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Effort Expectancy as Correlates of Electronic Information Resources use by

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Covenant Journal of Library & Information Science (CJLIS) Vol. 1 No 2, December 2018
An Open Access Journal available online
Effort Expectancy as Correlates of Electronic
Information Resources use by
Undergraduates of Ajayi Crowther University,
Oyo State, Nigeria
Solomon Adeolu Olaniyi1 & Olawale Oyewole2
1T.Y. Danjuma Library, Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria
2Department of Library, Archival and Information Studies,
University of Ibadan, Nigeria
olaniyiadeolu6@gmail.com,
oyewolebaba01@yahoo.com
Abstract: The use of electronic information resources (EIRs) by
undergraduates could impact positively on their academic activities.
However, anecdotal and empirical evidences have shown that the use of
some of these information resources by some undergraduates is low.
Perhaps, this perceived observation might not be unconnected with the
effort expectancy associated with the accessibility of EIRs which could
affect their use by the undergraduates. The study therefore examines effort
expectancy as correlates of use of electronic information resources by
undergraduates in Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. Descriptive
survey research method was used and the study population comprised of
5663 undergraduates of Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. The
multistage random sampling technique was used to select a sample size of
140 and the questionnaire was used to collect data. Results revealed that a
significant number of respondents (45.3%) and (37.4%) noted that e-news
and e-encyclopedias were the most accessible EIRs. Majority of the
undergraduates had a favorable expectancy of the use of EIRs. Results
showed a significant positive relationship between effort expectancy and
use of EIRs by the undergraduates (r=.277**; df=138; p<0.01). It was
recommended that in order to sustain the favourable effort expectancy
towards the use of EIRs by the undergraduates, librarians should introduce
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Solomon Adeolu Olaniyi & Olawale Oyewole CJLIS (2018) 1(2) 1-17
periodic digital literacy programmes and ensure that all undergraduates are
encouraged to participate in it.
Keywords: Effort expectancy, electronic information resources,
undergraduates, Nigeria
Introduction
Universities are the intellectual pillars
of societies. Apotiade, Oyewole and
Belau (2015) noted that life changing
ideas and philosophies are brought to
fruition in the universities. These
institutions ensure that individuals
with the right qualifications who gain
admission are taught in various fields
of human endeavour for the benefit of
societies. The researches carried out
within these ivory towers could also
help to assist in developing the society
socio-economically. In addition,
universities engage in community
development through different
intervention programmes. Societies
that appreciate development do not toil
with their universities.
Undergraduates are important
stakeholders in the university.
Oyewole (2017) stated that
undergraduates form a critical mass of
the learners in the ivory towers. This is
because in most universities that are
general in nature, undergraduates are
usually higher in number, except for
some universities that give priority to
postgraduate education. In order for
the undergraduates to be successful in
their academic endeavours, they need
to engage in various academic
activities. These activities include;
examination, continuous assessment,
project writing, seminar presentations
and lectures. However, it would be
very difficult for undergraduates to
engage in all these activities without
information. The information sources
available to undergraduates could be
print or electronic in nature.
As a result of the advancement in
Information and Communication
Technology (ICT), electronic
information resources (EIRs) have
become prevalent. Thanuskodi (2012)
defined electronic information
resources as the electronic
representation of information. Okore,
Asogwa and Eke (2009) viewed EIRs
as the information resources which the
Internet provides access to. Moreover,
some EIRs could also be accessed
offline through other digital media like
CD-ROMs. Examples of EIRs are e-
books, e-journals, e-discussions, e-
news, e-data archives, digital libraries,
online journal magazine, e-learning
tutors, online public access catalogue
(OPAC) and the likes. Presently,
undergraduates can access EIRs
through the computer or smart devices
that guarantee access to the Internet
and applications that allow the use of
memory cards and flash drives.
EIRs are very beneficial to the
undergraduates. Ellis and Oldman
(2005) noted that the scholarly
activities of the undergraduates can be
enhanced as a result the unlimited
access to diverse electronic
information resources on the Internet.
Chiparausha and Sithole (2008) listed
part of the benefits of the utilisation by
undergraduates to include; access to
current information and search
facilities, opportunity to make hard
copies from soft copies, portability and
simultaneous usage. EIRs like journals
report current research findings that
undergraduates can make use of for
project writing and personal
development. Also, some electronic
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Solomon Adeolu Olaniyi & Olawale Oyewole CJLIS (2018) 1(2) 1-17
databases provide the option for users
to search their content which could
help the undergraduates to have access
to myriads of information contents.
Furthermore, for the undergraduates
that still appreciate information in
print form, EIRs can be printed out and
used. In addition, the fact that EIRs
can be downloaded on smart devices
like Android phones in different
formats like PDF (portable document
format), PowerPoint and the likes
makes it very easy to move with
information wherever they go to.
Another benefit of EIRs to
undergraduates is that they can also be
downloaded and used by many
undergraduates at the same time
without hindrances. These various
benefits associated with the use of
EIRs have made some undergraduates
to view them as indispensible.
Adeniran, (2013) examined the use of
electronic resources by undergraduates
of Redeemer’s University and
discovered that a significant number of
the respondents 90 (35.2%) used the
Internet to access EIRs regularly.
Omosekejimi, Eghworo and Ogo
(2015) studied the use of EIRs by
undergraduates of Federal University
of Petroleum Resources, Effurun,
Nigeria. The population of the
respondents was 267 and the
instrument for data collection was the
questionnaire. They reported that a
high number of the respondents 240
(89.9%) pointed out that they used the
Internet on a regular basis. The results
of these studies reveal that most of the
undergraduates seem to consider the
Internet as the most used EIRs that is
indispensible. However, it is as if the
other types of EIRs are not regularly
used by some undergraduates. This
could be a function of the effort
expectancy as perceived by the
undergraduates as regards EIRs use.
Effort expectancy is one of the
determinants of behavioral intention
towards the use of a technology in the
Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use
of Technology (UTAUT). Venkatesh,
Morris, Davis and Davis (2003)
defined effort expectancy as the degree
of ease that is linked with the use of an
information system. Ghalandari (2012)
indicated that effort expectancy is
similar to other constructs like
perceived ease of use (technology
acceptance model) and complexity (PC
utilization model and innovation
diffusion theory). Venkatesh et al
(2003) also indicated that effort
expectancy can be compared to ease of
use in Innovation Diffusion Theory.
Wu, Tao and Yang (2008) averred that
effort expectancy is of one of the key
factors that could determine whether
an EIR will be used or not. This was
revealed in the study carried out by
Omosekejimi, Eghworo and Ogo
(2015) where they reported that a
notable number of the undergraduates
179 (67%) affirmed that lack of
required searching skills was a
challenge that hindered their use of
EIRs. Thus, even if these
undergraduates realise that the use of
EIRs is beneficial to their academic
activities, their inability to search for
these resources via the Internet could
be perceived as stressful and as such
might prevent them from even trying
to access these resources. This
indicates that effort expectancy is an
important construct that could
determine the use of electronic
information resources. Thus, this study
is set to examine the relationship
between effort expectancy and use of
electronic information resources by
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Solomon Adeolu Olaniyi & Olawale Oyewole CJLIS (2018) 1(2) 1-17
undergraduates in Ajayi Crowther
University, Oyo, Nigeria.
Statement of the problem
The use of electronic resources by
undergraduates no doubt is very
beneficial to their academics.
However, anecdotal and empirical
evidences have shown that the use of
these information resources by some
undergraduates is low. This is reflected
in the seldom use of electronic
databases and electronic journals by
some of the undergraduates. This
perceived observation might not be
unconnected with the effort
expectancy associated with the
accessibility of these EIRs which
could have a relationship with their
usage. This is because some
undergraduates might find it easy to
retrieve information from websites and
blogs through the Internet, while the
retrieval of e-resources might present
some form of complexity which could
hinder their use. How empirical is this
postulation? Thus, the study therefore
examines effort expectancy as
correlates of use of electronic
information resources by
undergraduates in Ajayi Crowther
University, Oyo, Nigeria
Research questions
The research questions that will guide
this study are:
1. What are the electronic
information resources accessible
to the undergraduates of Ajayi
Crowther University?
2. What is the purpose of use of
electronic information resources
by undergraduates in Ajayi
Crowther University?
3. What is the frequency of use of
electronic information resources
by undergraduates of Ajayi
Crowther University?
4. What is the effort expectancy of
electronic information resources
use by undergraduates of Ajayi
Crowther University?
5. What are the constraints
militating against the use of
electronic information resources
by undergraduates in Ajayi
Crowther University?
Research hypothesis
The null hypothesis that will be tested
at 0.05 level of significance in this
study is;
1. There is no significant
relationship between effort
expectancy and use of electronic
information resources by
undergraduates in Ajayi Crowther
University.
Literature review
The review of literature will be divided
into three sections. The first section
will focus on the effort expectancy of
electronic information use by students,
the second section will be on use of
electronic information resources by
undergraduates and the last will focus
on the relationship between effort
expectancy and use of electronic
information resources by
undergraduates.
Effort expectancy of electronic
information use by students
Effort expectancy refers to the
anticipation of individuals towards the
ease associated with the use of a
particular system or otherwise.
Ghalandari (2012) observed that the
performance and the rewards that
emanate from the use of an
information system are linked with its
effort expectancy. Some studies have
been conducted that examined the ease
of use and complexity (effort
expectancy) associated with use of
different types of EIRs by students.
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Solomon Adeolu Olaniyi & Olawale Oyewole CJLIS (2018) 1(2) 1-17
Gakibayo, Ikoja-Odongo and Okello-
Obura (2013) studied the use of EIRs
by 266 undergraduate students of
Mbarara University, Uganda. Results
showed that apart from internet search
engines, other EIRs like scholarly
databases, electronic journals and e-
books were not used often. The
authors concluded that this could be as
a result of the students’ lack of
computer and information literacy
skills which might make the use of the
other EIRs quite difficult for them.
Thus, it can be deduced that the
students might view the use of these
EIRs as one requiring much efforts.
Similarly, Adetunla (2016) did a study
that centred on the perceived ease and
use of electronic information resources
by 621 undergraduate students of
private universities in Oyo State
Nigeria. The technique used for the
selection of the sample size was
multistage in nature and findings
revealed that majority of the
respondents did not have a favourable
perception of the effort expectancy
associated with the use of EIRs. This
conclusion was reached because most
of the undergraduate students (62%)
affirmed that they found it difficult to
access EIRs as a result of lack of
clarity and understanding. Though,
close to two-fifths (39%) noted that
their interaction with EIR was clear
and understandable. However, some
studies have also reported to the
contrary.
Kodandarama and Chandrashekara
(2014) surveyed the use of web OPAC
by students and research scholars at
Mysore University library in India.
The study employed descriptive
research and the research instrument
was the questionnaire employed to
collect information on the use of the
library catalogue. About 200
questionnaires were randomly
distributed out of which 180 were
returned and used for the analysis.
Results revealed that more than three-
fifths of the respondents 96 (66.67%)
indicated that they did not require any
guidance before they can use the Web
OPAC. Therefore, it can be deduced
that as far as this set of students are
concerned, they expected that their use
of this electronic resource that
provides access to information
resources should be effort free.
Johnston, Berg, Pillion and Williams
(2015) did a study that focused on the
ease of use associated with the use of
e-textbooks by undergraduates in a
university in Canada. They evaluated
ease of use in relation to students’
ability to install, access, navigate and
read online and results showed that
about 80% of the undergraduates
pointed out that they experienced no
difficulty at all. On the other hand,
18% of the students reported that they
experienced some difficulties when it
comes to reading the text online.
Akpojotor (2017) also surveyed the
perceived ease of use of electronic
information resources among 329
postgraduate students of library and
information science in Southern
Nigerian universities. The study was
descriptive in nature and the
questionnaire was used to collect data.
From the findings, a significant
number of the students perceived the
EIRs to be easy to use as the mean
values of the responses of the students
were greater than the criterion mean
which was 3.00. For example, the
mean values associated with perceived
ease of use of e-journals, World Wide
Web and e-mails were (mean=4.55),
(mean=4.41) and (mean=4.43)
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Solomon Adeolu Olaniyi & Olawale Oyewole CJLIS (2018) 1(2) 1-17
respectively. This implies that most of
the respondents were of the view that
accessing the EIRs would not require
as much effort that could discourage
them from using it.
The studies reviewed have shown that
students have different expectancies
regarding the efforts required to use
the different electronic information
resources. This could be a function of
the category of students, and the
prevailing circumstances in their
various universities.
Use of electronic information
resources by undergraduates
Literature is quite replete with studies
on the use of electronic information
resources by undergraduates. A review
of some of these studies will provide
empirical insights into the purpose,
frequency and constraints to the use of
EIRs by undergraduates.
Dhanavandan, Esmail and Nagarajan
(2012) examined the use of electronic
resources by undergraduate students at
Krishnasamy College of Engineering,
India. They reported that a little over
two-fifths of the respondents 38
(44.2%) noted that they made use of
EIRs for study, while 25 (29%) used
them for project and others. The
challenges that hindered the effective
use of the EIRs as identified by the
undergraduates included lack of
training and slow speed of the Internet
as observed by some of them 25
(29.1%) and 19 (22.1%).
Quadri, Adetimirin and Idowu (2014)
studied the availability and utilisation
of library electronic resources by
undergraduates in Babcock University
and Redeemers University, both
private universities in the South-west
of Nigeria. The results of their study
revealed that most of the respondents
128 (64.0%) and 111 (55.5%) used
EIRs for assignment and
research/project respectively. The
Internet as an EIR was used daily by a
significant number of the
undergraduates 84 (42%), while the
respondents 78 (39.0%) affirmed that
they never used CD-ROMs. The major
challenges identified by majority of
the undergraduates were poor internet
connectivity, erratic power supply and
the malfunctioning of computers that
are used to access the EIRs.
Bankole, Ajiboye and Otunla (2015)
carried out a study on the use of
electronic information resources by
undergraduates of Federal University
of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State,
Nigeria. The questionnaire was
administered to the students who
visited the library and it was reported
that close to all of them 157 (92.4%)
indicated that they used search engines
such as Google. E-lecture notes and e-
books were also used by a significant
number of the respondents 125
(73.5%) and 71 (41.8%) respectively.
Findings also revealed that a notable
number of the undergraduates 123
(72.4%) and 103 (60.6%) pointed out
that they used the EIRs for assignment
completion and also to obtain course
related information/study materials.
The prominent constraint to the use of
EIRs as identified by the respondents
65 (38.2%) was insufficient skills to
retrieve needed information. Others
are; lack of time and frequent power
outages.
In another study carried out in Nigeria,
Owolabi, Idowu, Okocha and
Ogundare (2016) surveyed the use of
EIRs by undergraduates of the
University of Ibadan. One hundred and
eighty eight students participated in
this descriptive study of which data
was collected also through the use of
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Solomon Adeolu Olaniyi & Olawale Oyewole CJLIS (2018) 1(2) 1-17
the questionnaire. The entire students
188 (100%) noted that the most used
EIRs were the Internet and email
services. Almost all the respondents
170 (93.7%) and a little above four-
fifths 158 (84%) agreed that they used
email services and the Internet often.
All the undergraduates 188 (100%)
revealed that they made use of the
EIRs for academic purpose/course
works and for online
application/registration. In addition,
170 (90.4%) and 122 (64.9%) also
noted that they used EIRs for
assignment completion and project
writing. Most of the respondents 156
(83%) and 148 (78.7%) indicated that
inadequate power supply and poor
network/internet connectivity were the
major challenges they faced in the use
of EIRs.
In a recent study, Madondo, Sithole
and Chisita (2017) researched into the
use of electronic information resources
by undergraduates in Zimbabwe. The
study employed the mixed method of
quantitative and qualitative research as
the questionnaire was used and also
the authors carried out an observation
on how the students used online
databases, e-journals and the Internet.
Findings showed that four-fifths (80%)
made use of the e-resources for
individual assignment, while 40% used
the EIRs for research paper. The
factors that hindered the use of EIRs as
noted by the respondents (70%) and
(50%) were unreliable internet
connection and insufficient number of
work stations.
The studies reviewed have showed the
benefits associated with the use of
EIRs, as undergraduates used them for
diverse purposes and at different
intervals. It has also become clear that
infrastructural challenges still affect
the use of EIRs especially on the
African continent.
Relationship between effort
expectancy and use of electronic
information resources by
undergraduates
It is as if much focus has not been
given to the nexus between effort
expectancy and use of electronic
information resources by
undergraduates. However, the findings
of few of the studies cited earlier could
present information on the correlation
that could exist between effort
expectancy and use of electronic
information resources by
undergraduates. Attuquayefio and
Addo (2014) noted that there is a
nexus between effort expectancy and
behavioural intention. Thus,
complexity or any form of difficulty in
the use of EIRs could influence the
undergraduates to develop a negative
behaviour towards the use of EIRs.
The study by Dhanavandan, Esmail
and Nagarajan (2012) carried out
among undergraduates in India
revealed that some of the respondents
29 (33.7%) were of the view that
whenever they had reasons to use
EIRs, it took long to view and
download web pages. This difficulty
constituted a challenge to the
respondents and could also discourage
them from using the EIRs. Similarly,
in the study done by Bankole, Ajiboye
and Otunla (2015) among
undergraduates of Federal University
of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State,
Nigeria, some of the respondents 56
(33.0%) identified difficulty in finding
relevant information as a challenge
that affected their use of EIRs. This
shows that the students did not find the
needed information easily as extra
efforts were required. In a situation
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Solomon Adeolu Olaniyi & Olawale Oyewole CJLIS (2018) 1(2) 1-17
where this difficulty persists, it could
hinder the use of EIRs.
In addition, Quadri, Adetimirin and
Idowu (2014) also reported in their
study carried out in two private
universities in South-west of Nigeria,
that a significant number of their
respondents noted that they had
technological constraints in their use
of EIRs. This shows that it would have
been quite difficult for the
undergraduates to access EIRs due to
the technological issues. The fact that
the undergraduates identified this as a
constraint is an indication that if the
use of EIRs is not perceived as easy to
use, it could serve as a clog in the
wheel for actual use of the EIRs by the
undergraduates. Thus, revealing the
significance of effort expectancy.
Theoretical framework
The Unified Theory of Acceptance and
Use of Technology (UTAUT) (see fig.
1) is the theory that guides this study.
The theory was developed by
Venkatesh, Morris, Davis and Davis in
the year 2003. It is a unification theory
that combined eight unique models
that are applicable to acceptance and
use of technology. These are; Theory
of Reasoned Action (TRA),
Technology Acceptance Model
(TAM), Motivation model (MM),
Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), a
combination of TAM and TPB,
Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT),
Model of PC Utilisation (MPCU) and
Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)
(Venkatesh et al. 2003). The theory
identifies the direct determinants of
behavioural intention as performance
expectancy, effort expectancy, social
influence and facilitating conditions.
These are moderated by gender, age,
experience and voluntariness to use.
Behavioural intention and facilitating
conditions have direct relationship
with use behaviour. UTAUT has been
used by different researchers in
predicting factors that influence the
use of technology. Venkatesh, Thong
and Xu (2016: 331) also noted that this
theory has been used in different
contexts and have even been expanded
by researchers.
This theory is relevant to this study
because of one the precursors to the
use of technology is effort expectancy
(EE) which is the explanatory variable
in the study. EE is viewed as the
expected complexity and the degree of
effort required in making use of a
given technology (Vermaut, 2017).
Thus, the anticipated complexity of
EIRs use could determine if the
undergraduates would use them or not.
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Solomon Adeolu Olaniyi & Olawale Oyewole CJLIS (2018) 1(2) 1-17
Fig 1: (UTAUT) Source: Venkatesh et al. (2003)
Methodology
Descriptive survey research design
was used for this study. The
undergraduates of Ajayi Crowther
University Oyo, Nigeria constitute the
population of the study. According to
the data collected from the institution,
there are 5,663 students in 4 faculties.
The sampling technique used for the
study is the multistage technique. At
the first stage, the balloting technique
was used to select two out of the four
faculties at random. For the second
stage, two departments that have the
highest population of students in the
two faculties were purposively
selected. Lastly, a sampling fraction of
7% was used to arrive at a sample size
of 140 (Table 1). A self developed
questionnaire constructed based on the
review of the relevant literature was
the data collection instrument. It was
validated by experts in the Department
of Library, Archival and Information
Studies, University of Ibadan, before
administration. Data was analysed
with the use of the Statistical Package
for the Social Sciences (SPPS) and
presented in form of descriptive
statistics of frequency counts,
percentages and correlation analysis.
Table 1 Sample size for the Study
Faculty
Departments
No. of undergraduates
Natural sciences
Computer science
Biological science
530
438
Social and management
sciences
Mass communication
Accounting
520
511
Total
Results and discussion
One hundred and forty (140) copies of
the questionnaire were distributed to
undergraduates in Ajayi Crowther
University. However, 139 copies were
duly filled and used for analysis. Thus,
the response rate is 99%.
Demographic characteristics of
respondents
Table 2 captured the demographic
information of the undergraduates.
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Solomon Adeolu Olaniyi & Olawale Oyewole CJLIS (2018) 1(2) 1-17
Findings showed that female
undergraduates 85 (61.2%) responded
to the questionnaire more than their
male counterparts 51 (38.8%).
Majority of the respondents 66
(47.5%) were between the age 16-20,
while the least 3 (2.1) were above 30.
From the findings, 46 (33.1%) were in
their final year as they were in
departments where the duration of
study is four years. However, quite a
few 7 (5.1%) were in 100 level.
Comparing the result of their age with
their level of study, it can be deduced
that most of the respondents came into
the university at a very young age,
probably in their very early teens. This
is quite understandable as the
university is a private university. A
very significant number 118 (84.4%)
of the students sampled were
Christians and just 5 (3.5%) noted that
they practiced African Traditional
Religion. The result is not surprising
as the university apart from being a
private university is also a Christian
University.
Table 2 Demographic characteristics of respondents
Demographic variables
Frequency
Percentage
Gender
Male
Female
Age
16-20
21-25
26-30
>30
Level
100
200
300
400
Religion
Christianity
Islam
African Traditional Religion
54
85
66
62
8
3
7
43
43
46
118
16
5
38.8
61.2
47.5
44.6
5.8
2.1
5.1
30.9
30.9
33.1
84.9
11.5
3.6
N=136
Research question one: What are
the electronic information resources
accessible to the undergraduates of
Ajayi Crowther University?
Table 3 revealed that all the EIRs were
accessible to the majority of the
respondents. As 63 (45.3%) expressed
that the e-news was very readily
accessible, while 52 (37.4%) and 51
(36.7%) also noted that e-
encyclopedias and e-newspapers were
also very accessible to them. This
implies that apart from the fact that the
university makes the electronic
information available, they also ensure
that they are accessible. This agrees
with the findings of Bankole, Ajiboye
and Otunla (2015) who reported that
most of the undergraduates of the
Federal University of Agriculture,
Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria used
search engines, e-lecture notes and e-
books. Owolabi, Idowu, Okocha and
Ogundare (2016) also corroborated the
results of this study as all the
respondents in the University of
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Solomon Adeolu Olaniyi & Olawale Oyewole CJLIS (2018) 1(2) 1-17
Ibadan noted that they used email
services among other resources. This is
an indication that these EIRs were
accessible, if not the undergraduates
cannot use them.
Table 3 Accessibility of electronic information resources to undergraduates in Ajayi
Crowther University
Electronic
Information
Resources
VRA
Freq %
RA
Freq %
A
Freq %
NRA
Freq %
NA
Freq %
E-books
36 25.9
30 21.6
43 30.9
15 10.8
15 10.8
E-journals
19 13.7
35 25.2
39 28.1
30 21.6
16 11.5
E-databases
20 14.4
34 24.5
45 32.4
28 20.1
12 8.6
E-dictionaries
49 35.3
33 23.7
29 20.9
13 9.4
15 10.8
E-encyclopedias
52 37.4
24 17.3
32 23.0
16 11.5
15 10.8
E-newspapers
51 36.7
42 30.2
18 12.9
18 12.9
10 7.2
E-magazines
37 26.6
47 33.8
24 17.3
20 14.4
11 7.9
CD-ROM
26 18.7
35 25.2
36 25.9
24 17.3
18 12.9
E-news
63 45.3
41 29.5
21 15.1
9 6.5
5 3.6
E-discussions
25 18.0
37 26.6
39 28.1
28 20.1
10 7.2
E-images/sounds
52 37.4
35 25.2
31 22.3
16 11.5
5 3.6
E-theses/dissertations
17 12.2
30 21.6
33 23.7
32 23.0
27 19.4
Key VRA (very readily accessible) RA (readily accessible) A (accessible) NRA (not readily
accessible (NA) not accessible
Research question two: What is the
purpose of use of electronic
information resources by
undergraduates in Ajayi Crowther
University?
Results presented in table 4 showed
that the undergraduates used the
electronic information resources were
used for different academic purposes.
Interestingly, all the respondents 139
(100%) agreed that they utilized the
electronic information resources for
learning, a very number, 133 (95.7%)
for research and 132 (95.0%) for
assignment completion. This proves
that the EIRs that are used contributed
meaningfully to the academics of a
significant number of the
undergraduates. This supports the
findings of Quadri, Adetimirin and
Idowu (2014) and Madondo, Sithole
and Chisita (2017) where they reported
that undergraduates in two private
universities in Nigeria and Zimbabwe
respectively used EIRs for assignment
completion and research activities.
Table 4 Purpose of use of electronic information resources by undergraduates in Ajayi
Crowther University
Statement: I use electronic
information resources for;
Agree
Freq %
Disagree
Freq %
Learning
139 100.0
- -
Examination Preparation
123 88.5
16 11.5
Assignment Completion
132 95.0
7 5.0
Continuous Assessment Preparation
111 79.9
28 20.1
Group Discussion
108 77.7
31 22.3
Research
133 95.7
6 4.3
Seminar Preparation
119 85.6
20 14.4
Term Paper
97 69.8
42 30.2
11
Research question three: What is
the frequency of use of electronic
information resources by
undergraduates of Ajayi Crowther
University?
Table 5 showed that a notable number
69 (49.6%) indicated that they made
use of the e-news on a daily basis, 61
(43.9%) also used e-dictionaries at the
same frequency. On the other hand,
electronic journals and e-books were
used occasionally by most of the
respondents as indicated by 56
(40.3%) and 54 (38.8%). The
undergraduates still utilize most of the
electronic information resources at
appreciable frequencies. This aligns
with the findings of Bankole, Ajiboye
and Otunla (2015) who reported that
majority of the respondents pointed
out they used EIRs quite frequently.
Table 5 Frequency of use of electronic information resources by undergraduates in Ajayi
Crowther University
Electronic
Information
Resources
Daily
Freq %
Weekly
Freq %
Monthly
Freq %
Occasionally
Freq %
Never
Freq %
E-books
33 23.7
30 21.6
10 7.2
54 38.8
12 8.6
E-journals
14 10.1
29 20.9
19 13.7
56 40.3
21 15.1
E-databases
22 15.8
25 18.0
21 15.1
51 36.7
20 14.4
E-dictionaries
61 43.9
36 25.9
10 7.2
21 15.1
11 7.9
E-encyclopedias
44 31.7
30 21.6
15 10.8
45 32.4
5 3.6
E-newspapers
54 38.8
28 20.1
13 9.4
36 25.9
8 5.8
E-magazines
36 25.9
27 19.4
27 19.4
34 24.5
15 10.8
CD-ROM
18 12.9
22 15.8
22 15.8
50 36.0
27 19.4
E-news
69 49.6
30 21.6
18 12.9
18 12.9
4 2.9
E-discussions
32 23.0
27 19.4
20 14.4
40 28.8
20 14.4
E-images/sounds
50 36.0
25 18.0
19 13.7
32 23.0
13 9.4
E-theses/dissertations
12 8.6
21 15.1
27 19.4
42 30.2
37 26.6
Research question four: What is the
effort expectancy of electronic
information resources use by
undergraduates of Ajayi Crowther
University?
Table 6 showed that quite a significant
number of the respondents had a very
high expectation as regards the ease of
use of electronic information
resources. Results revealed that over
three-fifths 93 (66.9%) indicated to a
very high extent that they expected
accessibility to the electronic
information resources to very easy.
Also, 80 (57.6%) acknowledged that to
a very high extent they expected the
electronic information resources
interface to be easy to browse and
navigate. Similarly, 79 (56.8%) noted
that they also expected the interface of
electronic information resources to be
friendly to use.
This expectation may be as a result of
the ICT skills possessed by majority of
the undergraduates. They expected
easy access to EIRs because they had
the skills that will enable them to
retrieve the needed electronic
information. In a situation where
undergraduates lack the relevant ICT
skills, it would be difficult for them to
access electronic information
resources and as such might not expect
easy access to the EIRs. This agrees
with the study of Akpojotor (2017)
where most of the respondents in
library and information science in
Southern Nigerian universities
perceived the EIRs to be easy to use.
On the other hand, this is at variance
12
Solomon Adeolu Olaniyi & Olawale Oyewole CJLIS (2018) 1(2) 1-17
with the findings of study by Adetunla
(2016) that was carried out in Oyo
State, Nigeria, where most of the
undergraduates noted that EIRs usage
was not devoid of some complexities.
Table 6 Effort expectancy of electronic information resources use by undergraduates in
Ajayi Crowther University
Statement
VHE
Freq %
HE
Freq %
A
Freq %
LE
Freq %
I expect it to be very easy to access
electronic information resources
93 66.9
40 28.8
4 2.9
2 1.4
I expect the interface of electronic
information resources to be friendly to use
79 56.8
45 32.4
14 10.1
1 0.7
I expect electronic information resources
interface to be easy to browse and navigate
80 57.6
46 33.1
13 9.4
- -
I find it easy to access electronic
information resources
56 40.3
54 38.8
16 11.5
13 9.4
I find it easy to upload electronic
information on the internet
43 30.9
47 33.8
42 30.2
7 5.0
Accessing and use of electronic
information resources is a good idea
74 53.2
43 30.9
18 12.9
4 2.9
I find it difficult to download electronic
information resources
23 16.5
46 33.1
39 28.1
31 22.3
It is not easy for me to print out electronic
information for later use
25 18.0
37 26.6
50 36.0
27 19.4
Access instructions on how to retrieve
electronic information resources are not
always clear
38 27.3
36 25.9
41 29.5
24 17.3
Too many login instructions required for
some electronic information resources
29 20.9
61 43.9
38 27.3
11 7.9
Website design of electronic information
resources is too complex for me to access
31 22.3
32 23.0
40 28.8
36 25.9
It is difficult to save electronic information
resources for later use
22 15.8
41 29.5
40 28.8
36 25.9
It is difficult to use search engines to
retrieve electronic information resources
27 19.4
38 27.3
38 27.3
36 25.9
Key: VHE (very high extent) HE (high extent) A (average) LE (low extent)
Research question five: What are
the constraints militating against the
use of electronic information
resources by undergraduates in
Ajayi Crowther University?
Table 7 identified the challenges
facing the use of electronic
information resources by
undergraduates. The greatest constraint
militating against the use of electronic
information resources by a significant
proportion of the students 87 (62.6%)
was erratic power supply, 66 (47.5%)
slow Internet network and high cost of
access as noted by 59 (42.4%). On the
other hand, majority of the
undergraduates 58 (41.7%) and 54
(38.8%) disagreed that they faced the
challenge of lack of information
retrieval skills and insufficient
training. This shows that the challenge
faced by most of the respondents was
infrastructural in nature, as they
indicated that they had a high
Information and Communication
Technology (ICT) competence. This
agrees with the study of Madondo,
Sithole and Chisita (2017) where the
13
Solomon Adeolu Olaniyi & Olawale Oyewole CJLIS (2018) 1(2) 1-17
major constraint affecting the use of
EIRs was unreliable internet connection.
Table 7 Constraints militating against the use of electronic information resources by
undergraduates of Ajayi Crowther University
Constraints
SA
Freq %
A
Freq %
D
Freq %
SD
Freq %
Lack of Information and
Communication Technology Skills
38 27.3
34 24.5
45 22.4
22 15.8
Computer phobia
15 10.8
30 21.6
50 36.0
44 31.7
Slow internet network
66 47.5
57 41.0
13 9.4
3 2.2
Erratic power supply
87 62.6
29 20.9
16 11.5
7 5.0
Lack of relevant electronic information
resources
29 20.9
61 43.9
42 30.2
7 5.0
Slow downloading
62 44.6
42 30.2
31 22.3
4 2.9
Lack of access to computer and other
devices that can access the internet
31 22.3
37 26.6
50 36.0
21 15.1
Lack of information retrieval skills
33 23.7
31 22.3
58 41.7
17 12.2
High cost of internet access
59 42.4
40 28.8
33 23.7
7 5.0
Insufficient training
26 18.7
38 27.3
54 38.8
21 15.2
Low level of awareness of relevant
electronic information resources
27 19.4
48 34.5
38 27.3
26 18.7
Test of hypothesis
Hypothesis: There is no significant
relationship between effort
expectancy and use of electronic
information resources by
undergraduates of Ajayi Crowther
University
Table 8 showed that there is a
significant positive relationship
between effort expectancy and use
electronic information resources by
undergraduates in Ajayi Crowther
University (r = .277**; df = 138; p<
0.01). This means as the degree
associated with the ease of use of
electronic information resources
increases, the use of electronic
information resources by
undergraduates also increases. On the
contrary, if the undergraduates realise
that it would require much effort to
make use of the EIRs, they might be
discouraged from using them. This
aligns with the submission of
Attuquayefio and Addo (2014) who
opined that effort expectancy has a
relationship with behavioural intention
and actual use of a technology like
EIR.
Table 8 Relationship between effort expectancy and use of electronic information resources
by undergraduates in Ajayi Crowther University
Variables Mean Std. Deviation N r df Sig (p) Remark
________________________________________________________________________
Effort expectancy 27.65 6.162 139 .277** 138 000 Significant
Use of EIRs 36.32 9.864 139
Conclusion
Undergraduates will be encouraged to
use electronic information resources
for their academic activities if they
find it easy to access information from
these resources. The situation whereby
undergraduates perceive that a
particular electronic information
14
Solomon Adeolu Olaniyi & Olawale Oyewole CJLIS (2018) 1(2) 1-17
resource is too difficult to access might
create a barrier. Majority of
undergraduates in Nigeria rely on EIRs
for most of their academic activities,
because the print resources in most
university libraries that are
government owned are not adequate
and current. Electronic information
resources have changed the world of
information accessibility and provision
and as such their impact will be more
felt if undergraduates can utilize them
effortlessly. Thus, this study validates
UTAUT, as effort expectancy
significantly determines the use of
EIRs by undergraduates.
Recommendations
1. Management of the university
should look into their internally
generated revenue and provide
alternative sources of electricity in
the library. Alternatives like solar,
inverters and power generating
sets should be available in order to
ease the access to EIRs by the
undergraduates on the university
campus.
2. In order to solve the challenge of
high cost of Internet access, the
school management should
subsidize the cost of access to the
Internet for the undergraduates. A
token can be paid for this and
included in the tuition.
3. In order to sustain the favourable
effort expectancy towards the use
of EIRs by the undergraduates,
librarians should introduce
periodic digital literacy
programmes and ensure that all
undergraduates are encouraged to
participate in it.
4. The university library should be
equipped with subject based
electronic information resources so
that undergraduates can have
access to electronic scholarly
articles in their different fields of
study. This will address the
problem of irrelevant EIRs.
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