The formation of the solar system
The idea that the planets in the solar system formed directly from the cloud of gas and dust is challenged and a new explanation proposed. The rotating cloud of gas and dust that formed the solar system as a whole must have come from a rotating star that exploded in a supernova with all the material including all the elements found in the solar system being present in the resulting rotating dust cloud. When a particle of material in the outer region of this dust cloud falls under gravity towards the centre of mass of the cloud, this particle could not then go into a circular orbit but must continue a trajectory into the centre of the solar system to form the sun. Conservation of angular momentum must apply throughout any process and it is significant to note that within the Milky Way galaxy at least 30% of stars are in binary or multiple star systems. Depending on the angular momentum of the rotating gas cloud prior to formation of a star system it may form a single star or a binary and the greater the angular momentum, the greater the distance of separation of the stars in the binary. There will be a critical level of angular momentum where it is too great for a single stable rotating star to form and too small for a binary. This is the case for the solar system. As the matter in the gas cloud falls towards the centre, the sun rotates faster and faster. At a critical point a large body of rotating material greater in mass than all of the planets combined is projected out from the sun and this rotating body spins off the planets and moons before following an elliptical trajectory and returning to collide and merge with the main body of the sun. Perhaps this huge mass ejection coincided with the increase in temperature of the sun to 10 million degrees when hydrogen fusion can start. The evidence for this hypothesis is given as: the formation of the planets and their moons, the rotation of the Earth and the orbit of the moon, the hot molten core of the Earth, the presence of water in abundance, the asteroid belt, the presence of helium within the Earth’s crust.