Article

Survival time of juvenile dogs with oral squamous cell carcinoma treated with surgery alone: A Veterinary Society of Surgical Oncology retrospective study

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Abstract

Objective To report the signalment, staging, surgical treatment, and survival time of juvenile dogs treated surgically for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Study design Retrospective study. Animals or sample population Twenty‐five dogs, <2 years of age with OSCC treated with surgery. Methods Cases were solicited from the Veterinary Society of Surgical Oncology. Data retrieved included sex, breed, age, weight, clinical signs, tumor location, preoperative diagnostics and staging, histopathological diagnosis with margin evaluation, disease‐free interval, and date and cause of death. A minimum follow‐up time of 3 months was required for inclusion. Results Eighteen dogs were <12 months of age, and seven were <24 months. Various breeds were represented, with a mean body weight of 22.3 ± 14.4 kg. No dogs had evidence of metastatic disease prior to surgery. All dogs underwent partial maxillectomy or mandibulectomy. Histological margins were complete in 24 dogs and incomplete in one. No dogs had evidence of metastatic disease or tumor recurrence. The median follow‐up time was 1556 days (92 to 4234 days). All dogs were alive at the last follow‐up except for one documented death, due to dilated cardiomyopathy. Median disease‐specific survival time was not reached. Conclusion The prognosis after wide surgical excision of OSCC in juvenile dogs was excellent. Clinical significance OSCC in juvenile dogs can be effectively treated with surgery alone.

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... Cutaneous and subcutaneous origins are the most frequent neoplasms, representing one-third of all diagnosed tumors in dogs [2]. Conventional therapies to treat canine tumors have certain disadvantages due to their low specificity, surgical limitations for non-accessible tumors [3], and the low availability of radiotherapy in some countries [4][5][6][7]. Due to these issues, immunotherapy is becoming one of the main pillars of anti-tumoral treatment research [8]. ...
... To avoid the inactivation of the viral particles, several mechanisms have been proposed, such as the use of mesenchymal stem cells, liposomes, or intratumoral inoculation [10,20,35,39]. The most frequent tumors in dogs are cutaneous and subcutaneous, of epithelial origin, and the gold-standard therapies are either not available (radiotherapy) or are highly invasive procedures (surgery) [2,3,6]. The overall incidence of tumors determined to be of epithelial origin in dogs has been reported to be from 26 to 43%, in some cases being very aggressive and invasive tumors [1,2]. ...
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Papillary squamous cell carcinomas were located on the gingiva of 3 young dogs. The tumors locally invaded the soft tissues of each dog, and invaded bone in 2 dogs. Surgical excision was unsuccessful in eliminating 2 of the tumors. Surgery and radiotherapy were effective, and recurrence has not been observed in 39 months in 1 dog, 32 months in a second, and 10 months in a third. Superficially, the oral masses resembled papillomas, which are known to be caused by viruses. Cytopathologic indication of productive infection was not evident, and papillomavirus antigens could not be detected by immunohistochemical methods. Electron microscopy failed to identify viral particles in 2 of the tumors. High and low molecular weight DNA extracts from 2 of the tumors contained no detectable papillomavirus genome when probed under conditions of either high or low stringency by Southern blot hybridization with a cloned canine oral papillomavirus genome.
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The literature of human papillomavirus detection in normal oral mucosa and oral lesions associated with the dysplastic progression of epithelium was reviewed to help define the role of this virus in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma. All available data from published studies were analyzed by chi-square test for association between the human papillomavirus and age, gender, race, DNA type, location, lesional dysplastic progression, method of detection, tissue preservation, and use of tobacco and alcohol. Human papillomavirus was identified with increasing frequency in normal oral mucosa (13.5%), benign leukoplakia (14.8%), intraepithelial neoplasia (18.5%), squamous carcinoma (26.2%), and verrucous carcinoma (27%). It was detected in oral squamous cell carcinoma significantly (p < 0.005) more often (37.1%; 122 of 329) in studies that used a high sensitivity assay (polymerase chain reaction) than studies that used moderate sensitivity assays (25.2%; 84 of 334) (e.g., Southern blot hybridization) and low sensitivity assays (16.9%; 61 of 362) (e.g., immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization). Human papillomavirus DNA was detected significantly more often (p < 0.001) in frozen oral squamous cell carcinoma (51.6%; 115 of 223) than paraffin-embedded tissue (21.7%; 136 of 628). High-risk human papillomaviruses (2, 16, 18) were detected in 81.4% of OSCCs that contained the virus compared with low-risk human papillomavirus genotypes (6, 11) in 17.9% of oral squamous cell carcinoma that contained the human papillomavirus (p < 0.001). In studies that analyzed the use of chemical cofactors, the use of tobacco and alcohol (87.3%) was associated more often with oral squamous cell carcinoma than the presence of human papillomavirus (51.3%), however, the difference was not significant. High-risk human papillomavirus genotypes have a significant association with oral squamous cell carcinoma. However, the presence of this virus in a high proportion of oral normal mucosa makes the virus alone a poor prognosticator of progression to malignancy.
Article
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common malignancy in cats, but little currently is known about its etiology. We examined the relationship between risk of oral SCC and factors such as environmental tobacco smoke, flea control products, and diet in 36 domestic cats with histologically confirmed oral SCC and 112 renal disease control cats presented to a large veterinary referral hospital between 1994 and 2000. Questionnaires were mailed to owners of all study and control cats to assess demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and level of chemical exposures 2 years before diagnosis. Multivariate relative risks (RR) were used to estimate the relationships between the various factors and the risk of oral SCC. Flea control product use and diet were significantly associated with risk of oral SCC. Cats that wore a flea collar had 5 times the risk of oral SCC as nonusers, after adjustment for other factors (RR = 5.3; P = .002). In contrast, use of flea shampoo substantially reduced risk. Compared to cats eating mostly dry food, those with high canned food intake had a 3-fold increase in risk (RR = 3.6; P = .014); canned tuna fish intake was independently associated with risk (RR = 4.7; P = .004). Exposure to household environmental tobacco smoke was associated with a nonsignificant 2-fold increase in risk (P = .11). Results of this study suggest that flea control products, diet, and perhaps environmental tobacco smoke might be associated with risk of oral SCC and indicate that further investigation into these relationships is warranted.
Article
In an animal presented for evaluation of an oral tumor, the extent of the disease is based on the systematic evaluation of the tumor, including diagnostic imaging, and the assessment of regional lymph node involvement and distant metastases. The nature of the disease is determined by an incisional biopsy and histopathologic examination. The choice of treatment and expected outcome are based on the stage and expected biologic behavior, which is well known for many oral tumor types. The various mandibulectomy and maxillectomy techniques have been shown to give good functional and cosmetic results.
Article
Papillary squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma. PSCC can occur as either an in situ or invasive tumor. The sites of occurrence in order of the most to least prevalent are the larynx, oropharynx, and nasopharynx. We present an unusual case of PSCC occurring on the gingiva. A 72-year-old white female presented with a chief complaint of tooth mobility in the right posterior mandible. Clinical examination revealed a Miller's Class 2 mobility of tooth #28 along with an erythematous, papillary appearance of the lingual gingiva on teeth #27, #28, and #29. Her dental history revealed treatment of tooth #28 with locally delivered antibiotics. Her medical history revealed a diagnosis of breast cancer 8 years prior to examination that was treated with partial mastectomy and radiation therapy. An initial differential clinical diagnosis of verrucous carcinoma or metastatic carcinoma was made. Surgical therapy included extraction of tooth #28 and an excisional biopsy of the lesion on the lingual gingiva. Microscopic evaluation of the gingival specimen revealed a neoplastic papillary proliferation of the surface epithelium with a thick layer of parakeratin, deep parakeratin-lined crypts, and a thickened spinous cell layer along with islands and strands of malignant epithelium. The microscopic appearance of the lesion was characteristic for PSSC. The patient's tumor was removed via a block resection that included teeth #27 through #31 and a radical neck dissection. This is a case report of PSCC occurring on the gingiva. This report demonstrates that, even though oral cancers involving the periodontium are a relatively rare occurrence, periodontists cannot be complacent about the diagnosis of periodontal bone loss. It also highlights the importance of utilizing a histopathologic examination to confirm the clinical diagnosis for any suspicious lesion.
Article
To categorize histologic lesions affecting the tongue, determine the frequency with which they develop, and identify risk factors associated with their development in dogs. Retrospective case series. 1,196 dogs. Diagnostic reports of lingual biopsy specimens from dogs evaluated from January 1995 to October 2004 were reviewed. Neoplasia comprised 54% of lingual lesions. Malignant tumors accounted for 64% of lingual neoplasms and included melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, hemangiosarcoma, and fibrosarcoma. Large-breed dogs, especially Chow Chows and Chinese Shar-Peis, were at increased risk for melanoma. Females of all breeds and Poodles, Labrador Retrievers, and Samoyeds were more likely to have squamous cell carcinomas. Hemangiosarcomas and fibrosarcomas were commonly diagnosed in Border Collies and Golden Retrievers, respectively. Benign neoplasms included squamous papilloma, plasma cell tumor, and granular cell tumor. Small-breed dogs, especially Cocker Spaniels, were at increased risk for plasma cell tumors. Glossitis accounted for 33% of diagnoses; in most cases, the inciting cause was not apparent. Whereas large-breed dogs were more likely to have lingual neoplasia, small-breed dogs were more likely to have glossitis. Calcinosis circumscripta accounted for 4% of lingual lesions and predominately affected young large-breed dogs. The remaining submissions consisted mostly of various degenerative or wound-associated lesions. The frequency of lingual lesions was not evenly distributed across breeds, sexes, or size classes of dogs. Veterinarians should be aware of the commonly reported lingual lesions in dogs so that prompt diagnosis and appropriate management can be initiated.
Most commonly, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity presents during the fifth and sixth decades of life. Less than 4% of these cancers occur in patients younger than 40 years of age. Only a small sample of this subgroup exists of pediatric patients (< or =20 years), making oral SCC in children an extremely rare entity. An 11-year-old boy is presented who developed a SCC of the gingiva. The relevant literature of oral SCC in pediatric patients will be reviewed as well.
Article
Squamous cell carcinoma was found in association with extensive and progressive oral papillomas in a 1 1/2-year-old male beagle. The neoplasm was in the region of the posterior portion of the right law and evidently originated from the adjacent papillomatous growths. Possible relationship between the duration and extent of papillomatosis and the appearance of malignant change, heretofore not reported, is discussed.
BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Oncology
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Patterns of lymph node metastasis identified following bilateral mandibular and medial retropharyngeal lymphadenectomy in 31 dogs with malignancies of the head
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Comparison of standard radiography and computed tomography in 21 dogs with maxillary masses
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