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Endangered species condoms: a social marketing tool for starting conversations about population



The Endangered Species Condoms project was launched 10 years ago to bring the discussion of human population growth back into the environmental movement with a focus on human rights and reproductive justice. In that time, more than 1 million condoms have been distributed by thousands of volunteers. The principles of social marketing are used through the Endangered Species Condoms project to create a national discourse around the population issue. They are introduced in both formal teaching settings like high school and university classrooms as well as informal settings like community events and after-hours programing at zoos and museums to reach a broad, diverse audience.
The Journal of Population and Sustainability
ISSN 2398-5496
Article title: Endangered species condoms: a social
marketing tool for starting conversations about population
Author(s): Sarah Baillie, Kelley Dennings and Stephanie
Vol. 4, No. 2, 2020, pp.31-44
Endangered species condoms: a social
marketing tool for starting conversations
about population
Sarah Baillie1, Kelley Dennings and Stephanie Feldstein
Center for Biological Diversity, Tucson, Arizona, USA
The Endangered Species Condoms project was launched 10 years
ago to bring the discussion of human population growth back into the
environmental movement with a focus on human rights and reproductive
justice. In that time, more than 1 million condoms have been distributed
by thousands of volunteers. The principles of social marketing are used
through the Endangered Species Condoms project to create a national
discourse around the population issue. They are introduced in both
formal teaching settings like high school and university classrooms
as well as informal settings like community events and after-hours
programing at zoos and museums to reach a broad, diverse audience.
Keywords: endangered species; outreach; overconsumption; social marketing
Human population growth is at the root of our most pressing environmental
issues. The number of people on the planet drives up the demand for resources
which in turn propels climate change, fossil fuel use, habitat destruction, and
biodiversity loss.
1 Corresponding author:
However, this topic is rarely discussed within the environmental movement. The
Center for Biological Diversity, a national environmental non-profit based in
the USA, recognizes that it is crucial to have conversations around the effects
of population growth on the environment and wildlife in order to address the
problem. The Center only supports ethical, non-coercive solutions to combat
unchecked human population growth, including comprehensive sex education
and universal access to contraceptive resources and reproductive health care.
Using creative social marketing techniques has helped break down barriers to
bring this important topic back into the environmental discourse.
Social marketing is used to address “wicked problems” – those that are complex
with no easy solution – and unplanned pregnancies are just that. Decreasing
unplanned pregnancies involves improving contraception and sexual education
through policy and infrastructure, along with changing cultural norms around
family size and talking about reproductive health. The social marketing framework
facilitates choosing a behavioral objective along with a priority audience and then
campaigns are designed around this. The objective could be upstream to change
policy with elected officials as the audience or downstream where the objective is
to use contraception and the audience is individuals of reproductive age.
This paper will discuss the importance of talking about population within the
environmental movement, why the Center focuses on domestic reproductive
rights and choices, and how we use a social marketing framework in our creative
outreach to effect change. The Endangered Species Condoms are a unique tool
to start a conversation about the negative impacts of unchecked population
growth. They provide people with a literal tool to prevent unintended pregnancies
and additional information about the ethical solutions we advocate for. We have
developed and grown this program over the past ten years to expand our reach
to new audiences.
Resistance to discussing population as an environmental issue
We are currently in the sixth mass extinction and losing species at an unprecedented
rate, an estimated 1 million species are at risk of extinction (UNSDG, 2019). There
is a very clear correlation between the growth of the human population and the
extinction rate of species (Scott, 2008; McKinney, 2001; McKee, Chambers and
Guseman, 2013). North America has lost 29 percent of its total bird population
in the past 48 years (Rosenberg, et al., 2019). Large apex predators adjust their
hunting patterns based on the presence of humans (Suraci et al., 2019), as
do mesocarnivores (Clinchy, et al., 2016). As our population grows, every new
individual needs resources such as food, water, shelter, energy and land, and as
demand on natural resources grows we are negatively impacting wildlife through
destruction of habitats and other changes to the ecosystem.
Despite population being intrinsically connected to the most urgent environmental
crises of our time, it is rarely directly addressed by the environmental community.
Some organizations and individuals may have different strategic or philosophical
reasons for ignoring the topic. For example, some groups have chosen to focus on
industrial practices and polluting infrastructures rather than individual behavior.
These groups may view the solutions to population such as reproductive rights and
education as outside of their missions or expertise. But we have also found that
many people distance themselves from population discussions because of cultural
taboos around sex or stigma from past transgressions where proposed solutions
for population growth have targeted vulnerable, marginalized communities. In
some cases, groups may support equality, education and healthcare with an
emphasis on other co-benefits like resilience, while excluding language around
population growth to avoid potential negative associations.
In 2009 the Center for Biological Diversity recognized that all our other work to
save species would ultimately be undermined if human population growth was
not addressed. Since it can be a challenging topic for many people to talk about,
we knew we had to be creative if we were going to bring population back into
the environmental movement in a positive, productive way. The award-winning
Endangered Species Condoms project was created to use humor and art to make
the topic of population and family planning easier to approach.
The colorful condom packages include original artwork featuring North American
species threatened by population growth and slogans like “Before it gets any
hotter, think of the sea otter.” Inside the package is more information about
the featured species, how population pressure negatively effects wildlife,
recommended human-rights solutions, and two condoms.
In addition to learning about population and proposed solutions, recipients
literally receive a tool enabling them to have safe sex and help prevent unplanned
pregnancies. The condoms included in the packages are fair-trade, vegan,
nitrosamine-free and sourced from sustainable rubber plantations.
The Endangered Species Condoms help people make a direct link between
population growth and imperiled wildlife that they care about. Each species
featured on the condom packages was chosen because of its connection to the
threats from our growing human population. For example, monarch butterflies
are disappearing due to corn and soybean crops replacing the native plants they
need to survive. There is also the additional threat of the pesticides used on those
crops, most of which are grown to feed to livestock. Hellbender salamanders are
declining because of increased water pollution from runoff coming from cities
and agriculture. Polar bears have become powerful symbols of climate change
and the effects of greenhouse gas emissions from our ever-growing population.
By starting the conversation with the featured animal, people are reminded of
what they want to save before broaching a potentially uncomfortable topic. As
discussed in more detail below, the Center has successfully used this approach to
start more than a million conversations about the impact of population growth on
wildlife and the environment.
Focusing on population pressure in the U.S.
Since the United States has one of the largest carbon footprints per individual,
Americans have a disproportionate impact per person compared to other
countries. Americans are also responsible for a disproportionate amount of
habitat loss, pollution and waste. The Endangered Species Condoms – and the
Center’s Population and Sustainability program as a whole – work to provide a
local context for how wildlife are affected by the twin threats of population growth
and overconsumption. By focusing on these issues side-by-side, we’ve been able
to demonstrate how they’re intertwined and overcome the false dichotomy that
only one or the other is to blame for global pressure on the planet. Although many
population groups focus their work in higher-fertility countries, the Center chooses
to focus our efforts domestically to increase awareness among high-consuming
populations and advance positive solutions to address this global issue.
We acknowledge that U.S. population is growing more from immigration than it
is from the birth rate (Adamy and Overburg, 2019), but we believe that national
immigration policy is not an appropriate or effective solution to address a global
problem. Furthermore, immigration policy has often been used in the United
States to violate human rights and worsen environmental damage (CBD, n.d.).
Where we do see opportunities for solutions is in addressing reproductive rights.
While the United States is below replacement rate fertility, about 45 percent of all
pregnancies in the country are unintended (Finer and Zolna, 2016). This is high for
a developed country, but it becomes less surprising after learning only 39 states
mandate sex education. Of those, only 17 mandate that it be medically accurate
(Guttmacher Institute, 2019). Thirty nine states stress abstinence, and only 20
states include information about condoms and contraception (Guttmacher
Institute, 2019). In addition, recent federal policies restricting the Affordable
Care Act and Title X clinics are decreasing access to contraception and health
services. Improving access to family planning and education is crucial to slowing
population growth to more sustainable rates.
How social marketing can help change the population narrative
In a previous article published in this journal, William Ryerson (2018) wrote about
entertainment education. He discussed how, when the framework is rooted in
social and behavior-change communications theory, results can be substantial
and cost-effective. Social marketing used by the Center for Biological Diversity is
another successful social and behavior-change framework. The social marketing
process applies marketing principles and techniques to create, communicate,
and deliver value in order to influence behaviors that benefit society as well as
the priority audience (Lee and Kotler, 2011).
The concept emerged in the 1950s when sociologist G.D. Wiebe (1951), in an
article in Public Opinion Quarterly, asked “Why can’t we sell brotherhood like we
sell soap?” and explored the challenges of selling a social good as if it were a
commodity. However, it was not until 1971 that Kotler and Zaltman (1971) coined
the term “social marketing” and developed a framework from which to work.
One of the first social issues tackled by social marketing was that of attempting
to increase contraceptive use in India in the 1960s. The effort involved selling
subsidized Nirodh condoms with the assistance of major private sector marketers
like Unilever and Brooke Bond Tea, which helped support distribution of the
product (Harvey, 1999). This trend continued into the 1980s when condoms
emerged as an effective tool to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS (Manoff, 1985).
Like entertainment education, social marketing is rooted in theories of
behavior change including the Social Ecological Model, Stages of Change or
Transtheoretical Model, Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory, and
Diffusion of Innovation Theory. These theoretical approaches are used to help
outline research, create a campaign strategy and/or track evaluation metrics. Social
marketing is frequently used in the health sector and is commonly applied to some
environmental issues, such as energy efficiency. It can be used with any social issue
where there’s a beneficial behavior-change component, such as family planning.
Social marketing is a targeted, step-by-step and data-driven process with the
objective of removing the barriers an audience may have to a desired action
and enhance the benefits and motivations to engage in the behavior. There is
a focus on outcomes and impact, and monitoring and evaluation are important
components to track results.
The number and type of social marketing steps can vary, but the following seven
steps show how the Center for Biological Diversity uses the framework for the
Endangered Species Condoms Project (Dennings, 2018):
1. Outcome – Campaign outcomes might be dictated by management,
costs, local government, etc. and should include goals for short and
long-term success. Our long-term outcome is to decrease population
pressure on wildlife and associated habitat by increasing access
to family planning and contraceptive resources. The Endangered
Species Condoms serve the short-term outcome of increasing
visibility and engagement for these issues in support of long-term
behavior and policy change.
2. Action or Behavior The desired behavior identified for a campaign’s
priority audience should be helpful and have a high likelihood of
the audience engaging in the action. Some behaviors are made
up of sub-actions which may require creating a behavioral map
prior to choosing the behavior the campaign will promote. While
the Endangered Species Condoms facilitate safe sex, the primary
purpose of the colorful, fun packages is as a conversation tool.
The desired action is to spur conversations about population that
will inspire people to choose whichever birth control method is
right for them and get engaged in supporting access to all forms
of contraception, comprehensive sex education and reproductive
healthcare equality.
3. Segment Although many social issues would benefit from
“everyone” changing their behavior, segmenting people by factors
such as perceived barriers, difficulty of the action, demographics
and receptiveness to different messaging can be used to create
more effective, tailored campaigns. (Lee and Kotler, 2011). While
anyone inspired by the Endangered Species Condoms’ message can
help influence society and the political system, the project’s target
audience is people of child-bearing age. Particularly those who have
not yet made family planning decisions or who are environmentally-
minded but may be unaware of the intersection between the increase
in population and environmental degradation.
4. Barriers – The reasons why people are not already engaging in
the desired behavior – including internal barriers like motivation,
knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and abilities as well as external
barriers like infrastructure, economics, access, convenience and
social situations needs to be researched for each audience and
incorporated into campaign strategies (McKenzie-Mohr, 2011). The
humor, artwork and informational packaging of the Endangered
Species Condoms helps overcome taboos and stigma by providing
an approachable way to frame an often-challenging conversation and
clear information on the problem and positive rights-based solutions.
4. Strategy – Many behavior-change strategies are informed by social
science such as the use of prompts, norms, defaults, commitment,
diffusion, feedback, framing, heuristics, incentives, etc. (Michie,
Atkins and West, 2014). Using some of these social science strategies,
the Endangered Species Condoms are an effective way to prompt a
conversation about population and its impact on wildlife. By talking
openly about family planning as a climate change solution we help
normalize the conversation.
5. Implement After planning and testing a strategy, it is then
implemented and the results monitored. The Endangered Species
Condoms are distributed through a large volunteer network, with a
focus on particular holidays and events discussed in more detail below.
6. Evaluate – The campaign should be assessed on a regular basis and
adjusted as needed as this is an iterative process. A logic model can
be a useful tool to help think about outputs, outcomes and impact.
The Center evaluates each major condom distribution in addition to
an annual review of the project as a whole.
Another way to build a campaign strategy is with marketing’s four Ps: Product, Price,
Place and Promotion (Lee and Kotler, 2011). The Endangered Species Condoms
project provides an attention-grabbing product that’s related to the message
and given away for free. Place is determined by the focus of each distribution
for example, some distributions focus on specific geographic locations tied
to holidays or species, while the Pillow Talk program targets institutions such
as zoos, museums and science centers. Finally, the condom package itself and
the use of prompts, norms and framing all contribute to the promotion, which is
enhanced by traditional and social media outreach and, occasionally, advertising
such as posters or billboards.
How the Endangered Species Condoms project works
The Endangered Species Condoms are distributed by hundreds of volunteers
nationwide every year. Around 100,000 condoms are disseminated annually, and
in July 2019 we celebrated giving out our millionth condom. The condoms are
shared three key ways:
1) People submit their ideas year-round for how they want to give
out the condoms, and we send the condoms free of charge to
where we think there are good opportunities for volunteers to
have conversations about population. Volunteers hand out the
condoms in a variety of settings, such as classrooms, health clinics,
churches, community events and college campuses. While we may
offer support and tips for individual distributions, this peer-to-peer
strategy is focused on volunteers choosing where they would like
to hand out the condoms, allowing us to reach different audiences
in a wide range of communities that we might not otherwise have
access to.
2) The Center organizes several coordinated distributions each year
where thousands of condoms are sent out to be given away within a
particular timeframe or following a theme. Volunteers are recruited
around holidays that are particularly relevant, like Valentine’s Day
and Earth Day. We have also recognized World Population Day,
Earth Overshoot Day and World Contraception Day. Additionally, we
send condoms to strategic decision-makers. For example, in 2017
we sent the Endangered Species Condoms to all 100 U.S. Senators
for World Population Day connected to a vote on the Affordable
Care Act. We also sent them to President Trump’s appointees to
Health and Human Services.
By using both traditional and social media to promote these
distributions, we’re able to extend the reach of the condoms. This
is done by placing op-eds, blog posts, and targeted local outreach.
These allow the conversations to go beyond just those people who
are receiving the Endangered Species Condoms. For example, a
tweet one senator posted with a picture of the condoms received
more than 4,700 likes, 1,600 retweets, and 170 comments as well as
attracting attention from online alternative news outlets.
3) The interactive Pillow Talk program gives away condoms at special
events held at zoos, museums, science centers and other science
center locations (described in more detail below).
Over the ten years the Endangered Species Condoms project has been active,
there have been three iterations of six condom package designs highlighting
different species. The artwork has been updated to keep the designs contemporary
and different species have been included to represent a broad range of wildlife
affected by human population growth. Some species, like the polar bear and
hellbender, have been present in multiple sets. We also incorporated four
Spanish-language designs in 2017, translating the polar bear and monarch
butterfly packages and adding the vaquita porpoise and Mexican gray wolf. The
intention was to expand our reach by being more inclusive with our messaging.
The Endangered Species Condoms project also expanded in 2017 to include an
environmental education and outreach program called Pillow Talk. This program
uses engaging activities to discuss the relationship between population and
patterns of consumption, and how Americans’ disproportionate impact per
individual is an important component of our unsustainable population growth.
This program started with zoo, museum, and science center adult-only event
audiences but can be adapted for other settings. We started with these particular
audiences because studies show that people who visit these institutions are
more interested than the average person in ways they can reduce their individual
impact (Falk, 2014)(Falk et al., 2007). Often, they are unaware of the greenhouse
gas emissions impact that having a child has and now can add family planning
to their emissions reduction toolkit (Wynes and Nicholas, 2017)which records the
aggregation of billions of individual decisions. Here we consider a broad range
of individual lifestyle choices and calculate their potential to reduce greenhouse
gas emissions in developed countries, based on 148 scenarios from 39 sources.
We recommend four widely applicable high-impact (i.e. low emissions).
In the past two years, the Center has worked with 53 different institutions and
participated in 100 events around the country. We estimate that we’ve reached
tens of thousands of individuals through these events that host anywhere from 100
to 3,000 visitors. Volunteers represent the Center at these events to help explain
the message behind the Endangered Species Condoms, answer questions and
facilitate environmental education activities.
The activities provided for Pillow Talk events are designed to also address the
consumption side of the population equation. A game called Carbon Budget
Monopoly helps participants gain a better understanding of the components of
their carbon footprint. Players start with an amount of money to represent the
amount of carbon dioxide that the average American is responsible for annually.
They are then asked a series of questions about their daily life related to diet,
transportation, energy use and having children. Potential answers are broken
down into categories to simplify the responses and calculations. The higher
the environmental impact of an answer, the more money is owed. For example,
someone who eats meat every day would pay more than a vegetarian or vegan.
The amount of money left over at the end of the game gives the player an idea of
how they compare to the average American and understanding of what actions
make up the biggest parts of their carbon footprint.
Evaluating success
There are challenges in assessing the behavior change of a large national audience,
particularly around long-term issues such as having children or contraceptive
use. Since the condoms are given away at a variety of events by volunteers, we
aren’t able to follow up with the recipients to learn if the condoms changed their
perceptions, influenced their family planning decisions or prompted them to
have additional conversations. As a result our evaluation focuses on measuring
the number of conversations between volunteers and condom recipients, the
quality of conversations, social media and earned media.
High-quality conversations are those where we’re reaching the intended
audience and the message of the condoms is discussed beyond just the novelty
of the packaging. This is built into the model for Pillow Talk events. For individual
distributors, we are selective in opportunities when screening the requests for the
Endangered Species Condoms. Distributors with a specific plan and audience are
preferred. For example, an environmental science professor at Bellevue College
uses the condoms in her lesson plan. She talks about the connection between
population and species decline and then gives the condoms to her students with
an assignment to share the condoms with someone else and tell them about the
connection. The students then write a paper about how the conversation went.
Though we aren’t able to track how every volunteer conversation goes, we do
receive feedback from volunteers and event coordinators from Pillow Talk events,
which helps us evaluate the events and refine our training materials as needed. A
volunteer from an event in Florida describes visitors’ reactions to the condoms:
As a volunteer, I immediately saw positive changes in people’s
expressions and increases in enthusiasm for listening to our message
when I mentioned the condoms. People seemed much more engaged
by the unusual topic and were genuinely excited about getting to
take the packages home to show people.”
An event coordinator in Texas emphasizes the importance of drawing these
connections for visitors:
“The Endangered Species Condoms proved a strong attraction for
our guests and a wonderfully playful gateway into connecting the
dots between human behavior and its larger consequences on the
environment. The mission of increasing awareness of our impact on the
globe – from climate change to infringing on natural habitats – can and
should be a part of our daily consciousness.”
We continue to solicit feedback from individual volunteers, event volunteers,
and event coordinators so that we can continually better understand how our
message is received.
Endangered Species Condoms present a unique way to discuss human
population growth and its impacts on our environment. They function as both
a messenger and tool for our recommended solutions. Based on the principles
of social marketing, the condoms serve as an eye-catching form of advocacy,
helping people make the connection between wildlife and family planning
and, by extension, between conservation and reproductive rights. This project
makes these issues more approachable, which we hope continues to inspire
both individuals and other environmental groups to recognize the importance of
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Full-text available
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Current anthropogenic climate change is the result of greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere, which records the aggregation of billions of individual decisions. Here we consider a broad range of individual lifestyle choices and calculate their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, based on 148 scenarios from 39 sources. We recommend four widely applicable high-impact (i.e. low emissions) actions with the potential to contribute to systemic change and substantially reduce annual personal emissions: having one fewer child (an average for developed countries of 58.6 tonnes CO2-equivalent (tCO2e) emission reductions per year), living car-free (2.4 tCO2e saved per year), avoiding airplane travel (1.6 tCO2e saved per roundtrip transatlantic flight) and eating a plant-based diet (0.8 tCO2e saved per year). These actions have much greater potential to reduce emissions than commonly promoted strategies like comprehensive recycling (four times less effective than a plant-based diet) or changing household lightbulbs (eight times less). Though adolescents poised to establish lifelong patterns are an important target group for promoting high-impact actions, we find that ten high school science textbooks from Canada largely fail to mention these actions (they account for 4% of their recommended actions), instead focusing on incremental changes with much smaller potential emissions reductions. Government resources on climate change from the EU, USA, Canada, and Australia also focus recommendations on lower-impact actions. We conclude that there are opportunities to improve existing educational and communication structures to promote the most effective emission-reduction strategies and close this mitigation gap.
The fear (perceived predation risk) large carnivores inspire in mesocarnivores can affect ecosystem structure and function, and loss of the “landscape of fear” large carnivores create adds to concerns regarding the worldwide loss of large carnivores. Fear of humans has been proposed to act as a substitute, but new research identifies humans as a “super predator” globally far more lethal to mesocarnivores, and thus presumably far more frightening. Although much of the world now consists of human-dominated landscapes, there remains relatively little research regarding how behavioral responses to humans affect trophic networks, to the extent that no study has yet experimentally tested the relative fearfulness mesocarnivores demonstrate in reaction to humans versus nonhuman predators. Badgers (Meles meles) in Britain are a model mesocarnivore insofar as they no longer need fear native large carnivores (bears, Ursus arctos; wolves, Canis lupus) and now perhaps fear humans more. We tested the fearfulness badgers demonstrated to audio playbacks of extant (dog) and extinct (bear and wolf) large carnivores, and humans, by assaying the suppression of foraging behavior. Hearing humans affected latency to feed, vigilance, foraging time, number of feeding visits, and number of badgers feeding. Hearing dogs and bears had far lesser effects on latency to feed, and hearing wolves had no effects. Our results indicate fear of humans evidently cannot substitute for the fear large carnivores inspire in mesocarnivores because humans are perceived as far more frightening, which we discuss in light of the recovery of large carnivores in human-dominated landscapes.
Background The rate of unintended pregnancy in the United States increased slightly between 2001 and 2008 and is higher than that in many other industrialized countries. National trends have not been reported since 2008. Methods We calculated rates of pregnancy for the years 2008 and 2011 according to women’s and girls’ pregnancy intentions and the outcomes of those pregnancies. We obtained data on pregnancy intentions from the National Survey of Family Growth and a national survey of patients who had abortions, data on births from the National Center for Health Statistics, and data on induced abortions from a national census of abortion providers; the number of miscarriages was estimated using data from the National Survey of Family Growth. Results Less than half (45%) of pregnancies were unintended in 2011, as compared with 51% in 2008. The rate of unintended pregnancy among women and girls 15 to 44 years of age declined by 18%, from 54 per 1000 in 2008 to 45 per 1000 in 2011. Rates of unintended pregnancy among those who were below the federal poverty level or cohabiting were two to three times the national average. Across population subgroups, disparities in the rates of unintended pregnancy persisted but narrowed between 2008 and 2011; the incidence of unintended pregnancy declined by more than 25% among girls who were 15 to 17 years of age, women who were cohabiting, those whose incomes were between 100% and 199% of the federal poverty level, those who did not have a high school education, and Hispanics. The percentage of unintended pregnancies that ended in abortion remained stable during the period studied (40% in 2008 and 42% in 2011). Among women and girls 15 to 44 years of age, the rate of unintended pregnancies that ended in birth declined from 27 per 1000 in 2008 to 22 per 1000 in 2011. Conclusions After a previous period of minimal change, the rate of unintended pregnancy in the United States declined substantially between 2008 and 2011, but unintended pregnancies remained most common among women and girls who were poor and those who were cohabiting. (Funded by the Susan Thompson Buffett Foundation and the National Institutes of Health.)
Most programs to foster sustainable behavior continue to be based upon models of behavior change that psychological research has found to be limited. Although psychology has much to contribute to the design of effective programs to foster sustainable behavior, little attention has been paid to ensuring that psychological knowledge is accessible to those who design environmental programs. This article presents a process. community-based social marketing, that attempts to make psychological knowledge relevant and accessible to these individuals. Further, it provides two case studies in which program planners have utilized this approach to deliver their initiatives. Finally, it reflects on the obstacles that exist to incorporating psychological expertise into programs to promote sustainable behavior.
While recognizing that citizenship is not soap, this article argues that efforts to “sell” broad social objectives via radio or television are not likely to succeed unless the essential conditions for effective merchandising exist, or can be made to exist. These conditions are primarily that the audience must be forcefully motivated and clearly directed to an adequate, appropriate, and accessible social mechanism. The author demonstrates the importance of these facets by case studies of four programs built around constructive social goals. An earlier version of this paper was delivered before the American Psychological Association in September, 1951.