ArticlePDF Available

The Online Course as Initial Stage of a Course in Higher Education: Implementation and Evaluation of the Pre- MOOC Concept in a Technical Degree Course

Abstract and Figures

In university teaching, a massive open online course (MOOC) is often regarded as an isolated online course, typically addressing a broad public of lifelong learners or future students. Nevertheless, some universities use MOOCs as a lecture for their students or use MOOCs as integrated part of their own lectures. In this study, we focus on a lecture concept called "Pre-MOOC", where a MOOC is an obligative first part of a lecture in higher education, followed by lecture-part only open for own students and typically in presence. Therefore, we explore the current state of practices and research on Pre-MOOCs and describe our design-based research approach, the development of the MOOC and evaluation of its implementation in 2019. The article describes the instructional design process of the lecture in a master program of electrical engineering in which we used the instructional design model ADDIE. Finally, we will analyze the results of the evaluation with regard to the concept of a Pre-MOOC. Based on feedback from students and teachers, recommendations for designing a course with the Pre-MOOC design will be provided and implications as well limitations of the study will be discussed.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Paper—The Online Course as Initial Stage of a Course in Higher Education: Implementation…
The Online Course as Initial Stage of a Course in Higher
Education: Implementation and Evaluation of the Pre-
MOOC Concept in a Technical Degree Course
https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v16i06.16617
Clarissa Braun (), Martin Ebner, Lothar Fickert, Sandra Schön
Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria
clarissa.braun@tugraz.at
AbstractIn university teaching, a massive open online course (MOOC) is
often regarded as an isolated online course, typically addressing a broad public
of lifelong learners or future students. Nevertheless, some universities use
MOOCs as a lecture for their students or use MOOCs as integrated part of their
own lectures. In this study, we focus on a lecture concept called “Pre-MOOC,
where a MOOC is an obligative first part of a lecture in higher education, fol-
lowed by lecture-part only open for own students and typically in presence.
Therefore, we explore the current state of practices and research on Pre-
MOOCs and describe our design-based research approach, the development of
the MOOC and evaluation of its implementation in 2019. The article describes
the instructional design process of the lecture in a master program of electrical
engineering in which we used the instructional design model ADDIE. Finally,
we will analyze the results of the evaluation with regard to the concept of a Pre-
MOOC. Based on feedback from students and teachers, recommendations for
designing a course with the Pre-MOOC design will be provided and implica-
tions as well limitations of the study will be discussed.
KeywordsMOOC, blended learning, Pre-MOOC, higher education, lecture
design
1 Introduction
For several years, so-called “Massive Open Online Courses” (MOOCs) have been
a part in research in technology enhanced learning. MOOCs are online courses with
many participants, at least 150. They have to be open for everyone, cost-free, accessi-
ble online, and must have the general framework of a course with a defined start and
end time of the course, weekly new content etc. [1]. MOOCs are not necessarily a
substitute for a conventional lecture, but are used in a variety of ways at universities.
The initiative of our research activities bases on a concrete wish of one of our uni-
versity’s lecturer, to use this design for a course for electrical engineers at Graz Uni-
versity of Technology (TU Graz) in Austria: The course consists of two parts one
part is a regular lecture and the other part is a laboratory tutorial, latter usually needs
to start with detailed instruction into the laboratory procedures and a test on the theo-
iJET Vol. 16, No. 06, 2021
245
Paper—The Online Course as Initial Stage of a Course in Higher Education: Implementation…
retical basis for the experimental setup. Since the introductions and entrance tests
always take place in the same way and also take up valuable working time in the la-
boratory, the idea was to develop a preparatory course with learning videos and quiz-
zes. Since there was no reason not to share this information with others and third
parties could benefit from it, the idea was born to develop this preparatory phase as a
MOOC. The MOOC should then be the first part of the course and at the same time
the prerequisite for the work in the laboratory, so a “Pre-MOOC” as we will describe
later.
So, we decided to explore the expedient implementation of the Pre-MOOC design
in a lecture in higher education according to the design-based research approach. Our
design-based research and results on the preparatory literature research and formative
as well summative evaluation processes will be described in this contribution, starting
with a description of our questions.
2 Research Questions
In this article, we will document and describe our design-based research following
these questions:
a) What can we learn from existing implementations of the Pre-MOOC design in
literature?
b) How is the redesign of a conventional lecture into a Pre-MOOC-concept carried
out?
c) How does the redesign affect the lecture from the students' point of view?
d) What recommendations can we make for implementing the concept to other practi-
tioners?
3 Research Approach
The described research uses a “design-based” or “design research” approach as de-
scribed by Reeves et al. [2] and others, which has the main idea of: “Theory inform-
ing practice is at the heart of the approach, and the creation of design principles and
guidelines enables research outcomes to be transformed into educational practices” [2,
p. 107].
As sources we use our documentation and accompanying research on the develop-
ment and implementation of a novel teaching concept, which we developed with the
help of the ADDIE model. This model provides for a detailed evaluation of the teach-
ing concept. We used a mixed methods approach. First, formatively, we used the
implemented learning analytics tools and services of our learning analytics experts to
get current data and insights into learners’ activities in the MOOC system. Additional-
ly, we will present excerpts of the summative evaluation results in which we inter-
viewed students of the course with online questionnaires (with simple descriptive
statistics) and problem-based interviews (following a short interview guideline). Fur-
thermore, the main lecturer was also asked to provide recommendations for the pre-
246
http://www.i-jet.org
Paper—The Online Course as Initial Stage of a Course in Higher Education: Implementation…
MOOC setting in the overall lecture evaluation. Fig. 1 gives an overview of the de-
velopment of the course and parallel research activities.
Fig. 1. Course development and parallel research activities
Finally, we extract preliminary recommendations developed in a group discussion
of the authors, including the lecturer and formulated preliminary recommendations for
practitioners.
First, we will give a brief insight into existing literature.
4 Literature Review: Experiences with MOOCS as Initial Phase
in Higher Education
Recently, we presented seven teaching scenarios with MOOCs as we have ob-
served or accompanied them in recent years on the Austrian MOOC platform iMooX
[3,4]. With a so-called “Pre-MOOC”-scenario, the MOOC is used as a preparation for
a face-to-face event. The MOOC is already completed before the start of the face-to-
face classroom meeting (see Fig. 2): “The Pre-MOOC is used when learners require
previous knowledge on a specific topic, which will then facilitate understanding and
communication between teachers and learners in the following classroom meetings. In
some cases, examined in the study, there was an (additional) inquiry into the level of
knowledge before the personal interaction between teachers and learners, and, usually
in a university context, a subsequent examination. Both examinations are to be seen as
optional.” [3].
iJET Vol. 16, No. 06, 2021
247
Paper—The Online Course as Initial Stage of a Course in Higher Education: Implementation…
Fig. 2. The concept of Pre-MOOC, i.e., the integration of a MOOC into a course design,
where a MOOC is carried out prior to an attendance phase. Source: Ebner, Schön &
Braun, 2019, [3] Fig. 2.
First, we have to state that the lecture concept of a “Pre-MOOC” is not a common
term in literature. Systematically, Pre-MOOCs can be assigned to “blended learning”,
i.e., an enrichment of face-to-face with online learning [5], and also partly to the idea
of the flipped classroom. However, the concept of the Flipped or Inverted Class-
room does not require learning videos in the shape of MOOCs. The Pre-MOOC does
not require including methodological-didactic features, such as a more interactive
presence phase with a powerful practice character like we see it in flipped-classroom-
settings [6]. Others have also tried to describe the distinct forms of “blended”
MOOCs: [7] describes implementations of “hybrid MOOCs” based on the dimensions
“curriculum fit” and “institutional support”.
Although we have identified such a pattern of MOOC integration in a lecture in
higher education, there are only some research articles or other shared experiences
about this lecture concept. Basically, all documentation of MOOCs that we could
identiy as “Pre-MOOC” are described by colleagues who did a MOOC at our
iMooX.at platform: For example, the “Mathe-Fit MOOC” is a bridging course de-
signed to help school graduates to close the knowledge gap between school and uni-
versity in the subject ‘math’: The six-week MOOC was a prerequisite for classroom
exercises to prepare for the start of the course, both of which were scheduled before
the start of the first semester [8]. The “Informatik-FIT MOOC” described in the same
text was conducted similarly [9]. Furthermore, a MOOC was offered to prepare for
the EMOOCs conference in 2016. All these descriptions are on a more or less superfi-
cial level so we cannot extract recommendation from it, beside our involvement as
platform host.
As the iMooX.at platform is used intensively by lecturer who want to enrich their
lectures with a MOOC and/or integrate it into their lectures, this might not as common
for others: Only a small percentage of MOOCs are developed in a blended learning
design from the outset: In a survey of 143 MOOC developers, only 5 of them (4%)
have already implemented a “blended” MOOC [10]. Existing MOOCs are also diffi-
cult to integrate into the further course of the study [11].
To sum up: We could not find a detailed case description or study of a Pre-MOOC
in the German and English literature where we could start with as from a raw script of
recommendations or assumptions about this special type of integrating a MOOC into
a lecture.
248
http://www.i-jet.org
Paper—The Online Course as Initial Stage of a Course in Higher Education: Implementation…
5 Lecture Re-Design Measures
Basing on our experiences, the re-design of a lecture concerning elements of tech-
nology-enhanced learning or more special, a MOOC are activities which are not only
focused on didactical issues.
a. Re-design of the complete course “Protection and Security of Supply of Electrical
Energy Systems"
The re-design of the course “Protection and Security of Supply of Electrical Ener-
gy Systems” at Graz University of Technology (TU Graz) is based on the Instruction-
al Design Model ADDIE. ADDIE is an acronym for “analysis, design, development,
implementation and evaluation”. In literature, the model is a generic term that refers
to a family of procedural instructional design models that share a common basic struc-
ture in instructional design [12,13]. According to Seel and Schott (2012), instructional
design comprises the following tasks [13]: Conducting a needs analysis, identifying
(teaching) goals, breaking down goals into sub-goals, identifying the knowledge re-
quired to achieve the sub-goals, defining learning content, developing criteria-based
tests and/or other assessment measures, developing teaching strategies, developing
materials and using media, conducting a formative and/or summative assessment, and
conducting a course evaluation for quality assurance and student satisfaction.
So, first, the needs analysis was carried out together with the head person responsi-
ble for the course. This included the exact definition of the target group and the level
of expected prior knowledge. We defined the target group as a homogeneous group of
master students in the 7th semester. In the curriculum, they directly link the lecture to
a laboratory which takes place in the same semester after the lecture has finished.
Furthermore, concerning the design, the aim was to identify lecture content which can
be understood without further explanations by the lecturer, can further serve the prep-
aration of the laboratory and can also be tested well with a multiple-choice quiz.
Based on Ebner, Schön and Braun’s different (didactic) scenarios with MOOCs
[3,4] distinct possibilities of realizing the blended learning environment with the sup-
port of a MOOC were discussed. We made the decision to develop a Pre-MOOC
named Electrical Network and System Protection.
The contents within the MOOC should also serve as a theoretical basis for the sub-
sequent laboratory. For the laboratory, it was determined that Master students from
other semesters should also have access, provided that the MOOC was completed
with a certificate and the lecture was already attended in previous years.
b. (Check of) Needed resources and possibilities: Learning videos and MOOC plat-
form
Besides these potential possibilities of a re-design, reality has restrictions concern-
ing needed resources. For a MOOC development, online course development or use
of technology-enhanced learning in general, this typically is the calculation of the
needed (extra) effort for development of the new resources and the potential future
iJET Vol. 16, No. 06, 2021
249
Paper—The Online Course as Initial Stage of a Course in Higher Education: Implementation…
expectations and effects concerning their positive effects on learning as well on future
teaching efforts.
In our case, the teacher had already recorded several learning videos for the previ-
ous lecture. These videos were later used in the MOOC but still had to be divided into
smaller parts. Based on these, then 19 videos were produced (each 4- to 6-minute
learning videos), another 8 videos were to complete the MOOC. The videos were
professionally produced by the department “Educational Technology” of TU Graz.
The main objective was to create a sustainable lecture (as the videos can be used mul-
tiple years by different lecturers) with enhanced student interactivity during the lec-
ture. The revision took place during regular working hours. The teacher expects that
the materials and the concept can also be used in the next few years and that the addi-
tional expenditure will pay for itself.
The support of the development and hosting of the MOOC is a service of the “Edu-
cational Technology” team of the TU Graz. Since, 2014 the team provides the Austri-
an MOOC platform iMooX. iMooX offers courses at university level in different
disciplines. Every course on iMooX uses Open Educational Resources (OER), so that
every single learning object is openly licensed (Creative Commons) [14]. This feature
can be very useful for universities, as the courses or individual videos can be freely
used and adapted by other teachers in the respective institutes. Also relevant for the
decision was the fact that the course has typical xMOOC features, including video-
based implementation, weekly new units with multiple selection tests and a discussion
forum for student interaction. Participants will receive a certificate of participation if
they have passed over 75 percent of the tasks in the individual tests, whereby the
individual tests can be taken several times [3,4].
c. Verifying the conditions for online or “virtual learning” at the university
Finally, the legal aspects also had to be taken into account: From the analysis of the
university framework conditions for virtual teaching it can be concluded that virtual
teaching as a didactic tool in lectures […] can be freely implemented by the teacher
up to a threshold value of 20% of the SSt [weekly hours per semester] [15, p. 3, own
translation]. It was therefore necessary to include this threshold value in the design
process and to design the online phase accordingly.
6 The Detailed Lecture, Implementation and Participation
It was important for the teacher to gain the support and understanding of the stu-
dents for this change and also to enable them to get to know each other for the first
time before a purely online phase. So, the course begins with a face-to-face meeting.
Then the developed MOOC took place with the final MOOC certificate. It is followed
the face-to-face lecture and finally a laboratory (see Fig. 3). The schedule thus corre-
sponds to the design of the Pre-MOOC.
250
http://www.i-jet.org
Paper—The Online Course as Initial Stage of a Course in Higher Education: Implementation…
Fig. 3. Complete lecture Protection and Security of Supply of
Electrical Energy Systemsat a glance
At the beginning of the semester, the students were informed in advance about the
new concept and procedure, and the exact time- and deadlines, the meaningfulness of
the teaching scenario (outsourcing of face-to-face parts, learning when and where you
want, better combination with supervision duties). The simple login on the MOOC
platform iMooX through the registration data of TU Graz enables a low-threshold
course entry for the students and is also relevant for the issuing of the certificate.
The MOOC was offered as a five-week online course on the MOOC platform
iMooX.at. During this time, it enrolled 202 people in the course. Of these, 44 partici-
pants completed the course successfully. 43 persons requested the certificate down-
load 36 of which were students of the course, among them no women. The prerequi-
site for attending the lecture and the laboratory was the positive completion of the
MOOC with a certificate. The certificate can be obtained by correctly answering 75
percent of the 51 multiple-choice questions on the specific topics of the MOOC.
During face-to-face sessions the lecturer tried to deepen (consolidate) the
knowledge which the students gained in the videos and quizzes. The lecturer was
primarily coaching the students while they were working on real-life tasks provided
by him. For those students attending the lecture the main benefit was gaining a lot of
future-work-related project knowledge. The lecture was held in blocks of four 60-
minute sessions spread over 4 weeks and concludes with a written and oral examina-
tion (in one session) at the end of the semester (see “Examination” in Fig. 3). The
students know questions of the examination as a sample collection of examination
questions provided by the lecturer. 28 students attended the lecture (only male). The
face-to-face phase of the lecture was adapted to the concept of the Pre-MOOC: Since
this concept requires comparable considerations to the flipped classroom concept, we
used here the literature on interactive flipped to prepare adequate classroom activities.
For example, the lecturer prepared lecture hall games e. g. “Ring the Bell” [16] and
examples of use for electrical engineers. Students were asked to work in groups to
accomplish the tasks given by the lecturer rather than just listening to presentations.
The lecture-phase was followed by the laboratory which was carried out over 6
weeks on a two-hourly basis. The regulation of the laboratory-instructor, which was
valid in t he years before the new course design, was to attend the lecture previous to
the laboratory to get some basic knowledge. In the study semester, when the introduc-
tion of the Pre-MOOC-design took place, students could also attend the laboratory
only by showing the MOOC-certificate to the instructor. However, it was still obliga-
iJET Vol. 16, No. 06, 2021
251
Paper—The Online Course as Initial Stage of a Course in Higher Education: Implementation…
tory to pass the oral entrance test for each of the 6 laboratory units. This oral test are
oral questions to check whether the student has enough basic knowledge (all passed).
The number of participants in the laboratory was 14 students. 8 out of these had al-
ready attended the lecture in previous semesters (without MOOC), so we did not in-
clude them or their answers in the following evaluation.
7 Formative and Summative Evaluation of the Course and the
Pre-MOOC Design
Formative during the MOOC as well as summative evaluation was implemented.
Formatively, the lecturer was especially monitoring the discussion of the learners in
the MOOC forum as well monitoring the progress of the learners with the support of
the Learning Analytics team and tools implemented in the MOOC platform. In this
way, the activities of the students in the MOOC, for example their success in the
quizzes or “difficult” and “easy” questions, or gaps in knowledge of the students
could be identified in a timely manner (see Fig. 4). This was also a good support for
the teacher in preparing the lecture, as he had a clear idea of tricky questions or wrong
concepts of the students.
Fig. 4. Exemplary learning analytics visualization used within formative evaluation
through monitoring students’ course activities and (preliminary) results
The entire course and its components were evaluated, i.e., surveys were conducted
in the Learning Management System as well as interviews with participants and the
teacher. In the following, only those evaluation results will be presented that specifi-
cally refer to the concept of the Pre-MOOC-design. For evaluation, questionnaires
were sent to the 36 participants of the entire course via the TU Graz internal learning
management system TeachCenter (response rate 31%), and we conducted interviews
with relevant laboratory participants.
The results showed that most students are satisfied with the new design of the
course: over 90 percent agree with the statement that the course should be held in the
same way again; we satisfy the students with the embedding and reference of videos
and laboratory work, and the majority also state that they were stimulating (see Fig.
252
http://www.i-jet.org
Paper—The Online Course as Initial Stage of a Course in Higher Education: Implementation…
5). Two-thirds also prefer the upstream version of the MOOC to a parallel implemen-
tation (Fig. 5, 2nd question).
Fig. 5. Selected results of the course evaluation, distribution of answers
in percent (N=11).
The interviews with the laboratory students showed a consistently positive consen-
sus towards the course concept “Pre-MOOC”. The majority of the respondents had
not yet had any experience with online courses, but felt that universities should inte-
grate more of such into teaching. Concerning the interviews, the contents of the
MOOC have prepared them well for the laboratory requirements and weekly tests.
The interviewees highlighted the better flexibility for them in the MOOC. A student
said: “As long as he [the teacher] demands to watch the course not only in one day,
we students have the opportunity to prepare even more flexibly”. Flexibility means as
well, that some students used the MOOC (only) as a “crash course” just before the
laboratory started. Interviewees also mentioned that it is great to watch the videos
again to get easily prepared for the exam. Many of them took notes while watching
the videos, just like they were sitting in the face-to-face classroom.
From the perspective of the lecturer, there was a top level of satisfaction with the
insights gained by the Learning Analytics team affiliated with iMooX.at. In the analy-
sis phase of the ADDIE model, however, he had to weigh up the costs and benefits of
the concept, but consciously opted for the sustainable Pre-MOOC concept for his
course. Another additional aspect for him was the redesign of the face-to-face phase
into a more interactive setting; here, too, he was positively surprised by the coopera-
tion of the students.
8 Preliminary Recommendations for Designing a Pre-MOOC
Design-based research in higher education needs to “reflect on the process to re-
veal design principles that can inform other instructors and researchers, and future
development projects” [2, p. 109].
iJET Vol. 16, No. 06, 2021
253
Paper—The Online Course as Initial Stage of a Course in Higher Education: Implementation…
a) Collection of recommendations
Based on the results of the accompanying research, also against the background of
existing experiences (see above Section 3), we collected recommendations for design-
ing courses in the Pre-MOOC-manner. These recommendations were shared within
our submission and first version of this article. Building upon the reviewers’ feedback
of our submission, we decided to develop a more hands-on visualization.
b) A decision tree for decision on the Pre-MOOC development
To make the preliminary recommendations clearer, we have designed them in the
form of a decision tree as questions, that are of relevance in the decision process of a
Pre-MOOC development (see Fig. 6).
Fig. 6. A decision tree for practitioners thinking about a re-design of a lecture
with the Pre-MOOC concept in higher education
For each decision step towards the questions of developing an online course we
sorted recommendations as questions.
a) Parts of a lecture could be implemented as online part/course if
In principle, the teachers have initial experience and materials for online teach-
ing and are interested in producing and implementing a (Pre-) MOOC
You are looking for the possibility to make the actual classroom event more in-
teractive or practical and want to teach theory parts in advance during a block-
held face-to-face phase as preliminary preparation (as an alternative to the
flipped classroom method)
Learners might have different prior knowledge
The content is not changing each semester or year so that your parts of the con-
tents needs to be revised in short-time
Learners should get or are interested in more flexibility in learning
The legal basis is given (e.g., allowed percentage of online teaching).
254
http://www.i-jet.org
Paper—The Online Course as Initial Stage of a Course in Higher Education: Implementation…
b) A MOOC as base of the online part can be of interest, if
It is of interest that students (in the MOOC phase) also get in contact with other
learners outside the university
Students from different universities should take part
The lecturers are interested to share their teaching offers with students from oth-
er universities or life-long learners as well
Tests and certification implemented in a MOOC platform are helpful and/or
needed.
c) A Pre-MOOC design is fitting, if
You are looking for a possibility to only let students who already have previous
knowledge into your course (the Pre-MOOC as access authorization)
The needed content is, according to your analysis of target group and curriculum
understandable with limited possibilities to discuss and train in parallel, e.g., in
exercises
The expenditure of a MOOC development can be afforded, also because small
expenditures may be expected in the future
The MOOC's course materials do not need to be revised and adapted in the fore-
seeable future
The framework conditions of the platform are suitable or flexible enough (e.g.
start and end date, access, data protection, licenses)
Additionally, the lecturer in our cases implemented a face-to-face-meeting as start-
ing event of the course. We see this as very helpful to share the idea of the concept
and our expectations on it. So, the students are better informed and might appreciate it
more also.
9 Summary, Limitations of the Study and Outlook
Finally, we want to come back to our research question and summarize the found
answers as described in this article. First, we asked what we can learn from existing
implementations of the Pre-MOOC design in literature. According to our literature
research our paper might be one of the first contribution were details and recommen-
dation are shared. Then we gave an answer on how the re-design of a conventional
lecture into a Pre-MOOC-concept was carried out: It based on some questions on
motivation, efforts, existing material and the rules for online lectures, and a develop-
ment of the re-design following the ADDIE principles. Our evaluation gave answers
on the question how does the redesign affect the lecture from the students' point of
view: The students appreciated the course-design and highlighted their possibility of
getting more flexible. Our final research question on recommendations can we make
for implementing the concept to other practitioners was given with a decision tree on
if a course in higher education could be re-designed as Pre-MOOC.
iJET Vol. 16, No. 06, 2021
255
Paper—The Online Course as Initial Stage of a Course in Higher Education: Implementation…
The accompanying research presented here was oriented towards the ADDIE mod-
el, i.e., the evaluation phase of ADDIE refers to the success of the students in the
course and the success of the course in general. In our case, this means that the ac-
companying research did not only focus on designing the university course as a Pre-
MOOC.
As another limitation, we should note that because of missing data only the lectur-
ers can draw a direct comparison with the usual lecture procedure, the students how-
ever are in most cases not aware of any alternative setting, e.g., MOOC integration in
courses or the flipped classroom method.
Another limitation is that design-based research base builds upon “long-term en-
gagement involving continual refinement of protocols and questions” [2, p. 103]. As
we only designed and researched a single development and implementation of a Pre-
MOOC, we might tend to overgeneralize our experience within our special setting and
requirements. Therefore, we want to share our experiences as recommendations to
others with similar design or research ideas, but highlight this limitation with framing
the following recommendations as “preliminary”.
For our future research, this is as well a recommendation for other researchers, we
will more focus on design considerations and an even more detailed documentation on
design-issues, because we see the opportunity for better re-capitulation of lessons
learned and recommendations for others.
We hope that with the help of this preliminary list of recommendations, it will be
easier in future to carry out consultations and decisions for courses in the Pre-MOOC
design. When developing an own MOOC, which is part of the core mission of univer-
sities in our educational system, it may make additional teaching materials of a uni-
versity available to the public. And of course, we would be happy to support similar
projects of other researchers with our preliminary insights [17,18,19].
10 References
[1] Wedekind, J. (2013). MOOCs - eine Herausforderung für die Hochschulen? In: G.
Reinmann, M. Ebner & S. Schön (ed.), Hochschuldidaktik im Zeichen von Heterogenität
und Vielfalt. Norderstedt: BoD, pp. 45-62.
[2] Reeves, T., Herrington, J. and Oliver, R. (2005) Design Research: A Socially Responsible
Approach to Instructional Technology Research in Higher Education. Journal of
Computing in Higher Education, 16(2), 97-116. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02961476
[3] Ebner, M., Schön, S. & Braun, C. (2019). Mehr als nur ein MOOC Sieben Lehr- und
Lernszenarien zur Nutzung von MOOCs in der Hochschullehre und anderen
Bildungsbereichen. In: Jörg Hafer, Martina Mauch & Marlen Schumann (ed.), Teilhabe in
der digitalen Bildungswelt, GMW Proceedings 2019, Medien in der Wissenschaft, Band
75, 288. Münster: Waxmann, pp. 138-149.
[4] Ebner M., Schön S. & Braun C. (2020). More Than a MOOC - Seven Learning and
Teaching Scenarios to Use MOOCs in Higher Education and Beyond. In: S. Yu, M. Ally
& A. Tsinakos (ed.) Emerging Technologies and Pedagogies in the Curriculum. Bridging
Human and Machine: Future Education with Intelligence. pp. 75-87 Springer, Singapore.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-0618-5_5
256
http://www.i-jet.org
Paper—The Online Course as Initial Stage of a Course in Higher Education: Implementation…
[5] Ebner, M., Schön, S. & Nagler, W. (2013). Einführung. Das Themenfeld Lernen und
Lehren mit Technologien“. In: M. Ebner & S. Schön (ed.), Lehrbuch für Lernen und
Lehren mit Technologien (L3T). URL: http://l3t.eu/homepage/das-buch/ebook-
2013/kapitel/o/id/109/name/einfuehrung. https://doi.org/10.3224/84742388
[6] Treeck, T., Himpsl-Gutermann, K. & Robes, J. (2013). Offene und partizipative
Lernkonzepte. E-Portfolios, MOOCs und Flipped Classrooms. In: M. Ebner & S. Schön
(ed.), L3T. Lehrbuch für Lernen und Lehren mit Technologien. 2. Auflage. URL:
https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:0111-opus-83543
[7] Pérez-Sanagustín, M.; Hilliger, I.; Alario-Hoyos, C.; Kloos, C.; Rayyan, S. (2017). H-
MOOC Framework: Reusing MOOCs for Hybrid Education. In: Journal of Computing in
Higher Education, 29, 1, pp. 47-64. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12528-017-9133-5
[8] Reich, S., Ebner, M. & Ebner, M. (2019). Effects of a Mathematical Bridging Course. In:
Proceedings of EMOOCs conference, Naples (Italy), pp. 197-202.
[9] Spieler, B., Grandl, M., Ebner, M. & Slany, W. (2019). Computer Science for all:
Concepts to engage teenagers and non-CS students in technology. In: Conference
Proceedings ECGBL 2019, Odense, Denmark. https://doi.org/10.34190/gbl.19.057
[10] Zhu, M., Bonk, C., Sari, A. (2018). Instructor Experiences Designing MOOCs in Higher
Education: Pedagogical, Resource, and Logistical Considerations and Challenges. In:
Online Learning, 22, 4, pp. 203-241.
[11] Wang, X.; Hall, A. & Wang, Q. (2019). Investigating the Implementation of Accredited
Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) in Higher Education: The Boon and the Bane. In:
Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 35, 3, pp. 1-14.
https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.3896
[12] Seel, N., Schott, F. (2012). Instructional Design. In: Wright, J. (Ed.). International
Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed.). Oxford: Elsevier. DOI:
10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.92032-4
[13] Deimann, M. (2007). Entwicklung und Erprobung eines volitionalen Designmodells.
Dissertation an der Universität Erfurt, URL: https://www.db-
thueringen.de/servlets/MCRFileNodeServlet/dbt_derivate_00010890/html/front.html
[14] Ebner, M., Lorenz, A., Lackner, E., Kopp, M., Kumar, S., Schön, S., Wittke, A. (2016)
How OER enhance MOOCs A Perspective from German-speaking Europe. In: Open
Education: from OERs to MOOCs. Jemni, M., Kinshuk, Khribi, M. K. (ed.). Springer.
Lecture Notes in Educational Technology. pp. 205-220. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-
52925-6_11
[15] Technische Universität Graz (2017). Richtlinie des Rektorats und des Senats zu: „Virtuelle
Lehre an der Technischen Universität Graz“. TU Graz: RL 94000 VILE 078-01. URL:
https://www.tugraz.at/fileadmin/public/Studierende_und_Bedienstete/Richtlinien_und_Ver
ordnungen_der_TU_Graz/Virtuelle_Lehre_Richtlinie.pdf (letzter Abruf April 2020)
https://doi.org/10.3726/978-3-653-03764-7/35
[16] Lucius, K., Spannagel, J. & Spannagel, C. (2014). Hörsaalspiele im Flipped Classroom. In:
Klaus Rummler (ed.), Lernräume gestalten Bildungskontexte vielfältig denken, Medien
in der Wissenschaft, Band 67. Münster: Waxmann, pp. 363-376.
[17] Suartama, I K., Setyosari, P, Sulthoni, S. & Ulfa, S. (2019). Development of an Instruc-
tional Design Model for Mobile Blended Learning in Higher Education. In: International
Journal of Emerging Technologies in Education, 14, 16, pp. 4-22.
https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v14i16.10633
[18] Marrhich, A., Lafram, I,; Berbiche, N. & El Alami, J. (2020). A Khan Framework-Based
Approach to Successful MOOCs Integration in the Academic Context. In: International
iJET Vol. 16, No. 06, 2021
257
Paper—The Online Course as Initial Stage of a Course in Higher Education: Implementation…
Journal of Emerging Technologies in Education, 15, 12, pp. 4-19.
https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v15i12.12929
[19] Zhang, Y., Chen, J., Miao, D. & Zhang, C. (2018). In: International Journal of Emerging
Technologies in Education, 13,07, pp. 111-123.
11 Authors
Clarissa Braun works in the department Educational Technologies at the Graz
University of Technology in the field of e-didactics at universities. She studied higher
education teaching at vocational schools in social work and education and English at
the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, where she also worked in projects in the
field of social work and education.
Martin Ebner is head of the department “Educational Technologies” at Graz Uni-
versity of Technology, where he is responsible for all e-learning issues. Furthermore,
he researches and teaches as an educational computer scientist at the Institute for
Interactive Systems and Data Science in the field of technology-supported learning.
His focus is on e-learning, m-learning, social media, learning analytics, open educa-
tional resources and digital literacy. He blogs at http://elearningblog.tugraz.at. Further
information: http://www.martinebner.at.
Lothar H. Fickert is Professor Emeritus at Graz University of Technology since
2017. He received his doctorate at the Vienna University of Technology and worked
for 25 years as a protection and systems engineer in network planning and operation
in the energy industry. Since 1998 he has been professor and head of the Institute of
Electrical Systems with the research focus on electrical energy systems, supply securi-
ty and protection technology. He works in various national and international organiza-
tions (IEC, CIGRE, CIRED, VDE, ÖVE etc.) and holds 8 patents.
Sandra Schön is Senior Researcher in the department Educational Technologies
at Graz University of Technology, Austria. At the Forum Neue Medien in der Lehre
Austria (Graz), Sandra Schön heads the project Establishment of an OER Certifica-
tion Body for the recognition of the activities of teachers and universities with regard
to open educational resources (OER) within the framework of the initiative Open
Education Austria Advanced. In addition, she is Adjunct Professor of Innovations in
Learning at Universitas Negeri Malang (Malang State University, Indonesia). Further
information: https://sandra-schoen.de
Article submitted 2020-06-26. Resubmitted 2020-08-05. Final acceptance 2020-08-07. Final version
published as submitted by the authors.
258
http://www.i-jet.org
... Therefore, it allows designers and researchers to be creative in designing instructions, and it is the practitioners' responsibility to select and complete the appropriate tasks for each step. Therefore, the model has been used by a number of scholars to design and construct MOOCs (Azami & Ibrahim, 2019;Braun et al., 2021;Buchem & Okatan, 2021). Table 1 demonstrates the five phases in the EGL-MOOC design and development of this study. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Global Englishes Language Teaching (GELT) framework has been proposed as a practical guidance for researchers and practitioners to reconsider and revise their current teaching practices to recognize a global status of English in multilingual communities (Galloway & Rose, 2018). However, the GELT framework still requires extensive evidence from stakeholders in the field of English language teaching. This study aims to design and evaluate an 'English as a global language' massive open online course or EGL-MOOC to increase awareness of Global Englishes among first-year students enroled in a general English course of a Thai university. To design and develop the EGL-MOOC, contents and instructional materials (i.e., Infographics, motion graphics, video clips, reading passages, online discussion tasks, module tests) were produced based on the GELT framework. To identify the students' Global Englishes awareness, a set of pre-and post-teaching questionnaires and student reflections were employed, together with MOOC evaluation questionnaire for determining quality of the EGL-MOOC. The findings demonstrate practical suggestions on MOOC design and implementation for Thai university students to raise their knowledge of Global Englishes after MOOC implementation in a general English course. This study also highlights innovative MOOC design and development to promote the sociolinguistic realities of English, as well as respectful attitudes towards the English diversity.
... The research by [22], [24] analyzed online courses on natural sciences and humanities according to various aspects. The research by S. Braun et al [25] dealt with the introduction of MOOC in technical courses. The effectiveness of online learning in the humanities is analyzed in [2], [26]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The article provides a quantitative analysis of the online courses which can be used for student training in the humanities. It is noted that the development of in-formation society influenced the ways of educational activities organization, the process of obtaining new knowledge and competency formation. Under the con-ditions when online education, blended and distance learning are considerably relevant, massive open online courses are an effective tool for learning and self-development. It was found that training in the humanities plays an important role in personal development of the future specialist. It involves the development of social competence, communication culture, leadership skills, as well as skills of conflict avoidance, teamwork, etc. The effectiveness of training in the humanities is influenced by active teaching methods, interactive technologies, and various means of information and communication technologies. The authors analyzed both the English-language (Coursera, Udemy, Edx) and Ukrainian-language (Prometheus, EdEra, OUM) online platforms. The article provides a quantitative analysis of online courses according to various directions in the humanities on each of the platforms. As of October 2021, we identified 4,769 free and fee-paying courses. The largest number of online courses for training in the humani-ties is presented on the Udemy platform (4,295 courses), the smallest number – on all Ukrainian-language platforms together (45 courses).
... This is a growing trend with the introduction of major platforms offering Campus-based used for free, resulting in learners being able to take a variety of courses for free, with continued access, without payment. In so-called "pre-MOOCs", for example, the MOOC becomes a prerequisite for participation in a laboratory exercise [1]. In the case of the "Inverse Blended" MOOC, specific measures are taken to ensure that the MOOC is also "in attendance", for example by printing workbooks or organizing meetings of learners [7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
There are a plethora of ways to guide and support people to learn about MOOC (massive open online course) development, from their first interest, sourcing supportive resources, methods and tools to better aid their understanding of the concepts and pedagogical approaches of MOOC design, to becoming a MOOC developer. This contribution highlights tools and methods that are openly available and re-usable under Creative Commons licenses. Our collection builds upon the experiences from three MOOC development and hosting teams with joint experiences of several hundred MOOCs (University of Applied Sciences in Lübeck, Graz University of Technology, University of Glasgow) in three European countries, which are Germany, Austria and the UK. The contribution recommends and shares experiences with short articles and poster for first information sharing a Monster MOOC assignment for beginners, a MOOC canvas for first sketches, the MOOC design kit for details of instructional design and a MOOC for MOOC makers and a MOOC map as introduction into a certain MOOC platform.
... This is a growing trend with the introduction of major platforms offering Campus-based used for free, resulting in learners being able to take a variety of courses for free, with continued access, without payment. In so-called "pre-MOOCs", for example, the MOOC becomes a prerequisite for participation in a laboratory exercise [1]. In the case of the "Inverse Blended" MOOC, specific measures are taken to ensure that the MOOC is also "in attendance", for example by printing workbooks or organizing meetings of learners [7]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There are a plethora of ways to guide and support people to learn about MOOC (massive open online course) development, from their first inter- est, sourcing supportive resources, methods and tools to better aid their understanding of the concepts and pedagogical approaches of MOOC design, to becoming a MOOC developer. This contribution highlights tools and methods that are openly available and re-usable under Creative Commons licenses. Our collection builds upon the experiences from three MOOC development and hosting teams with joint experiences of several hundred MOOCs (University of Applied Sciences in Lübeck, Graz Univer- sity of Technology, University of Glasgow) in three European countries, which are Germany, Austria and the UK. The contribution recommends and shares experiences with short articles and poster for first information sharing a Monster MOOC assignment for beginners, a MOOC canvas for first sketches, the MOOC design kit for details of instructional design and a MOOC for MOOC makers and a MOOC map as introduction into a certain MOOC platform.
... This is a growing trend with the introduction of major platforms offering Campus-based used for free, resulting in learners being able to take a variety of courses for free, with continued access, without payment. In so-called "pre-MOOCs", for example, the MOOC becomes a prerequisite for participation in a laboratory exercise (Braun et al., 2021). In the case of the "Inverse Blended" MOOC, specific measures are taken to ensure that the MOOC is also "in attendance", for example by printing workbooks or organizing meetings of learners (Ebner & Schön, 2019). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
PREPRINT: John Kerr, Anja Lorenz, Sandra Schön, Martin Ebner, Andreas Wittke: Open Tools and Methods to support the development of MOOCs: A Collection of How-tos, Monster Assignment and Kits. In: Proceedings of the EMOOCs Conference 2021, Experience Track. ////////////////// There are a plethora of ways to guide and support people to learn about MOOC (massive open online course) development, from their first interest, sourcing supportive resources, methods and tools to better aid their understanding of the concepts and pedagogical approaches of MOOC design, to becoming a MOOC developer. This contribution highlights tools and methods that are openly available and re-usable under Creative Commons licenses. Our collection builds upon the experiences from three MOOC development and hosting teams with joint experiences of several hundred MOOCs (University of Applied Sciences in Lübeck, Graz University of Technology, University of Glasgow) in three European countries, which are Germany, Austria and the UK. The contribution recommends and shares experiences with short articles and poster for first information sharing a Monster MOOC assignment for beginners, a MOOC canvas for first sketches, the MOOC design kit for details of instructional design and a MOOC for MOOC makers and a MOOC map as introduction into a certain MOOC platform.
Book
Full-text available
Conference proceeding of the EMOCs 2021 confernce in Potsdam (Germany)
Article
Full-text available
Massive open online courses (MOOCs) expansion encounter many challenges related to different aspects, from learner’s perspective to teacher’s perspective, to technological aspects. Previous studies demonstrated the prevailing challenges pertaining to Academic contexts using both qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis of different samples from different countries. In our study, we have tried to look at practices from all over the world regarding MOOCs implementation, we presented a summary of the major challenges of MOOCs as well as their strengths vis as vis the open education in both general and academic contexts. Following the steps of Khan’s framework for online learning, our ultimate objective was to come up with an approach that can bridge the challenges that hinder current effective delivery of MOOCs and calls for metrics that respect the results of previous work in the implementation of blended learning in the Academic context.
Chapter
Full-text available
Since 2010, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have been one of the most discussed and researched topics in the area of educational technology. Due to their open nature such courses attract thousands of learners worldwide and more and more higher education institutions begin to produce their own MOOCs. Even the (international) press is full of reports and articles of how MOOCs can revolutionize education. In this chapter, we will take a look from a meta-level. After years of experiences with different MOOCs, we recognize that many MOOCs are used in different ways by teachers, lecturers, trainers and learners. So, there are different learning and teaching scenarios in the background often not visible to the broader public. Therefore, we like to address the following research question: “How can MOOCs be used in Higher Education learning and teaching scenarios and beyond?” In the study, the authors will focus on the seven identified scenarios how particular MOOCs were used for teaching and learning and therefore illustrate, that a MOOC can be “more than a MOOC”. MOOCs are one of the key drivers for open education using Open Educational Resources. The use of open licenses for MOOC resources are the mechanism for potential innovations in learning and teachings scenarios.
Article
Full-text available
The development of information and communication technology has brought a surprise and revolutionary challenge to the idea and practice of traditional education. Mobile internet technology has become the main promoter and accelerator to apply the concept of mobile learning. Mobile technology offers new opportunities to integrate face-to-face learning and online learning methods. We see a tendency to use blended learning scenarios by combining various forms of learning and integrating a variety of ways to access content using mobile technology. The objective of this study is to develop a mobile blended learning design that can systematically guide the instructor or lecturer in the lecturing processes. By combining the ideas of mobile learning and blended learning, mobile blended learning design has been developed. Implementing research and development (R&D) method, the mobile blended learning design has been constructed through designing process and validation by experts. This instructional design has feasibility to use in learning; therefore, it effectively increases the popularity of mobile blended learning.
Article
Full-text available
As massive open online courses (MOOCs) increase, the large scale and heterogeneity of MOOC participants bring myriad significant design challenges. This mixed methods study explores 143 MOOC instructors’ considerations and challenges in designing MOOCs; 12 of whom were interviewed and had their courses analyzed. The survey, interview, and course review data revealed a variety of considerations and challenges in MOOC design in terms of pedagogy, resources, and logistics. Pedagogical considerations included learning objectives, assessment methods, course length, course content, flexibility, and collaborative learning support. Resource considerations included the affordance of MOOC platforms, support from the host institution and the platform, and the available intellectual and hardware resources. Logistical considerations included the amount of time instructors spent designing the MOOC. The obstacles included pedagogical challenges (engaging students, increasing student interaction, and limited assessment methods), resource challenge (i.e., limitations associated with the affordances of the platform), and logistical challenge (time limitations for designing and developing MOOCs). To address these challenges, the instructors often relied on reviewing other MOOCs. They also sought help from colleagues, their universities, and supporters of the platforms.
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated a 3-year implementation of accredited massive online open courses (MOOCs) in a conventional university in China. Fifteen students and two staff were interviewed, and relevant policy documents were examined. Thematic analysis was utilised to analyse the data. The study found that students mostly took a wary stance towards accredited MOOCs, while the university supported them. Reasons for students' favour and disfavour were explored. There was widespread online absenteeism, which was unique to accredited MOOCs. Moreover, accredited MOOCs were found to be completely independent of traditional onsite courses, making them difficult to form a synergy with the latter. Also, a distinct mismatch was identified between the course assessment system and the new course format. Furthermore, there were insufficient regulation, support, and incentives from the university in facilitating the implementation of accredited MOOCs, indicating a discrepancy between university policies and practice. Solutions for future improvement of accredited MOOCs were explored. This study will aid educational practitioners and policymakers in widening access to quality education by exploring effective solutions regarding integrating accredited MOOCs into conventional higher education.
Article
Full-text available
Since Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) started to become part of the scene of Higher Education (HE), many institutions have joined the race of MOOC creation. However, producing MOOCs has shown to be a cumbersome and expensive activity for HE institutions. For this reason, many universities have started to explore and experiment with hybrid initiatives in which locally produced and third-party MOOCs are reused and integrated into traditional courses. Most of the hybrid initiatives described in the literature so far focus on flipped classroom experiences, although there are some other possibilities for integrating MOOCs in the curriculum. Moreover, few studies have reported on the institutional support required for implementing hybrid initiatives, and their benefits from a curriculum perspective. In order to shed some light on the opportunities that arise from the reuse of MOOCs, this paper presents H-MOOC, a framework that describes hybrid MOOC-based initiatives as a continuum of two factors: (1) institutional support to reuse an existing MOOC, and (2) curricular content alignment between the MOOC and the program, or the course hybridized. In addition, H-MOOC proposes indicators to measure the impact of these initiatives at both educational and institutional levels. Examples of actual hybrid initiatives and a set of guiding questions are presented to show how to apply the H-MOOC framework in different contexts.
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, we discuss why open educational resources (OER) and MOOCs are a necessary and powerful combination, especially in German-speaking Europe. We begin with an introduction to open online courses and an overview of copyright law in Germany and Austria. We then describe the evolution of OER MOOCs in Austria and Germany, especially the development of two MOOC platforms. Finally, we present examples of the impact of OER on MOOCs to conclude that an approach combining OER and MOOCs can be very valuable to foster new and innovative didactical approaches as well as future education.
Article
Full-text available
This article introduces into the field of instructional design (ID) that is closely related to instructional technology, defined in terms of the application of scientific knowledge to the systematic design of learning systems. First, the relationship between instructional technology, design, and systems development will be described. Then we provide a brief historical overview to characterize relevant aspects of ID. Historically seen, the nine events of instruction as introduced by Gagné in the 1960s resulted in an abundance of models of systematic ID that were integrated in a comprehensive framework centering on five tasks: analysis, design, development, implantation, and evaluation (shortly called the ADDIE model). Along with the approaches of systematic ID some alternative approaches of learning and instruction emerged that were based on cognitive psychology and constructivism. These approaches will be discussed briefly before we describe, in some detail, present theories and applications of ID. Finally, we will discuss some challenges for future theory, research, and development within the realm of ID.