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Roadmap for Education Development Post COVID-19


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In this paper, a roadmap is proposed and introduced to support educational policies, plans, strategies, and practices in developing countries. The operational research approaches are used to identify and assess all academic activities and processes such as educational policies, educational settlement and equipment, educational curricula & courses, teaching methods, capacity building, funding & budgeting, and educational evaluation. The systematical academic performances (access, equity, quality, relevance, efficiency) will be considered, including the gaps and expectations of various stakeholders on education and training policy, evaluating the policy's sufficiency and its implementation strategy feeling the current vision and the development perspectives of these countries. The proposed roadmap will serve as a tool or reference point for setting ambitious improvement goals. Building government education officials' capacity increases the potential for improvement in numerous ways, as it provides a systematic approach to quality improvement by identifying new ideas and innovative approaches.
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The Educational Review, USA, 2021, 5(3), 57-69
ISSN Online: 2575-7946
ISSN Print: 2575-7938
DOI: 10.26855/er.2021.03.005 57 The Educational Review, USA
Roadmap for Education Development Post
M. A. Zaki Ewiss
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.
How to cite this paper: M. A. Zaki Ewiss.
(2021). Roadmap for Education Develop-
ment Post COVID-19.
The Educational
Review, USA, 5(3), 57-69.
DOI: 10.26855/er.2021.03.005
Received: February 2, 2021
Accepted: February 28, 2021
Published: March 25, 2021
Corresponding author: M. A. Zaki
Ewiss, Department of Physics, Faculty
of Science, Cairo University, Giza,
In this paper, a roadmap is proposed and introduced to support educational poli-
cies, plans, strategies, and practices in developing countries. The operational
research approaches are used to identify and assess all academic activities and
processes such as educational policies, educational settlement and equipment,
educational curricula & courses, teaching methods, capacity building, funding &
budgeting, and educational evaluation. The systematical academic performances
(access, equity, quality, relevance, efficiency) will be considered, including the
gaps and expectations of various stakeholders on education and training policy,
evaluating the policys sufficiency and its implementation strategy feeling the
current vision and the development perspectives of these countries. The proposed
roadmap will serve as a tool or reference point for setting ambitious improve-
ment goals. Building government education officialscapacity increases the po-
tential for improvement in numerous ways, as it provides a systematic approach
to quality improvement by identifying new ideas and innovative approaches.
Roadmap, Educational Strategy, Educational Process, Operational Research,
1. Introduction
Since December 2019, the world health organization (WHO) declaring a state of emergency due to the outbreak of
COVID-19, all nations and peoples have been at risk of injury and death threats. In the wake of this sad news, all de-
veloped and developing countries have taken precautionary measures. These measures include the complete closure of
all social activities. The citizens stayed at home, the prohibition of working in shops, restaurants, cinemas, theatres, and
museums, and the ban of individuals from moving and having social contact. They suspended the movement of aircraft
and trains between countries. These decisions have affected education systems after schools and universitiesclosure
and educational programs through distance or online education systems. This decision was made to protect children,
students, teachers, and all staff from the risk of contracting the deadly virus (Burgess & Sievertsen, 2020; UNESCO,
2020a; UNESCO, 2020b, UNDP, 2020; UNECA, 2020; United Nations, 2020; World Bank, 2020; Zaki Ewiss,
Despite the end of the first wave of the pandemic in June 2020, some countries have resorted to reducing precautio-
nary measures and reopening schools and universities to save their education systems and compensate for students
losses at all education levels without exception. Mutated strains of the virus soon emerged, and the WHO emergency
response announced the spread of the second wave of coronavirus, which is expected to continue till the summer of
2021. The spread of Corona pandemic in its second wave led to schools and universitiesclosure in many countries
worldwide. UNESCO has declared that the closure affected more than 1.6 billion students in 195 countries (UNESCO,
M. A. Zaki Ewiss
DOI: 10.26855/er.2021.03.005 58 The Educational Review, USA
2020a). It has resulted in a decrease in student attendance. Also, the use of the distance or online education system has
affected children and families, and the efficiency of the provision of study programs. Developing countries have suf-
fered from this pandemic because of their education systemsfragility, insufficient environmental and school capacity,
and inadequate support for teachers.
The world is looking out to develop vaccine manufacturing, medical solutions, and guidelines to re-control and re-
duce infections among people, especially children, and students (World Health Organization, 2020).
The interruption of educational programs and the reduction of academic performance due to the continued suspension
of schooling and the closure of schools and universities have negatively affected the educational processs outcomes
and generationshealthy upbringing that represent the countrys social capital. This academic setback harms the sus-
tainable development program sponsored by the United Nations, which will significantly impact developing countries
economies (UNECA, 2020; Zaki Ewiss, 2020a).
In this regard, many governments face an imbalance in their educational policy systems at all pre-university and
higher education levels (World Bank, 2020). Not only because of the surprise resulting from the outbreak of the pan-
demic, but also because of the lack of integrated and sufficient strategic studies to develop education systems and meet
challenges in all areas, including educational policies, educational settlement & equipment, educational management,
Curricula & courses, teaching methods, the efficiency of teacher, budgets & financing and the evaluation process & the
quality of education outcomes (Cummings & Williams, 2008; Zaki Ewiss, 2020b).
During this crisis, many countries were unwilling to deal with this educational setback due to the low level of teach-
ers to deal with digital education technology, the low ability of students to self-study, and the lack of scientific topics in
the mother languages of education (OECD, 2020; Zaki Ewiss, 2020b-2020d). Also, conflicting follow-up and evalua-
tion systems, as a result, fictitious online teaching platforms offer unaffordable and costly curricula that are victims of
governments and citizens. There is no doubt that the costs of alternative education systems are prohibitive and cannot be
afforded by low-income citizens. Many parents need more time at home to ensure their childrens education and
well-being brings many problems. They may be forced to leave their jobs and therefore harm economic performance.
Some countries have followed the strategy of interactive mitigation and classroom closure when determining the num-
ber of injuries among students while reducing the minimum absenteeism; this procedure does not necessarily ensure
that classes continue.
It has become necessary for Governments to develop clear educational policies that address the previous phases dis-
advantages before the epidemic outbreak. These policies are based on identifying all activities and processes in all the
above-mentioned academic areas to achieve real educational renaissance to serve development programs and their
people's well-being (Zaki Ewiss, 2020b; Kitamura, 2009; Kitamura, 2007).
In this work, we present a roadmap for education development, implementing operational research, and using innova-
tive modeling approaches to continuously improve learning outcomes by increasing administrative efficiency, rationa-
lizing loss, and minimizing errors to fill gaps that leave our education vulnerable to the possibility of current and future
2. Roadmap methodology
We propose a rationale roadmap to develop the level of maturity for developing the educational strategy (Zaki Ewiss,
2020c). It is represented in two different ways: the phased and the continuous method. Interim representation is the
most commonly used representation to complete the development process and achieve the goals. Although the continu-
ing picture is generally a more flexible option, and in many cases, the continuous model needs to be well chosen for
research groups because many do not know where to begin to represent the roadmap (WILICHOWSKI & COBO, 2021).
The interim representation can also be seen as a comprehensive roadmap for continuous repetition. This approach is
suitable for States and institutions that wish to improve their educational activitiescapacity systematically. The ranking
of development priorities is determined by selecting process areas that belong to a particular maturity level, primarily
through a historical analysis of educational institutionsprocess problems. Sometimes this approach is not the most
beneficial, and organizations may have to manage projects that work reasonably well. Still, they may face many disad-
vantages in the quality of teaching outcomes and learning. This roadmap based on the following principals (Zaki Ewiss,
The political will
The political stability
Governance and accountability
The availability of fund
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3. The Roadmap in the Education Improvement Project
This studys proposed roadmap is primarily for educational institutions in developing countries that wish to establish
a model for improving their maturity for development (Zaki Ewiss, 2020b). The institution is determined to use conti-
nuous representation and therefore needs assistance in identifying educational processes that must be implemented first.
The improvement project begins with the recognition by governments and institutions of the need and importance of
developing the education system. These reasons must be clear, understandable and widely accepted by following the
guidance given in this study during the project stages, which is described as the start-up phase. Figure 1 shows the main
educational pillars of the education strategy. Each post has its domain area including, educational activities and practic-
al processes. One should apply a selected operational research mathematical model to assess and analyze the education
strategys current situation, see Table 1 (Jill, 2015; Winston, 2004). Other analysis methods of the current situation in-
clude evaluating projects or processes, achieving customer, end-user satisfaction or causal analysis of defects, and stan-
dards or audits described as the diagnostic phase. Figure 2 shows the implementation steps of the operations research
study. In Table 2, the definition and description of the operation research models are given.
After analyzing the current situation, the improvement projects objectives and the problems to be resolved must be
clear, understandable, and widely accepted. At this stage, the organization needs to determine which representation to
use as an option determined by economic, societal, and cultural factors.
The need for a comprehensive approach is a prerequisite to developing the system. A good study of the proposed
model to improve the educational institutionsmaturity level may take a long time to determine which options are made.
According to its objectives and problems, we can choose a phased representation to address improvement goals. Below
we will focus on four phases of implementing the proposed roadmap for all organizations with project management
objectives or troublesome problems affecting development and improvement process.
a) Designing the roadmap: for institutions with objectives related to the development of the educational process.
b) Producing an integrated roadmap: For all organizations, the integrated roadmap ensures learning outcomes or
problems in managing work efficiently. It can be applied when the primary challenge for development
projects is to integrate software or learning process components into all hubs properly.
c) Roadmap processes: For all organizations with practical management or business problems.
d) Measure the roadmap: for all organizations with measurement or business management problems.
Each roadmap contains a limited set of four to eight functional areas, limiting the scope and initial improvement
cycle and helping organizations to focus their improvement activity relationships.
The few critical areas of operation are likely to provide direct benefit to development selections. The educational in-
stitutions in each country have different goals of improvement and priorities to solve problems. Once the roadmap has
been implemented, educational institutions will generally have sufficient experience to improve the education system
and gain expertise to identify the next steps. In Figure 3, we present five processes to use the roadmap.
4. The structure of the proposed roadmap
Each roadmap has the same basic structure that consists of five elements as follows:
a) Defining the purpose of the roadmap and its purpose. This roadmap characterized by the typical improvement
objectives addressed by the roadmap developed and the set of specific problems.
b) Identifying the potential beneficiaries of the roadmap. Some roadmaps apply to a particular type of institution,
and if so, the types of relevant institutions must be clarified.
c) Presenting a series of practice areas for the roadmap, where each roadmap contains a limited number of edu-
cational process areas. The rationale is that the projects first step to improving the educational process
should not be too big. Ensuring the quality of education outcomes is always one of the processes involved.
Without this process, the organization cannot be sure that the process is already in use by the organization.
Quality assurance may also help identify shortcomings in the definition, deployment, or implementation of
the new or duplicate process.
d) Determining the motivation to choose areas of the educational process is the rationale for including or ex-
cluding other areas.
e) Identifying the next steps in the roadmap structure. Roadmaps contain specific practice areas. After the first
improvement cycle, the organization can determine the path of future progress by identifying another road-
map or by placing an additional set of areas of the process. In the following, some possible next steps are
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DOI: 10.26855/er.2021.03.005 60 The Educational Review, USA
Figure 1. The pillars of the education strategy.
4.1 Roadmap for the proposed project
a) Purpose: The roadmap project aims to control development and improvement projects. The educational in-
stitutions choose a roadmap for the development project. It ensures that each project meets development ob-
jectivesrequirements, estimating the time and effort in planning, development, improvement, and monitor-
ing. The roadmap is intending for institutions facing problems such as poor planning and management of de-
velopment projects. It does not have clear areas, requirements, limited participation of involved stakeholders,
and failure to assess progress in the project outcomes (e.g., projects experiencing a backlog of issues and a
continuous advance of the scope of operations, or budget overruns, or delays in completion dates for achiev-
ing final goals).
b) Potential beneficiaries: This roadmap is used by organizations whose work is generally implemented within
development projects. The success of these enterprises depends heavily on their ability to control projects.
Examples of these organizations are software design centers needed to implement projects for customers. An
enterprise software department consists of projects such as the development of software tools for internal
c) Project planning: The areas of operation in the proposed roadmap help create and maintain plans that define
project activities.
d) Project Monitoring and Control: The proposed roadmap helps understand the projects progress and
achievement. The appropriate corrective action can be taken if the project's performance deviates significant-
ly from the plan.
e) Requirements Management: Helps manage project output requirements and set objectives and identify con-
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tradictions between those requirements, project plans, and business management. It requires creating confi-
guration management to maintain the integrity of selected work outputs using the configuration definition,
control, accounting, and audit.
f) Ensuring the quality of outcomes: The areas of operations help to provide teachers, staff, administrators,
and administrators with an objective view of the educational processes that are defined, published, and related
work outcomes.
4.2 The rationale for inserting or excluding operations areas
The five areas of operations mentioned for primary control of project execution help improve the organizations plan,
control projects, and ensure that it focuses on specific requirements. It includes adding areas of the educational process
and providing the quality of outputs to improve operations. This roadmap also overlaps part of the process of phased
capacity maturity. When applying maturity software, integrated project management and risk management areas have
not included in the roadmap. They are helpful only when implementing functional areas for project planning, monitor-
ing, and control. The areas of measurement and analysis can be an excellent addition to the roadmap, improving the
ability to measure expected outcomes, improving project delivery control.
Table 1. The activities and description of the operational research model
Activity Description
Operation The activities carried out in an organization.
Research The process of observation and testing characterized by the scientific method. The situation, problem
statement, model construction, validation, experimentation, candidate solutions.
Mode An abstract representation of reality.
Systems Approach Include expectations of the decision-making process during the analysis phase. Factors of quantity
and quality are taken into consideration.
Optimal Solution The best solution provided in the model.
Team A group of people who find solutions for the problem using different skills.
Operations Research
Techniques A collection of mathematical and logical methods.
Figure 2. The implementation steps of the operation research study.
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Figure 3. How to use the roadmap.
4.3 To determine the next possible steps
After completing the roadmap, the organization may choose to apply another roadmap, depending on its problems
and objectives. No roadmap is inherently preferable to any other plan after its implementation. The next possible step is
to implement areas of measurement and analysis. In implementing the development process areas, the organization im-
proves its control over projects and reaches a higher maturity level. It is also possible to raise the project control level to
a higher level by implementing integrated project management and risk management.
Table 2. The definition and description of the operations research models
S. No. Function Definition and Description
1 Linear programming It consists of a single objective function, representing a set of constraints that
circumscribe the decision variables.
2 Network flow programming It is a particular case of the more general linear program.
3 Integer programming It is concerned with optimization problems in which some of the school va-
riables are required to take on discrete values.
4 Nonlinear programming It is a nonlinear characteristic of the school objective function or constraints.
5 Dynamic programming It is a different method that describes a process in terms of states, decisions,
transitions, and returns.
6 Stochastic programming It is a model, generally neglecting the effects of uncertainty and assumes that
the results of decisions are predictable and deterministic.
7 Combinatorial optimization It is a type of optimization problem and computes measures of effectiveness.
8 Stochastic processes These processes describe the current situation in which the education system
can be found.
9 Discrete-time Markov chains It is a probability matrix describing each of the educational activities in the
one-time interval.
10 Continuous-Time Markov Chains It is a process that satisfies the Markovian property.
11 Queuing It is a model that has probabilistic arrival and service patterns.
12 Simulation It is a technique for estimating statistical measures of complex systems.
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5. Roadmap design
a) Purpose: Producing a practical roadmap develops learning and learning outcomes that meet societys needs
and improve education quality. States and institutions that choose to establish a roadmap usually wish to im-
prove their education quality, reduce problems associated with mismanagement, increase mismanagement
and maximize errors in educational process inputs, inefficient or inadequate designs, or ineffective applica-
tions to satisfy the benefits. This roadmap is intended for institutions facing problems such as societys dissa-
tisfaction with educational outcomes, many flaws in development projects too late in the projects life cycle,
and failure to achieve the desired goals.
b) Potential beneficiaries: They can use the roadmap to develop education in countries or institutions that want
to overcome spending problems and lack real-quality teaching and learning outcomes. It is done by identify-
ing organizationssuccess that uses a clear roadmap by achieving quality goals.
c) Practical areas to achieve goals and solve problems: Following practical areas must be implemented to
solve the above issues fulfilling the community requirements to analyze and stabilize the community re-
d) Management requirements: Requirements management is linked to project outcomes and components of
the educational process and identifies contradictions between conditions, project plans, and business out-
e) Technical solutions: help in identifying, designing, developing, and also implementing solutions for re-
quirements. They include designs and applications for learning outputs and components as needed.
f) Configuration Management: Helps establish and maintain the integrity of selected work outputs using the
configuration definition and control by following accounting and auditing procedures.
g) Verification: Helps ensure that specific requirements meet work outcomes.
h) The process of ensuring the quality of education: The areas of operations in the roadmap help to provide
teachers, staff, and administrators with an objective view of the processes that are defined, deployed, and re-
lated work outcomes.
5.1 The rationale for including or excluding the area of operations
As mentioned earlier, the practice areas help effectively develop outcomes and improve teaching and learning quality.
It helps organizations acquire and manage requirements, protect and safety of business outcomes, and ensure that results
meet all needs. It also includes the addition of areas of the educational process and quality assurance using improved
techniques. At this stage, the data validation process areas are initially excluded because of their focus on building the
right outputs. However, the verification process areas are initially more critical for successful outcomes development
and are included in the roadmap drawn up accordingly.
5.2 Possible next steps
After completing the roadmap, States and educational institutions can implement one of the proposed roadmaps ac-
cording to their problems and objectives.
6. Develop an integrated roadmap
a) The purpose: The integrative roadmap aims to control the integration process and ensure that the public system
meets its requirements. Organizations do not usually develop the same components; instead, a network of acquired
branches is compiled. Organizations typically want to choose an appropriate integrative roadmap that achieves the
Control of the integration process.
The sequence of integration, or the quality of education outcomes.
Integrate individual components into a coherent system.
Ensure that public order (assembly) achieves quality goals that suit the needs of the community.
Right choice and qualification.
This roadmap is intended for organizations facing problems such as:
Poor coordination.
Cooperation between different departments.
Lack of control over the integration process.
Lack of an integrated vision which affect the outputs and the intended environments needs.
b) Potential beneficiaries: Design an integrated roadmap for those organizations that do not perform basic develop-
ment tasks (design, programming, institutional unit testing, etc.) for critical parts of the system but sub-output and
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sub-components of other organizations.
Determine the requirements for each operation.
Identify the structure of the overall education system, including system interfaces, as the most crucial topic.
Assemble the essential components.
Ensure that the entire systems and functions are following the requirements.
Follow-up the performance of program management on different development projects.
Ensure that the acquired components are of sufficient quality before delivery.
c) Practical areas: The following practical areas must be implemented to achieve the goals and solve the above
The roadmap processesrequirements: help the areas of the roadmap areas to analyze customer and prod-
uct requirements. The output components training management helps the areas of operations for the roadmap
create and maintain the work outputsintegrity (such as the projects outputs) using the definition and control
by following accounting and auditing procedures.
Technical solutions: help the areas of operations of the roadmap in designing, developing, and implementing
solutions for requirements. Solutions, designs, and applications include outputs and components of education,
both individually and collectively, as needed.
Output integration: helps the process areas of the roadmap to group outputs from crucial components and
ensures that the outcomes are integrated and work properly.
Verification: helps the areas of the roadmaps educational processes to validate proof that outcomes meet
community needs.
6.1 The rationale for inserting or excluding process areas
The areas before the core processes control the integration process of the education system. It supports institutions in
developing their education requirements, including:
Merge outputs correctly.
Management efficiency.
Ensure that the outcomes meet the needs of the community.
It should be noted that the first and second objectives are most relevant to the roadmap. The third specific goal is an
upgraded output component hub. Technical management process areas may be included, depending on what the project
needs to evaluate and implement technical solutions before integration. Organizations must consist of the following
Ensure the quality of outputs for other risks.
Ensure that the requirements are met to achieve the expected output sought from the project.
6.2 Possible next steps
Once the roadmap is completed, the organization can implement other roadmaps for a project or measurement
process. Implementing a roadmap for output will not be the first option. This roadmap targets organizations with a
greater internal focus on development, while an integrated roadmap targets organizations that need to focus more in-
tensely on output integration. Organizations can also determine their improvement path after completing the integrated
roadmap by selecting areas of operations that best meet their improvement objectives.
7. Roadmap operations
a) Purpose: The purpose of the roadmap processes is to develop the capability to identify, implement and improve a
range of structured methodologies. It can create a basis for process analysis, operations execution, or other road-
maps. Organizations that choose roadmap operations usually want to achieve the following objectives:
Identify and analyze current processes.
Improve existing processes.
Identify processes and link them to the needs and priorities of the organization.
Consolidation of institutional processes.
Identify a basic set of processes as the basis for continuous improvement.
Develop a clear set of requirements for the quality system in the organization.
Identify processes that comply with applicable regulations, such as ISO 9000.
This roadmap is intended for organizations with problems such as:
Missing a clear understanding of development processes.
Control of development processes.
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Difficulties in managing the educational process.
Limited provision for operations under development.
Teachers and administrators who do not work together well within the institution.
Difficulties in identifying and improving problems in development processes.
b) Potential beneficiaries: The government or educational institutions use this roadmap, which uses complex
processes due to its size, complexity, and projects. The success of organizations using roadmap processes is de-
termined by the degree to which they control their operations. Examples of these institutions are:
Software production centers and founders.
Organizations that build complex systems or operate in a complex environment.
Institutions that contribute to many different disciplines in the fields of development.
Institutions that have the competencies and knowledge necessary to perform tasks are unclear.
c) Areas of operations: The following areas must be implemented to achieve the goals:
Focusing on organizational processes: It helps the areas of the roadmap process to plan, implement, and
deploy organizational process improvements based on a comprehensive understanding of its operations and
assetscurrent strengths and weaknesses.
Definition of the organizational process: Defining and maintaining a usable set of organizational process
assets and standards of the corporate process helps the areas of the process in the roadmap to create and
maintain a functional set of organizational process assets and standards.
Measurement and analysis: Measurement and analysis help the areas of process in the roadmap develop
and sustain the measurement capability used to support information management needs.
Causality analysis and decision-making: The processs area in the roadmap helps identify the causes of
defects and other problems and prevent them from occurring in the future.
The process and ensure the quality of education: The process and ensuring the quality of education helps
the processs areas in the roadmap to provide teachers, staff, and administrators with an objective view of the
defined, published, and associated outputs.
7.1 The rationale for including or excluding areas of operations
As mentioned earlier, the processs areas provide a basis for identifying, implementing, and improving operations in
the organization and identifying the causes of problems. Measuring the organization's achievements also provides a
more profound understanding necessary to improve development and ensure improved process outputs. The decision
analysis process areas will be an excellent addition to the roadmap as they enhance the assessment of processes and how
decision-making is analyzed.
7.2 Possible next steps
The next step after completing the roadmap depends on the institutions assessment of the educational processs
strengths and weaknesses. If decisions that require greater effectiveness, objectivity, and control over expenditures are
taken, the institution can carry out decision analysis. The next step is to implement another roadmap. There is no road-
map inherently on another. Organizations can determine their improvement path after implementing the roadmap by
selecting areas that best achieve their improvement objectives. Furthermore, choosing specific operational areas to
higher capacity levels is a good option for improving the roadmap areas.
8. Measuring the roadmap
a) Purpose: The purpose of measuring the roadmap is to identify and measure improvements based on quantitative
information. The roadmap could create a quantitative basis for improving the process and involve institutions
identifying improvements based on quantitative data. As follows:
Quantification to improve performance,
Identify and select improvements based on quantitative information.
The ability to show the results of process improvements quantitatively.
Identify the most crucial performance indicators of the organization.
This roadmap is intended for organizations facing problems such as:
Lack of quantitative information on management needed to understand performance in the organization.
Identification and selection of improvement activities based on insufficient quantitative information.
The management teams doubts about the contribution of improving the process to the organization's perfor-
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The need to use quantitative data to show the added value of practical improvements. Excessive error in the
measurement system is one of the main challenges to successfully applying the analyses described in the ca-
pability maturity model practices.
b) Potential recipients: This roadmap is used by organizations that want to start managing their quantitative im-
provements. Also be used in institutions where the management team questions the added value to improve the
educational process. Furthermore, it may be a good option to implement the measurement roadmap in the context
of a broader improvement initiative using the operational research mathematical model.
c) Areas of operations: The following areas of operations must be implemented to achieve the above goals and
Measurement and analysis: Developing and sustaining the measurement capability used to support adminis-
trative informatics needs.
Focus on organizational processes: Planning, implementing, and deploying organizational process improve-
ments based on a comprehensive understanding of its operations and assetscurrent strengths and weak-
Decision-making analysis: Analysis of potential decision-making using a graph that evaluates identified al-
ternatives following specific criteria.
The process of ensuring the quality of education: provide teachers, staff, and administrators with an objective
view of the processes that are defined, published, and related work outcomes.
8.1 The rationale for including or excluding the area of operations
As mentioned earlier of operation, the four areas provide a basis for identifying, implementing, and using a mea-
surement and decision-making program and improving processes based on quantitative information, and demonstrating
the quantitative benefits of process improvements. The areas of causal analysis and resolution could be an excellent
addition to the proposed roadmap. Causal analysis and treatment help organizations choose improvements based not
only on quantitative information but also on causal analysis of existing defects and problems.
8.2 Possible next steps
The next steps after the completion of the first roadmap are:
How severe the results are.
Determine the costs of failure or show the most significant needed variables.
The decision to implement different roadmaps depends on the results and success of implementing the first
Improve analysis and improvement by implementing and addressing areas of causal analysis.
Organizations can also determine their improvement path after completing the measurement roadmap by selecting
areas of operations that best achieve their improvement goals.
9. Roadmap Planning Steps
The roadmap planning consists of four steps as follows:
A. Implementation phases
1. Determining the stage (defining the objectives of the project and identifying the final internal and external
Identifying customers and requirements
Setting out the problem, objectives, and benefits
Selecting team
Identifying resources
Evaluating the critical organizational support
Developing a plan and project milestones
Developing a high-level operational plan
2. Measurement phase (current performance determination and problem identification)
Identifying defects, opportunity, and the unit of metrics
Developing a detailed practical map of areas suitable for development
Developing a data collection plan
Validating the measurement system
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Collecting data
Determining the base line of the operational capability model
3. Analysis phase (analysis and identification of the root cause of system defects)
Setting performance targets
Determining the value-added in practical steps
Identifying sources of variance
Identifying the root cause
4. Improvement phase (improving the process by eliminating defects)
Testing design performance
Developing potential solutions
Identifying operational variations of a possible system
Assessing the failure situations for potential solutions
Validating the potential improvement through empirical studies
Correcting/reevaluating the potential solutions
5. Control phase (control of the performance of future operations)
Identifying and validating the control system
Setting standards and procedures
Implementing the statistical operations monitoring
Determining the capability of the operation
Developing a plan for the transfer and delivery of outputs to stakeholders
Checking the interest, save on costs, and grow profits
Completing the project and finalizing the documents and final reports
The proposed models can be used to develop the education system by rationalizing the damage and reducing errors. It
allows institutions to eliminate problems, obstacles and improve the teaching and learning process.
B. Beneficiaries in the education sector
The model focuses attention on the ultimate beneficiary of the teaching and learning process; in this regard, can you
treat educational institutions as a technology manufacturing company? And apply the same rules? In this model, educa-
tion inputs and outputs can be treated in the same way as we do with production plants, depending on customersneeds.
But the educational people are:
Graduates and future employees.
Inter-institutional departments.
We must remember that we do not add value to the education system if we cannot meet these customersneeds. In-
stead, we create a waste of effort, time, and resources.
It is worth noting that the loss in the education sector is similar. Here are some examples of this missing:
Unvalued tasks detract from the primary objectives of the educational institution.
Carry out flawed educational projects.
Unnecessary projects have little or no relevance.
Not to take advantage of the talent.
Failure to make the most of the skills and ideas of teachers, faculty, and young researchers.
Spend mysterious times and lose effort in some tasks.
Different or conflicting objectives and directives
In this study, we propose to use educational, operational research models significantly in the field of education de-
velopment as follows:
1) Focusing on customers is one of the core themes of the model.
2) Studying the process research at all educational hubs and at various stages to understand clientsneeds (in-
ternal and external).
3) Do not repeat the provision of educational services and carry out operations that have no added value.
4) Managing is data-driven.
M. A. Zaki Ewiss
DOI: 10.26855/er.2021.03.005 68 The Educational Review, USA
5) Providing all information about the education sector.
6) The development of education requires attention to using, managing, and collecting data like any other gov-
ernment area, as strong management enables the excellent application of the proposed model.
7) The education sector always aims to improve continuously, to achieve the best results for students, teachers,
and educational institutions themselves.
8) One of the key features is to focus on identifying key production processes and their problems so that im-
provements can be developed and problems solved without producing lost ones.
9) The tools mainly depend on active management based on strong team collaboration to achieve the most im-
pressive results.
10) Motivating teachers and faculty members to achieve the best results.
11) Having an ill-considered mentality only leads to excuses, mistakes, and waste.
12) The quest for perfection.
13) Continuous improvement is the bar we should strive for it.
14) Developing a culture of continuous improvement in society.
15) Using minimum resources (people, materials, and capital) to find solutions to education issues.
16) Increasing speed in performance and reduce the incidence of errors.
17) Focusing on improving the quality of education outcomes.
18) Working to remove anything in the process that does not add value.
19) Eliminating various forms of lost activities or steps that are not added.
C. Cause-and-effect analysis
The plan is used:
1) To identify and explore the possible causes of a problem and its root.
2) During brainstorming exercises.
3) It may range and include human resources, machinery, methods, materials, etc.
D. Visual management
This tool is a powerful tool because it helps a person understand priorities and communicate by selecting the perfor-
mance metrics.
10. Conclusion
In this paper, we proposed a roadmap for education development in developing countries. Its outcomes aim to im-
prove the quality education and use its data to track progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG 4)
(UNESCO, 2015; UNESCO, 2018). In conclusion, the proposed education modeling roadmap can be considered a tool
that provides Governments and donors with information that helps strengthen countriescapacity to plan and manage
their education systems for a better future. The roadmap for the reopening of schools and universities contains six vital
elements as follows:
Continuous assessment of health risks following the rules and guidelines of national and international health
Reviewing the feasibility of completing study programs remotely or online.
Collecting data and educational research on education strategies at all levels.
Studying the implications of closing schools and universities, especially the outcomes of quality education.
Adhering to educational, ethical rules and supporting equality among students.
Establish binding social controls and respecting all rights for all groups of teachers, students, administrators,
parents and others.
This research is part of the project entitled Cairo University proposal to develop education in developing countries
in the Egyptian context. The financial support of Cairo University is acknowledged.
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... Likewise, the process of compiling the community service roadmap of the Faculty of Education is in line with the opinion, which states that the process of collecting the community service roadmap includes identifying, evaluating, and selecting strategic alternatives that can use to achieve the desired goals. The resulting roadmap is communicated to users [18]. ...
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Schools, skills, and learning: The impact of COVID-19 on education
  • S Burgess
  • H H Sievertsen
Burgess, S. and Sievertsen, H. H. (2020). Schools, skills, and learning: The impact of COVID-19 on education.