ChapterPDF Available

Warming-Up for Resistance Training and Muscular Performance: A Narrative Review

Authors:

Abstract

Warming-up is an indispensable component of any type of training, aiming to prepare the body for the intensity required by the following exercises. The use of different types of warm-up seems to produce different results, mainly because of the effects on force production. However, the research is not clear and further research is needed. The present study aimed to analyze and discuss the main results of the literature regarding the effects of warm-up on force production, as well as to analyze those responses during resistance training and maximal strength assessments. Additionally, based on the outcomes, we intended to suggest some practical recommendations for sports-related professionals and researchers, providing essential knowledge for their intervention near the athletes, and also to contribute to the performance optimization during training and in the competition. For this, a search on four databases (Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and ScienceDirect) for original research published until November 2020 was performed, and then the outcomes were critically analyzed. The literature revealed that there is still little agreement on what should be the best warm-up to be used for strength performance and training. We, therefore, concluded that more research must be carried out and new approaches must be taken to clarify this issue.
Selection of our books indexed in the Book Citation Index
in Web of Science™ Core Collection (BKCI)
Interested in publishing with us?
Contact book.department@intechopen.com
Numbers displayed above are based on latest data collected.
For more information visit www.intechopen.com
Open access books available
Countries delivered to Contributors from top 500 universities
International authors and editor s
Our authors are among the
most cited scientists
Downloads
We are IntechOpen,
the world’s leading publisher of
Open Access books
Built by scientists, for scientists
12.2%
128,000
150M
TOP 1%
154
5,200
Chapter
Warming-Up for Resistance
Training and Muscular
Performance: A Narrative Review
Pedro P.Neves, Ana R.Alves, Daniel A.Marinho
and Henrique P.Neiva
Abstract
Warming-up is an indispensable component of any type of training, aiming
to prepare the body for the intensity required by the following exercises. The use
of different types of warm-up seems to produce different results, mainly because
of the effects on force production. However, the research is not clear and further
research is needed. The present study aimed to analyze and discuss the main results
of the literature regarding the effects of warm-up on force production, as well as to
analyze those responses during resistance training and maximal strength assess-
ments. Additionally, based on the outcomes, we intended to suggest some practical
recommendations for sports-related professionals and researchers, providing
essential knowledge for their intervention near the athletes, and also to contribute
to the performance optimization during training and in the competition. For this,
a search on four databases (Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and ScienceDirect)
for original research published until November 2020 was performed, and then the
outcomes were critically analyzed. The literature revealed that there is still little
agreement on what should be the best warm-up to be used for strength performance
and training. We, therefore, concluded that more research must be carried out and
new approaches must be taken to clarify this issue.
Keywords: strength, performance, pre-exercise, warm-up, training control
. Introduction
The warm-up is widely understood as a preparation practice to perform before
any physical exercise. It is usually used by athletes, coaches, and general physical
activity participants, to obtain an optimal physical and psychological state and to
get kinetic and coordinative preparation in the prevention of injuries during the
practice [1–4].
Based on previous studies, the main benefits of the warm-up were increased
body temperature, decreased muscle and joint stiffness, [5] increased efficiency
in the transmission of nerve impulses, [6] and, simultaneously, the increase in
metabolic reactions, leading to the improvement of muscle power. [7] It may also
lead to an increase in the dissociation of oxygen, hemoglobin, and myoglobin,
causing vasodilation and, consequently, an increase in muscle blood flow. [8]
Recent Advances in Sport Science
These changes could be promoted by two basic types of warm-up, specifically, the
active and passive warm-up. [3, 9] Hot water bags, short waves, hot baths, sauna,
are some of the means used to complete a passive warm-up. [3, 9] This type of
warm-up provides an increase in muscle and central temperature without energy
expenditure, with the use of external heating. [3, 9] On the other hand, the active
warm-up can be performed through the use of physical activity, for instance, walk-
ing, running, swimming, cycling, or any other specific exercises. [3, 9, 10] One
of the main advantages of the active warm-up is its specificity, as it prepares the
muscles that will be used during the activity and could benefit from the movement
itself [3, 9].
Despite the positive influence of warm-up on sports performance, [9] there
is still a lack of specific investigations about the variables that compose it, the
optimal warm-up design as well as its effects on the force production and strength
training performance. [11, 12] Any movement performed during physical activity
requires the use of specific muscles to produce movement. The movement depends
on muscle performance and therefore force production, either in maximal or
submaximal efforts so that the exercise could be carried out successfully. The role
of muscle strength performance is widely recognized in the scientific and sports
context. [9, 13] Maximizing the strength and optimizing force production should be
a priority to any person participating or willing to participate in sports performance
or physical exercise. For this performance improvement, in physical activity and
sport context, resistance training (strength training exercises where muscles exert
a force against an external load) assumes an important role to develop individual
capacities. Moreover, to improve the efficiency of resistance training and force
production, the warm-up could be essential. It is important to understand the way
that warm-ups can influence strength training and performance, to analyze the
effects, and then to provide a useful strategy to apply in the real context. With this
knowledge, professionals are able to design a warm-up that will optimize resistance
training and thus, maximizing strength gains, force production, and resulting in
improvements in physical exercise performance.
It is then important to understand the effect of warm-up in strength perfor-
mance and this may be through the assessment of maximum dynamic strength
(load at 1 repetition maximum: 1RM), isometric strength, or even through the
rate of production of muscle strength. [3, 1012, 14] Previous findings suggested
that the warm-up procedure (for example, aerobic exercise, specific activity, and
stretching) seems to influence the results of the 1RM assessment, as well as to
improve the strength produced during the assessments. [3, 12, 15] Generally, it
is recommended that the warm-up routine prior to a 1RM test includes general
(aerobic) and specific (imitating target activity) exercises. [1618] The general
warm-up is usually completed using an aerobic activity of low to moderate intensity
with the main purpose to increase the muscle temperature, which can be performed
with different types of aerobic activity (for example, running or cycling). [3, 10, 12]
Stretching exercises can also be performed as part of a typical warm-up routine.
Regarding the specific warm-up, it is recommended to perform it by including exer-
cises that use the same or similar movements as the main activity at progressively
higher intensities in an attempt to increase neuromuscular activation. [2, 12] In fact,
there is suitable scientific evidence in the literature to support the implementation
of only specific warm-ups before exercise, [19, 20] however, the effects of general
warm-up on strength measurements are not clear yet.
In order to design an effective warm-up, several parameters and variables are
associated with it, which seems to be extremely difficult to select an ideal type of
warm-up for all sports. Then, it is necessary to understand what type of warm-up
Warming-Up for Resistance Training and Muscular Performance: A Narrative Review
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.96075
is more appropriate to the variable that influences performance in all exercises,
i.e. force production. Thus, our narrative review aimed to analyze and discuss
the main results of the literature on the effects of warm-up on force production
and strength, by analyzing responses during resistance training and assessments
of maximum strength. The results determined in this study, aimed to elucidate
sport-related professionals about the effects of warm-up and help them to design
their training.
. Methods
The current study intended to summarize the findings and evidence reported in
the literature about the effect of warm-up protocols in force production, strength
evaluation and resistance training. In order to identify relevant articles on this
topic, an extensive bibliographic search was carried out. Of all the articles identi-
fied, only nine were chosen, which corresponded to the theme addressed here.
. Search strategy
A search in the literature that studied different types of warm-up was con-
ducted, where the focus was to understand the effects of warm-up in strength per-
formance. Considering that active warm-up is the most commonly used by people
engaged in sports and physical exercise and that is the most investigated, it was only
included original articles that focused on the effects of active warm-up. Original
research articles published between 2010 and 2020 were selected to identify stud-
ies in which warm-up and strength performance were reported. The search for
scientific articles was performed in 4 databases (Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed
and ScienceDirect) in which the keywords warming-up”, “resistance training”
and “strength” with multiple combinations were used and with no restrictions of
language.
. Inclusion and exclusion procedures
To carry out this research, the studies had to respect inclusion criteria such
as, being focused on active warm-up, being cross-sectional studies, focusing on
measures of strength, being carried out by healthy individuals, aged 18years or
over. As exclusion criteria, all types of review (qualitative review, systematic review
and meta-analysis) were excluded, the non-use of at least one active warm-up and
studies with young participants (<18years old). Articles that were not written in
English were also excluded.
. Results
The literature search found 163 relevant articles, of which 152 did not meet the
defined inclusion criteria. These studies were excluded based on the focus on other
physical activities rather than strength-related ones, such as running performance,
anthropometric characteristics, or strength evaluation performed in participants of
other chronological ages including children. Consequently, a total of 11 studies were
considered for further analysis. These studies were published between 2009 and
2020. The studies focus on the results that different types of warm-ups may cause in
resistance training (Table).
Recent Advances in Sport Science
Authors Objective Sample Warm-ups Main outcomes
Ribeiro etal.
[21]
Verify the effects
of three specific
warm-ups on squat
and bench press
resistance training.
14 males 3 protocols:
• 40% of training
load
• 80% of training
load
• 40% and 80% of
training load
The results showed that
the strength outputs
were optimized mainly
by warm-up with 80%
of the training load in
the squat training and
by the warm-up that
brought the two loads
together (40% and
80%) in the bench press
training.
Krzysztofik
and Wilk [22]
Determine
the effects of
plyometric
push-ups as a
conditioning
activity on high-
loaded bench press
performance.
24 males 2 protocols:
• conditioning
activity
aerobic warm-up
The results
demonstrated that
plyometric push-ups
lead to performance
enhancement of the
bench press exercise at
70%1RM.
Rodrigues
etal. [23]
Investigate the
acute effect of
three different
warm-up protocols
on a maximal
isokinetic strength
test.
22 males 3 protocols:
general warm-up
• stretching
warm-up
specific warm-up
None of warm-ups
were able to change the
total work of maximal
isokinetic strength.
Mina etal.
[24]
Examine the
influence of
another form of
variable resistance
during a warm-up
on subsequent
free-weight
1RM back squat
performance
compared to free-
weight resistance
alone.
16 males 2 protocols:
• free-weight
resistance
• chain-loaded
resistance
The results are indicative
of a potentiating
effect of chain-loaded
resistance in a warm-up.
Ribeiro and
Romanzini
[25]
Investigate the
acute effect of
different warm-up
procedures on
the repetition
performance of a
fatiguing resistance
training protocol
designed to induce
metabolic stress.
15 males 4 protocols:
• control
• specific
aerobic
• combined
No significant
difference for the sum of
repetitions or for fatigue
index among conditions
for the 3 exercises.
Abad etal.
[26]
Investigate
whether the
combination of
a general with a
specific warm-up
protocol would
improve leg
press 1RM values
compared with a
specific warm- up
protocol.
13 males 2 protocols:
• combination of
a general with a
specific warm-up
specific warm-up
These results suggest
that a general with
a specific warm-up
protocol induced
temperature-dependent
neuromuscular
adjustments that
increased muscle force
production capacity.
Warming-Up for Resistance Training and Muscular Performance: A Narrative Review
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.96075
. Discussion
It has been evidenced that the warm-up brings positive effects to the subsequent
physical exercise, so it is very important to study it and understand how it can be
manipulated according to the specificity of exercise training and performance.
The purpose of this investigation aimed to analyze and discuss the main results of
the literature regarding the effects of warm-up on force production, as well as to
Authors Objective Sample Warm-ups Main outcomes
Chattong etal.
[27]
Investigate the
potentiating
effects of different
levels of external
resistance during
box jumps on
vertical jump
performance.
12 males 5 protocols:
• Control
• 5, 10, 15, or 20%
of their body
weight
Performing an active
dynamic warm-up
with or without a
weighted vest produced
significantly greater
posttest vertical jump
performance.
Sotiropoulos
etal. [28]
Determine the
effects of a specific
warm-up using
half-squats at low
and moderate
intensity on
vertical jump
performance and
electromyographic
activity of the
thigh muscles.
26 males 2 protocols:
• low intensity
moderate
intensity
The use of a specific
warm-up that includes
half-squats performed
explosively with
low to moderate
intensity, improves
countermovement jump
performance.
Barroso etal.
[29]
Investigate the
effect of different
intensities
and durations
of general
warm-up on 1RM
performance.
16 males 5 protocols:
• control
• short duration and
low intensity
• long duration and
low intensity
• short duration and
moderate-intensity
• long duration and
moderate-intensity
Long-duration
low-intensity general
warm-up seems to be
appropriate to improve
1RM performance
in strength-trained
individuals
Resende etal.
[30]
Analyze different
types of warm-up
on the physical
performance
of Paralympic
powerlifting
athletes.
12 males 3 protocols:
without warm-up
• traditional
warm-up
• stretching
warm-up
The different types of
warm-up methods did
not seem to provide
significant differences
in the force indicators
in elite Paralympic
powerlifting athletes.
Girard etal.
[31]
Investigate the
influence of
two warm-up
protocols on neural
and contractile
parameters of knee
extensors
10 males 2 protocols:
• running-based
warm-up
• strength-based
warm-up
Running and strength-
based warm-ups induce
a similar increase in
knee extensors force-
generating capacity
by improving muscle
activation.
Table 1.
Main characteristics of studies.
Recent Advances in Sport Science
analyze those responses during resistance training and maximal strength assess-
ments. The scarcity of research on warm-up protocols in resistance training and
strength performance is notorious. Nevertheless, it is possible to verify that the
results obtained in most studies are positive. The use of warm-up causes enhance-
ment of performance when external loads are used, especially when the intensity is
high. However, more research should be carried out on this topic.
The selected articles of this review tend to focus on the effects that warm-up
produces on resistance training, namely the effects on strength performance. Due
to the scarcity of articles about the addressed issue, it was difficult to compare the
different types and approaches of warm-ups. Moreover, it was also noticed that
exercises were not the same in different studies, which also difficult outcomes
analysis.
In the study of Rodrigues and collaborators, [23] three different types of warm-
up were compared: a general warm-up, a specific warm-up, and a warm-up through
stretching, to understand whether it would influence maximal isokinetic training.
The results reported that the three types of warm-up had no adverse effect or any
type of improvement in acute muscle strength. However, it is important to highlight
that the peak of concentric torque reported a lower value in the specific warm-up
protocol when compared to the control group, which may mean that the use of a
specific warm-up tends to reveal positive results when compared to the control
group, which did not perform any type of warm-up.
The study by Ribeiro and Romanzini [25] aimed to compare the effects of three
types of warm-ups on the performance of resistance training: a specific warm-up,
an aerobic warm-up, and a combined warm-up of both, also using a control group.
This study had the particularity of evaluating the performance using repetitions
until failure, thus observing whether the conditions would affect resistance train-
ing. As in the abovementioned study, none of these conditions showed significant
differences in resistance training, although no negative effects were observed after
applying a warm-up. This study seems to suggest that the warm-up protocols used
do not contribute to the development of strength.
Although the previous two studies have not found a significantly positive
response in the strength assessment, the literature reported several benefits on the
human body when considering the implementation of warm-up before resistance
training [12]. In the study by Abad and his collaborators, [26] the aim was to
understand if the implementation of a general warm-up before a specific warm-up
would be beneficial when compared with a specific warm-up only. The tests were
measured in the leg-press exercise, being evaluated by its 1RM. Two protocols were
used in order to determine the effects of warm-up on training: combined warm-up
(general with specific) and specific warm-up. The results of the combined warm-
up were higher values in the force production, in comparison with the specific
warm-up. Considering the positive results of the tests, a combined warm-up would
have more benefits than a specific warm-up.
Barroso and his collaborators, [29] purposed to understand the best intensity
to use in the general warm-up before the specific warm-up. Thus, four combined
warm-up protocols were performed, with different intensities and durations, which
were compared with each other and with a control group, which performed only a
specific warm-up, with no general warm-up. These researchers found that a general
warm-up followed by a specific warm-up would be more beneficial to increase the
strength when compared to a specific warm-up that reported lower results. The
authors also suggested that when performing the aerobic component of general
warm-up, it should be long lasting with low intensity for better results.
On the other hand, the results of Krzysztofik and Wilk [22] did not cor-
roborate with the studies of Abad and his collaborators [26] and Barroso and
Warming-Up for Resistance Training and Muscular Performance: A Narrative Review
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.96075
his collaborators [29]. This study aimed to compare a specific warm-up (named
conditioning activity) with a general warm-up, performed before a bench press
exercise. In this study, the specific warm-up was performed with a different exercise
(plyometric push-ups) from the training exercise (in this case, bench press). The
researchers concluded that the use of a specific warm-up had significant results in
the strength assessment compared to the general warm-up. The outcomes showed
improvement in the bench press exercise performance, being incongruent with the
previously mentioned results.
Otherwise, Ribeiro and colleagues, [21] aimed to understand the best intensity
to use when only a specific warm-up was performed. This study verified if three
types of warm-ups would have an effect on strength training, and its protocols
would use three types of external loads in the warm-up exercise: 40% of the train-
ing load, 80% of the training load, and the combination of the 40% and 80% of the
training load. Positive effects in force production were found when warming-up
with higher loads (80% of the training load) before the squat exercise training. The
same authors also reported that, when performing a warm-up with low loads and
repetitions, there was no effect on strength training performance.
Similar to Ribeiro and colleagues, [21] Minas and collaborators [24] evaluated a
specific warm-up in their study. These authors, although also used the squat exer-
cise in their study, used two different warm-ups. A protocol with a chain-loaded (as
external weight) and another where it would be used only with the weight of the
body, without any help from external loads. The aim of this study was to perceive
the effect of another form of variable resistance in a warm-up compared to a warm-
up with only bodyweight. After applied the two defined protocols, it was concluded
that using a chain-loaded weight as the body’s external weight can enhance our
results in the field of strength. Then, it is possible to notice that this study is in
agreement with the previous one, although it cannot be directly compared. Both
concluded that when using a warm-up with external loads to our body, the results
tend to be better.
Sotiropoulos and his collaborators [28] carried out a study to determine the
effects of a specific warm-up using low and moderate-intensity squats in the verti-
cal jump. In his study, two warm-up protocols were performed using two different
external loads (low and moderate), before performing the countermovement
jump. Both protocols demonstrated to be effective when performed before the
vertical jump, reporting significant results in the acute force production and the
electromyographic activity, showing to be quite beneficial for the countermove-
ment jump.
In the study of Chattong and his companions, [27] which aimed to investigate
the potentiating effects of different levels of external resistance (weight vest)
during box jumps in the vertical jump, five different warm-ups were assessed.
The control condition was performed without any external load and then, the
experimental warm-ups were performed with additional weight from 5% to 20% of
bodyweight. In this study, the researchers concluded that no improvements in force
production were found when increasing the load in the different warm-ups, not
even any between using a vest or without it.
The study by Resende and his collaborators [30] aimed to analyze three differ-
ent types of protocols, to understand their effect on the physical performance of
paralympic powerlifting athletes. The protocols applied were: without warm-up,
traditional warm-up and stretching warm-up. The results indicated by the research-
ers revealed that there were no significant differences when applying any of the
protocols studied. Although the results did not show significant results, it is impor-
tant to note that the participants were highly trained athletes and this might have
triggered these results.
Recent Advances in Sport Science
Gerard and his colleagues, [31] performed the following protocols: running-
based warm-up and strength-based warm-up to investigate the influence of two
warm-up protocols on the neural and contractile parameters of the knee extensors.
It was revealed a significant shortening of time to contract, while the other twitch
parameters did not change significantly. Thus, they concluded that both protocols
can influence strength training and muscle contraction during training.
After analyzing these studies, there is still controversy around the issue of
warming. All studies included in this narrative review are relatively recent, but
a consensus has not yet been reached, neither what is the best type of warming
up that will have the best results on force production and strength performance.
Further investigations should be developed to provide a consensus and clarify the
subject. For future studies, it would be interesting to explore this topic a little more.
We suggest to study the effect of warm-up on strength training, exploring different
types of intensities, in order to achieve more robust and concrete results. The same
studies should not be based on a single exercise, but rather deepen the study on sev-
eral exercises performed in a sequence. It is true that, in a real training context, no
single exercise is performed. For example, most resistance training includes more
than one exercise and for different muscular groups. It would also be interesting to
verify if it will be necessary to warm-up before each exercise and specifically for
each exercise, or if the first warm-up before training is enough to guaranty better
results during the entire training.
. Conclusion
With this narrative review, we could verify that there is a great lack of studies on
the subject of warm-up for strength performance, resistance training performance,
and force production. It was also possible to show that some authors did not report
benefits after warm-up, however, others found quite significant results in their
studies. These positive results were either after using only a specific warm-up or
using a general warm-up followed by a specific warm-up. So, it is possible to deter-
mine that special attention on this topic is needed. Nevertheless, most of the studies
tended to suggest that a warm-up should be performed before resistance training
is performed. The increased strength outcomes seemed to be better when a higher
load is used during warm-up, with few repetitions. Moreover, the use of a general
warm-up showed to be beneficial in some specific assessments. Therefore it can
also be a strategy to be applied and combined with the specific warm-up. Further
investigations should be developed to better understand and determine the effects
of warm-up, or even other studies using another type of exercise, so we can provide
a more in-depth conclusion.
Acknowledgements
This work was supported by national funding through the Portuguese
Foundation for Science and Technology, I.P., under project UIDB/04045/2020.
Warming-Up for Resistance Training and Muscular Performance: A Narrative Review
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.96075
Author details
Pedro P.Neves1,3, Ana R.Alves2,3, Daniel A.Marinho1,3* and Henrique P.Neiva1,3
1 Department of Sport Sciences, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal
2 Department of Arts, Humanities and Sports, Polytechnic Institute of Beja, Beja,
Portugal
3 Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development,
CIDESD, Covilhã, Portugal
*Address all correspondence to: marinho.d@gmail.com
© 2021 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms
of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/
by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,
provided the original work is properly cited.

Recent Advances in Sport Science
[1] Weineck J. Treinamento ideal. São
Paulo: Manole. 2003
[2] Fradkin AJ, Zazryn TR, Smoliga JM.
Effects of warming-up on physical
performance: a systematic review
with meta-analysis. The Journal of
Strength and Conditioning Research.
2010:24(1), 140-148. DOI: 10.1519/
JSC.0b013e3181c643a0
[3] Bishop D. Warm up II: Performance
changes following active warm up and
how to structure the warm up. Sports
Med. 2003:33: 483-498, 2003.
[4] Safran MR, Garrett WE Jr, Seaber AV,
Glisson RR, Ribbeck BM. The role of
warm-up in muscular injury prevention.
Am J Sports Med. 1998:16: 123-129.
[5] Racinais S, Oksa J. Temperature and
neuromuscular function. Scandinavian
journal of medicine & science in sports.
2010:20: 1-18.
[6] Karvonen J. Importance of warm-up
and cool down on exercise performance.
In: Medicine in sports training and
coaching. Karger Publishers. 1992: p.
189-214.
[7] Davies CT, Young K. Effect of
temperature on the contractile
properties and muscle power of triceps
surae in humans. Journal of Applied
Physiology. 1983:55.1 191-195.
[8] Fermino RC, Winiarski ZH, Rosa RJ,
Lorenci LG, Buso S, Simão R. Influência
do aquecimento específico e de
alongamento no desempenho da força
muscular em 10 repetições máximas. R.
bras. Ci e Mov. 2005:13(4): 25-32.
[9] Bishop D. Warm up I: Potential
mechanisms and the effects of passive
warm up on exercise performance.
Sports Med. 2003:33: 439-454.
[10] Gil MH, Neiva HP, Sousa AS,
Marques MC, Marinho DA. Current
approaches on warming up for sports
performance: a critical review. Strength
Cond J. 2019: 41.4 70-79.
[11] Fradkin AJ, Zazryn TR, Smoliga JM.
Effects of warming-up on physical
performance: a systematic review with
meta-analysis. The Journal of Strength
& Conditioning Research. 2010:24.1:
140-148.
[12] McGowan CJ, Pyne DB,
Thompson KG, Rattray B. Warm-up
strategies for sport and exercise:
mechanisms and applications. Sports
medicine. 2015: 45.11: 1523-1546.
[13] Wilcox J, Larson R, Brochu K,
Falgenbaum A. Acute Explosive-Force
Movements Enhance Bench-Press
Performance in Athletic Men.
International Journal of Sports
Physiology and Performance. 2006:1,
261-269.
[14] Magnusson SP,
Simonsen EB, Aagaard P, et al:
Mechanical and physical responses
to stretching with and without
preisometric contraction in human
skeletal muscle. Arch Phys Med Rehabil.
1996:77(4):373-378
[15] Neiva HP, Marques MC, Barbosa T,
Izquierdo M, Marinho DA. Warm-up
and performance in competitive
swimming. Sports Medicine. 2014:44.3:
319-330.
[16] Gogte K, Srivastav P, Miyaru GB.
Effect of passive, active and combined
warm up on lower limb muscle
performance and dynamic stability in
recreational sports players. Journal of
Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR.
2017:11.3: YC05.
[17] Shrier I. Warm-up and stretching
in the prevention of muscular injury.
Sports Med. 2008:38: 879; author reply
879-880.
References

Warming-Up for Resistance Training and Muscular Performance: A Narrative Review
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.96075
[18] Woods K, Bishop P,
Jones E. Warm-up and stretching in the
prevention of muscular injury. Sports
Med. 2007:37: 1089-1099.
[19] Baechle TR, Earle RW. Essentials of
Strength Training and Conditioning.
Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 2008.
[20] Young WB, Jenner A,
Griffiths K. Acute enhancement of
power performance from heavy
load squats. J Strength Cond Res.
1998:12: 82-84.
[21] Ribeiro B, Pereira A, Neves PP,
Sousa AC, Ferraz R, Marques MC,
Marinho DA, Neiva HP. The Role of
Specific Warm-up during Bench Press
and Squat Exercises: A Novel Approach.
International Journal of Environmental
Research and Public Health. 2020:17.18:
6882. doi:10.3390/ijerph17186882
[22] Krzysztofik M, Wilk M. The effects
of plyometric conditioning on post-
activation bench press performance.
Journal of Human Kinetics. 2020:74.1:
99-108. DOI: 10.2478/hukin-2020-0017
[23] Rodrigues S, Hernandez G,
Salgueirosa FM, Oliveira E, Wharton L,
Osiecki R. Acute effect of three different
warm-up protocols on maximal
isokinetic strength in young men.
Revista andaluza de medicina del
deporte. 2020:13.1: 5-9 DOI: 10.33155/j.
ramd.2018.02.007
[24] Mina MA, Blazevich AJ, Giakas G,
Seitz LB, Kay AD. Chain-loaded variable
resistance warm-up improves
free-weight maximal back squat
performance, European Journal of
Sport Science. 2016:16:8, 932-939, DOI:
10.1080/17461391.2016.1199740
[25] Ribeiro AS, Romanzini M. Effect
of different warm-up procedures on
the performance of resistance training
exercises. Perceptual and motor
skills. 2014:119.1: 133-145. APA DOI:
10.2466/25.29.PMS.119c17z7
[26] Abad CC, Prado ML,
Ugrinowitsch C, Tricoli V, Barroso R.
Combination of general and specific
warm-ups improves leg-press one
repetition maximum compared with
specific warm-up in trained individuals.
The Journal of Strength & Conditioning
Research 2011:25.8 2242-2245.
[27] Chattong C, Brown LE, Coburn JW,
Noffal GJ. Effect of a dynamic loaded
warm-up on vertical jump performance.
The Journal of Strength & Conditioning
Research. 2010:24.7: 1751-1754.
[28] Sotiropoulos K, Smilios I,
Christou M, Barzouka K, Spaias A,
Douda H, Tokmakidis SP. Effects of
warm-up on vertical jump performance
and muscle electrical activity using half-
squats at low and moderate intensity.
Journal of sports science & medicine.
2010:9.2: 326.
[29] Barroso R, Silva-Batista C, Tricoli C,
Roschel H, Ugrinowitsch C. The effects
of different intensities and durations of
the general warm-up on leg press 1RM.
The Journal of Strength & Conditioning
Research. 2013:27.4: 1009-1013.
[30] Resende MD, Resende RB, Reis GC,
Barros LD, Bezerra MR, Matos DG, ...
Aidar FJ. The Influence of Warm-Up
on Body Temperature and Strength
Performance in Brazilian National-Level
Paralympic Powerlifting Athletes.
Medicina. 2020:56.10: 538.
[31] Girard O, Carbonnel Y, Candau R,
Millet G. Running versus strength-
based warm-up: acute effects on
isometric knee extension function.
European journal of applied physiology.
2009:106.4: 573-581.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Background and Objectives: The effects of warm-up in athletic success have gained strong attention in recent studies. There is, however, a wide gap in awareness of the warm-up process to be followed, especially in Paralympic powerlifting (PP) athletes. This study aimed to analyze different types of warm-up on the physical performance of PP athletes. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 12 elite Brazilian PP male athletes (age, 24.14 ± 6.21 years; bodyweight, 81.67 ± 17.36 kg). The athletes performed maximum isometric force (MIF), rate of force development (RFD), and speed test (Vmax) in three different methods of warm-up. Tympanic temperature was used to estimate the central body temperature. Results: A significant difference was observed for MIF in the without warm-up (WW) condition in relation to the traditional warm-up (TW) and stretching warm-up (SW) (p = 0.005, η 2 p = 0.454, high effect). On the contrary, no significant differences were observed in RFD, fatigue index (FI) and time in the different types of warm up (p > 0.05). Furthermore, no significant differences were observed in relation to the maximum repetition (p = 0.121, η 2 p = 0.275, medium effect) or the maximum speed (p = 0.712, η 2 p = 0.033, low effect) between the different types of warm up. In relation to temperature, significant differences were found for the TW in relation to the "before" and "after" conditions. In addition, differences were found between WW in the "after" condition and SW. In addition, WW demonstrated a significant difference in relation to TW in the "10 min later" Medicina 2020, 56, 538 2 of 10 condition (F = 26.87, p = 0.05, η 2 p = 0.710, high effect). Conclusions: The different types of warm-up methods did not seem to provide significant differences in the force indicators in elite PP athletes
Article
Full-text available
The current study aims to verify the effects of three specific warm-ups on squat and bench press resistance training. Forty resistance-trained males (19-30 years) performed 3 × 6 repetitions with 80% of maximal dynamic strength (designated as training load) after one of the following warm-ups (48 h between): (i) 2 × 6 repetitions with 40% and 80% of the training load (WU), (ii) 6 × 80% of training load (WU80), or (iii) 6 × 40% of the training load (WU40). Mean propulsive velocity (MPV), velocity loss (VL), peak velocity (PV), time to achieve PV, power, work, heart rates, and ratings of perceived exertion were analyzed. In squat exercises, higher MPV were found in WU80 compared with WU40 (2nd set: 0.69 ± 0.09 vs. 0.67 ± 0.06 m.s-1, p = 0.02, ES = 0.80; 3rd set: 0.68 ± 0.09 vs. 0.66 ± 0.07 m.s-1, p = 0.05, ES = 0.51). In bench press exercises, time to PV was lower in WU compared with WU40 (1st set: 574.77 ± 233.46 vs. 694.50 ± 211.71 m.s-1, p < 0.01, ES = 0.69; 2nd set: 533.19 ± 272.22 vs. 662.31 ± 257.51 m.s-1, p = 0.04, ES = 0.43) and total work was higher (4749.90 ± 1312.99 vs. 4631.80 ± 1355.01 j, p = 0.01, ES = 0.54). The results showed that force outputs were mainly optimized by WU80 in squat training and by WU in bench press training. Moreover, warming-up with few repetitions and low loads is not enough to optimize squat and bench press performances.
Article
Full-text available
The present study aimed to determine the effects of plyometric push-ups as a conditioning activity (CA) on high-loaded bench press performance. Two groups of resistance-trained males age (24.5 ± 2.6 years, body mass 84.8 ± 8 kg) performed one of two CA protocols: 3 sets of 5 repetitions of plyometric push-ups with a 1 min rest interval between sets (PAPE; n=12) or equal time aerobic warm-up (CONT; n=12). Four minutes after completion of the CA protocols the participants performed 3 sets of 3 repetitions of the bench press exercise at 70%1RM and 4 min rest interval between sets to assess post-activation differences in peak power output (PP), mean power output (MP), peak bar velocity (PV), and mean bar velocity (MV) between conditions. The two-way ANOVA revealed significant condition × set interaction effect for PP (p<0.01), MP (p<0.05), PV (p<0.01), and MV (p=0.02). The post hoc for condition × set interaction showed that PAPE caused a significant decrease in PP and PV for P-Set2 and P-Set3 when compared to BA. The MP and MV for the PAPE condition decreased significantly during the P-Set3 compared to BA and to P-Set1. The t-test comparisons for delta values showed significant differences between PAPE and CONT in PP for P-Set1 – BA (p<0.01), in MP for P-Set2 – P-Set1 (p<0.03) and for P-Set3 – P-Set1 (p=0.04). Furthermore, there were significant differences in PV for P-Set3 – BA; P-Set2 – P-Set1; P-Set3 – P-Set1 (p<0.01; p<0.01; p<0.02 respectively). Finally, there were significant differences in MV for P-Set1 – BA; P-Set2 – P-Set1 and P-Set3 – P-Set1 (p<0.01; p<0.01; p<0.02 respectively). This study demonstrated that plyometric push-ups lead to performance enhancement of the bench press exercise at 70%1RM. The increases in performance were observed only in the first set following the CA, while a significant decrease of these variables was registered in P-Set2 and P-Set3.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To investigate the acute effect of three different warm-up protocols on a maximal isokinetic strength test. Methods: Twenty-two male, recreational athletes involved in regular resistance training were evaluated. Subjects performed a maximal isokinetic strength test of the knee extensors in an isokinetic dynamometer after completing a control session or one of the following warm-up protocols using a randomized design: a general warm-up, stretching warm-up, or specific warm-up. The comparison between treatments was completed through Repeated-Measures Analysis of Variance, followed by a Bonferroni “post hoc” test (p < 0.05). Results: The only difference found was the concentric peak moment following the application of the specific warm-up protocol, which was lower than the control session (12.94%; p < 0.05). No other differences were noted in eccentric peak movement or total work (concentric + eccentric) parameter after application of any the warm-up protocols within control condition (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The finding of this investigation showed that none of warm-up protocols applied were able to change the total work of maximal isokinetic strength. Thus, our investigation suggests that the general warm-up, stretching warm-up and specific warm-up have had no adverse or improved effectiveness on acute muscle strength capacity.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Warm up is an activity that is done before a sports activity. The warm up can be done actively and passively. The preferred mode is active warm up in athletes. There are inconclusive effects of passive warm up compared with an active warm up on short term muscle performance. The cumulative effect of passive and active warm up on muscle performance and dynamic stability is not known. Aim: To find out the effects of passive, active and combined warm up on lower limb muscle performance and dynamic stability in recreational sports players. Materials and Methods: A randomized crossover study was done on 19 recreational lower limb dominant sports players. Three different warm ups were included in the study passive, active and combined. Active warm up included series of activities like cycling, leg press, jump squats, squat jumps while passive warm up included application of moist heat for a period of 20 minutes on lower limb muscles. Combined warm up included. both passive and active warm up. Six different sequences were made from these three warm ups. Subjects were screened and allotted into different the six warm up sequences after sequence randomization with 48 hours wash out period. After every warm up session Vertical Jump Test (VJT) and Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was performed and results were recorded. Study duration was one year and six months. Results: There was no difference noticed in both the outcome measures. Mean and SD values for passive, active and combined warm up are 47.62±9.64, 48.50±10.16 and 48.87±10.70 respectively in Vertical Jump Test (VJT) and 85.43±8.61, 85.17±8.60 and 85.17±8.38 respectively for SEBT. The p-value for mean difference between passive-active, active-combined, combined-passive are 0.67, 1.00, 0.51 respectively, for VJT and 1.00, 1.00, 1.00 respectively for SEBT. Conclusion: All warm ups are equally effective in short term sports performance.
Article
Full-text available
The acute influence of chain-loaded variable resistance exercise on subsequent free-weight one-repetition maximum (1-RM) back squat performance was examined in 16 recreationally active men. The participants performed either a free-weight resistance (FWR) or chain-loaded resistance (CLR) back squat warm-up at 85% 1-RM on two separate occasions. After a 5-min rest, the participants attempted a free-weight 1-RM back squat; if successful, subsequent 5% load additions were made until participants failed to complete the lift. During the 1-RM trials, 3D knee joint kinematics and knee extensor and flexor electromyograms (EMG) were recorded simultaneously. Significantly greater 1-RM (6.2 ± 5.0%; p < .01) and mean eccentric knee extensor EMG (32.2 ± 6.7%; p < .01) were found after the CLR warm-up compared to the FWR condition. However, no difference (p > .05) was found in concentric EMG, eccentric or concentric knee angular velocity, or peak knee flexion angle. Performing a CLR warm-up enhanced subsequent free-weight 1-RM performance without changes in knee flexion angle or eccentric and concentric knee angular velocities; thus a real 1-RM increase was achieved as the mechanics of the lift were not altered. These results are indicative of a potentiating effect of CLR in a warm-up, which may benefit athletes in tasks where high-level strength is required.
Article
Abstract Warm-up procedures have become relevant for coaches, researchers and sports professionals in recent years. Several studies have been conducted to verify the effects of different pre-activities, regarding differing volume, intensity, rest, and specificity, and the warm-up is now widely accepted as essential practice to improve performance. Research is now focusing on the effects of static and dynamic stretches, the post-activation potentiation phenomenon and the optimization of waiting periods with passive warm-up approaches. In this brief review we critically analyze the emerging methods and strategies of warm-up that have been investigated and used before competitive events.