important characteristics the spouses possessed in these long-term marriages were (1) lifetime commitment to marriage, (2) loyalty to spouse, (3) strong moral values, (4) respect for spouse as best friend, (5) commitment to sexual fidelity, (6) desire to be a good parent, (7) faith in God and spiritual commitment, (8) desire to please and support spouse, (9) good companion to spouse, and (10) willingness to forgive and be forgiven. The relevance of these findings for mental health counselors for use in developmental interventions, education, and prevention with couples is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This is a self-help book for people who have been deeply hurt by another and are caught in a vortex of anger, depression, and resentment. As a creator of the first scientifically proven forgiveness program in the country, this author shows how forgiveness can reduce anxiety and depression and increase self-esteem and hopefulness. The author shows how forgiveness, approached in the correct manner, benefits the forgiver far more than the forgiven. The author is careful to distinguish forgiveness from "pseudo-forgiveness" and to reassure readers that forgiveness does not mean accepting continued abuse or even reconciling with the offender. Rather, by giving the gift of forgiveness, readers are encouraged to confront and let go of their pain in order to regain their lives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The variety of interpersonal relationships in contemporary society necessitates the development of brief, reliable measures of satisfaction that are applicable to many types of close relationships. This article describes the development of such a measure. In Study I, the 7-item Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS) was administered to 125 subjects who reported themselves to be "in love." Analyses revealed a unifactorial scale structure, substantial factor loadings, and moderate intercorrelations among the items. The scale correlated significantly with measures of love, sexual attitudes, self-disclosure, commitment, and investment in a relationship. In Study II, the scale was administered to 57 couples in ongoing relationships. Analyses supported a single factor, alpha reliability of .86, and correlations with relevant relationship measures. The scale correlated .80 with a longer criterion measure, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (Spanier, 1976), and both scales were effective (with a subsample) in discriminating couples who stayed together from couples who broke up. The RAS is a brief, psychometrically sound, generic measure of relationship satisfaction.
Article
This paper reports on the development, validity, and reliability of a self-report instrument designed to assess a respondent's perspective of pain resulting from relational violations and work toward relational forgiveness based on a framework proposed by Hargrave (1994a). Presented here is the five-stage procedure used in the development of the Interpersonal Relationship Resolution Scale. Construct validity and reliability were determined from an initial sample of 164 subjects. Concurrent validity of the scale was supported by another sample of 35 respondents who took the Interpersonal Relationship Resolution Scale, the Personal Authority in the Family System Questionnaire, the Relational Ethics Scale, the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior scale, and the Burns Depression Checklist. Finally, a predictive validity study of the scale was performed with a clinical and nonclinical sample of 98 volunteers. Data are presented that support the validity and reliability of the instrument, as well as the final version of the scale.
Article
Forgiving is a motivational transformation that inclines people to inhibit relationship-destructive responses and to behave constructively toward someone who has behaved destructively toward them. The authors describe a model of forgiveness based on the hypothesis that people forgive others to the extent that they experience empathy for them. Two studies investigated the empathy model of forgiveness. In Study 1, the authors developed measures of empathy and forgiveness. The authors found evidence consistent with the hypotheses that (a) the relationship between receiving an apology from and forgiving one's offender is a function of increased empathy for the offender and (b) that forgiving is uniquely related to conciliatory behavior and avoidance behavior toward the offending partner. In Study 2, the authors conducted an intervention in which empathy was manipulated to examine the empathy-forgiving relationship more closely. Results generally supported the conceptualization of forgiving as a motivational phenomenon and the empathy-forgiving link.
Article
Forgiveness is an issue that is problematic for many couples, particularly those in marital therapy. However, little attention has been paid to this construct in the psychological literature. The purpose of this article is to describe a synthesized model of forgiveness using constructs from multiple theories, including forgiveness, trauma recovery, cognitive-behavioral, family systems, and insight-oriented theories. Forgiveness is conceptualized as a process consisting of three stages, each of which has cognitive, behavioral, and affective components. Furthermore, these stages seem to parallel a person's natural response to traumatic stress. First, there is a response to the initial impact; second, there is an attempt to give the event some kind of meaning, or put it into context; and finally, the person begins to move forward and readjust. Forgiveness is conceptualized as attaining: (a) a realistic, nondistorted, balanced view of the relationship; (b) a release from being controlled by negative affect toward the participating partner; and (c) a lessened desire to punish the participating partner. Implications for marital therapy also are discussed.
Article
Six studies regarding forgiveness are presented. The Heartland Forgiveness Scale (HFS), a self-report measure of dispositional forgiveness (with subscales to assess forgiveness of self, others, and situations) was developed and demonstrated good psychometric properties. Forgiveness correlated positively with cognitive flexibility, positive affect, and distraction; it correlated negatively with rumination, vengeance, and hostility. Forgiveness predicted four components of psychological well-being (anger, anxiety, depression, and satisfaction with life); forgiveness of situations accounted for unique variance in these components of psychological well-being. Forgiveness and hostility demonstrated equivalent, inverse associations with relationship duration, and forgiveness accounted for unique variance in relationship satisfaction, even when controlling for trust. Forgiveness level correlated positively with decreased negativity in statements written about transgressions in the present versus the past tense.
Article
Two studies examined whether forgiveness in married couples is associated with better conflict resolution. Study 1 examined couples in their 3rd year of marriage and identified 2 forgiveness dimensions (retaliation and benevolence). Husbands' retaliatory motivation was a significant predictor of poorer wife-reported conflict resolution, whereas wives' benevolence motivation predicted husbands' reports of better conflict resolution. Examining longer term marriages, Study 2 identified three forgiveness dimensions (retaliation, avoidance and benevolence). Whereas wives' benevolence again predicted better conflict resolution, husbands' avoidance predicted wives' reports of poorer conflict resolution. All findings were independent of both spouses' marital satisfaction. The findings are discussed in terms of the importance of forgiveness for marital conflict and its implications for spouse goals. Future research directions on forgiveness are outlined.
Emotional maturity among arranged marriage couples with special references to agartala
  • J Das
Das, J. (2015). Emotional maturity among arranged marriage couples with special references to agartala. EPRA International Journal of Economic & Business Review, 3(7), 127-130. https://d1wqtxts1xzle7.cloudfront.net/34419862/A03710104.pdf?1407811065
Marital satisfaction and emotional intelligence among different professionals
  • S Ilyas
  • S Habib
Ilyas, S., & Habib, S. (2014). Marital satisfaction and emotional intelligence among different professionals. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 5(11), 302-307.
Marital adjustment and emotional maturity among dual career couples
  • M Jaisri
  • M I Joseph
Jaisri, M., & Joseph, M. I. (2013). Marital adjustment and emotional maturity among dual career couples. Guru Journal of Behavioral & Social Sciences, 1(2), 77-84. http://gjbss.org/wpcontent/uploads/2013/03/GJBSS-paper-V2-I2-3-JaaisriJoseph.pdf
Emotional maturity: Characteristics and levels
  • C Kapri
  • N Rani
Kapri, C., & Rani, N. (2014). Emotional maturity: Characteristics and levels. International Journal of Technological Exploration & Learning, 3(1), 359-361.
The relationship between forgiveness and marital satisfaction
  • M Mirzadeh
  • R Fallahchai
Mirzadeh, M., & Fallahchai, R. (2012). The relationship between forgiveness and marital satisfaction. Journal of Life Science & Biomedcine, 2(6), 278-282.
A study on assessment of association between emotional maturity and marital adjustment of dual earner couples
  • R Mishra
Mishra, R. (2014). A study on assessment of association between emotional maturity and marital adjustment of dual earner couples. Indian Society of Genetics, Biotechnology Research & Development, 6(4), 653-656.
The relation of emotional maturity, family interaction and marital satisfaction of early age married couples
  • Y Nindyasari
  • T Herawati
Nindyasari, Y., & Herawati, T. (2018). The relation of emotional maturity, family interaction and marital satisfaction of early age married couples. Journal of Family Sciences, 3(2), 16-29. https://doi.org/10.29244/jfs.3.2.16-29