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TIMELINE OF THE EXODUS

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The Exodus of God's firstborn son YISRA'EL (Shemot 4:22) not only foreshadows the feasts of Passover, Firstfruits, and Pentecost, but also the vicarious work of the Messiah. From his entry into Jerusalem until the outpouring of the Spirit, the Exodus mirrors Yeshua's death, resurrection, and ascension.
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The 15th Nisan was a Thursday, the New Moon of Iyar was Shabbat, as Nisan is typically thirty days
long. And the New Moon of Sivan was on the 1st day of the week, as Iyar is typically twenty-nine
days long. (BT Shabbat 87b)
And the children of Israel traveled from Goshen and encamped in Succoth on the 15th day of the
1st month. (Jash 81:5)
In an instant, Israel traveled from Rameses to Succoth, as per: “And I bore you on eagles’ wings.”
(Exod 12:35, Mekhilta)
On the third day they came to a place called Beelzephon, on the Red Sea. (Josephus, Ant. 2.15.1)
After traversing a wide space, the Hebrews came on the third day to the Red Sea.
(Eusebius, Praep. Ev. 9.27.34)
TIMELINE OF THE EXODUS
Sat
Sun
Mon
Tue
Wed
Thu
Fri
Sat
Sun
Mon
Tue
Wed
10 Nisan
11 Nisan
12 Nisan
13 Nisan
14 Nisan
15 Nisan
16 Nisan
17 Nisan
18 Nisan
19 Nisan
20 Nisan
21 Nisan
Lamb
Chosen
Goshen
(Approaching)
Lamb
Slaughtered
Succoth
(Booths)
Etham
(Enduring)
Pi-Hahirot
(Freedom)
Red Sea
Crossing
Wandering
Marah
(Bitter)
Approval
Egypt
Pesach
Carried on Eagles’ Wings
Bikkurim
Wilderness of Etham
P r a i s e
S u f f e r i n g
B l o o d
E a t i n g t h e U n l e a v e n e d B r e a d o f A f f l i c t i o n
Entry into
Jerusalem
Unrighteousness
Messiah
Crucified
Sign of Jonah
(72 hours)
Resurrection
(Rebirth)
Testing
Green Tree
(Sweet)
Sat
Sun
Mon
Tue
Wed
Thu
Fri
Sat
Sun
Mon
Tue
Wed
Thu
Fri
15 Iyar
16 Iyar
17 Iyar
18 Iyar
19 Iyar
20 Iyar
21 Iyar
22 Iyar
23 Iyar
24 Iyar
25 Iyar
26 Iyar
27 Iyar
28 Iyar
Quails
1st Manna
2nd Manna
3rd Manna
4th Manna
5th Manna
6th Manna
Sabbath
Ropheka
(Healer)
Alush
(Multitude)
Water
(Promise)
Hilltop
(Elevation)
Jethro
(Visit)
Judgment
(Delegation)
Wilderness of Sin
Rephidim
F l e s h
E a t i n g t h e B r e a d o f A n g e l s
Weakness
Bread of Life
New Covenant
(Confirmation)
Spirit
(Promise)
Authority
(Ascension)
Gentiles
(Salvation)
Torah
(Teaching)
Sat
Sun
Mon
Tue
Wed
Thu
Fri
29 Iyar
1 Sivan
2 Sivan
3 Sivan
4 Sivan
5 Sivan
6 Sivan
Ascent
Mt. Sinai
1st Message
2nd Message
3rd Message
Boundaries
Torah
Wilderness of Sinai
Shavuot
E a t i n g t h e B r e a d o f A n g e l s
S p i r i t
Pilgrimage
Power to
Keep Torah
Timeline of the Exodus
i
NOTES
GENERAL CHRONOLOGY
The Exodus of G-d’s firstborn son Israel not only foreshadows the feasts of Passover, Firstfruits, and Pentecost, but also the vicarious work of
the Messiah. From his entry into Jerusalem until the outpouring of the Spirit, the Exodus mirrors Yeshua’s death, resurrection, and ascension.
While the sources agree that the Torah was given 50 days after Israel’s exit from Goshen, we must retain that the Exodus is a shadow. How
to correctly determine the date of Shavuot was only revealed at Mount Sinai [note: as typified by the parting of Yam Suph and Yeshua’s wave offering, the
omer count starts after the weekly Sabbath, not after the High Sabbath as Judaism teaches].
The Babylonian Talmud informs us about the months of the Exodus:
The 15th Nisan was a Thursday, the New Moon of Iyar was Shabbat, as Nisan is typically thirty days long. And the New Moon of Sivan was on the first day of
the week, as Iyar is typically twenty-nine days long. (BT Shabbat 87b)
PRIOR TO THE CROSSING OF YAM SUPH
Scripture informs us that Israel traveled for several days from Yam Suph to Marah. What about Goshen-Succoth, Succoth-Etham, and Etham-
Yam Suph? Why would Scripture not also tell us that each of these trips lasted for several days if that was the case? The reason seems apparent:
simply because they did not last several days; these were day trips.
Israel’s travel narrative after Mt. Sinai, when she carried the ark and had to set up the tabernacle, cannot serve as a pattern for her travel habits
prior to Mt. Sinai. The Book of Jasher says, the Hebrews left Goshen on 15th Aviv and arrived on the same day in Succoth, which was a Thursday:
The exodus took place on a Thursday. L. Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews, vol. 3 (Philadelphia, 1911), 10.
And the children of Israel travelled from Goshen and encamped in Succoth on the fifteenth day of the first month. (Jash 81:5)
In an instant, Israel traveled from Rameses to Succoth, as per: “And I bore you on eagles’ wings.” (Exod 12:35, Mekhilta d’Rabbi Yishmael)
G-d did not employ the metaphor to sound poetic but to convey swiftness and safeguarding [note: at times, eagles let their young drop from a nest, and
if the latter struggle, the mother swoops down under them and carries them home on her wings. In horizontal flight, an eagle can travel up to 70 mph].
Timeline of the Exodus
ii
Figure 1: Exodus Route | Num 33:515
50 miles
Goshen
Nuweiba
Sukkot
Etham
Mt. Sinai
Timeline of the Exodus
iii
G-d carried Israel in three days to Yam Suph to foreshadow the resurrection of His firstborn Son; that was the spot where He wanted Pharaoh
to be after three days. On 16th Aviv, the Hebrews traveled from Succoth to Etham, because we read:
After traversing a wide space [the Hebrews] came on the third day to the Red Sea. (Eusebius, Praep. Ev. 9.27.34)
Many of the heathen joined them in their departure from Egypt and in their journey of three days in the wilderness [across the Sinai Peninsula]. M. Gaster, The
Chronicles of Jerahmeel or The Hebrew Bible Historiale (London, 1899), 127.
There was a reason why G-d told Moshe to only ask permission for a 3-day trip into the desert (Exod 3:18; 5:3; 8:27):
For he [G-d] knew before what they would do; how that having given them leave to depart, and sent them hastily away, they would repent and pursue them
(on the third day, to prevent The Salvation of the Lord; Sirach 19:12)
On the second day, Pharaoh was told that Israel would not return after three days (because otherwise she would have turned around after 1.5
days). The Hebrews’ route was likely observed from watchtowers and signalled to Memphis by employing mirrors; this is a viable option since
Egyptian technology was highly advanced.
And on the third day after the Egyptians had buried their first born, many men rose up from Egypt and went after Israel to make them return to Egypt, for
they repented that they had sent the Israelites away from their servitude. And one man said to his neighbor, Surely Moses and Aaron spoke to Pharaoh, saying,
We will go a three days’ journey in the wilderness and sacrifice to the Lord our G-d. Now therefore let us rise up early in the morning and cause them to return.
(Jash 81:810)
When the sun rose on the third day, Pharaoh marched out of Memphis. S. Baring-Gould, Legends of the Patriarchs and Prophets (New York, 1881), 285
Pharaoh “covered in one day the ground which it had taken the Israelites three to traverse. L. Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews, vol. 3 (Philadelphia, 1911), 12.
That no one can hike 90 miles a day is entirely irrelevant within the Exodus setting, and only our esteemed post-Enlightenment experts (who
are obsessed with finding rational solutions) would be foolish enough to sit down with a map and a calculator. G-d could have brought Is-
rael in one day to the Red Sea or in one minute such ability is commonly implied in omnipotence ; yet the time-plan demanded three days.
Covering long distances in a fraction of time is a common token of divine assistance (cf. Acts 8:3940; 1 Kgs 18:12; 2 Kgs 2:16; 2 Bar 6:3;
Ezek 8:3); the author has experienced this supernatural phenomenon himself.
Timeline of the Exodus
iv
Figure 2: Red Sea Crossing Site Nuweiba, Gulf of Aqaba (Egypt) | Exod 14:2
Timeline of the Exodus
v
A note on Baal Zephon: according to the following sources, it is on the Egyptian side; it is not Ash Sharaf or any other place in Midian:
The Hebrews went out of Egypt; on the third day they came to a place called Beelzephon, on the Red Sea. (Josephus, Ant. 2.15.1)
Israel was to encamp “between Migdol and the sea, before the idol Zephon, that is left of all the idols of Mizraim. For the Mizraee will say, More excellent is
Baal Zephon than all idols, because it is left, and not smitten; and therefore will they come to worship it, and will find that you are encamped nigh unto it, on
the border of the sea.” (Exod 14:2, Targum of Palestine)
Victory over Pharaoh means victory over the fallen cherub and a transfer from darkness to light, to wit, to G-d (note: in Rev 15:3, the redeemed
sing The Song of Moses and the Lamb).
[At the Red Sea] He saved them from the power of the adversary; he redeemed them from the power of the enemy. (Ps 106:10)
Israel was baptized into Moshe in the cloud and in the sea (1 Cor 10:2), and we are baptized into the Mashiach, thereby born of water and spirit,
the latter being also represented by wind and fire:
Don’t you know that those of us who have been immersed into the Messiah Yeshua have been immersed into his death? Through immersion into his death,
we were buried with him; so that just as through the glory of the Father the Messiah was raised from the dead, likewise we too might live a new life. For if we
have been united with him in a death like his, we will also be united with him in a resurrection like his. (Rom 6:35)
Ignoring these spiritual parallels while trying to reconstruct the Exodus route is the way of unregenerate man; it is a humanistic approach which
certainly leads to error.
THE CROSSING OF YAM SUPH
The waters of the Red Sea began to open on Saturday night at the end of the Sabbath, that is, on 17th Aviv “as it dawned towards the first day of the
week” (Mt 28:1). Yam Suph meant life for some, and a watery grave for others. One the one hand, it foreshadowed the opening of the tomb and
the Messiah’s resurrection (an event which in turn denotes rebirth through the Spirit). On the other hand, it typified the burial of the ‘old man,’
i.e. the removal of the sinful nature, or, in short: ‘death through water immersion.
Cutting away the old nature by the circumcision performed by the Messiah [during baptism]. We are buried with him through baptism into death (Col 2:11; Rom 6:4).
Timeline of the Exodus
vi
Figure 3: Route from the Red Sea to Mount Sinai | Num 33:815
Nuweiba
Marah
Elim
Rephidim
Mt. Sinai
5.0 miles
Timeline of the Exodus
vii
AFTER THE CROSSING OF YAM SUPH
While not explicitly stated in the narrative, it seems unlikely that the Hebrews left the coast right after the crossing. Egyptian corpses had been
cast onto the Midianite shore and, as per Josephus, Israel first collected the weapons:
The next day Moses gathered together the weapons of the Egyptians, which were brought to the camp of the Hebrews, by the current of the sea.
(Josephus, Ant. 2.16.6)
Israel crossed the Red Sea throughout the entire night, thus she would have set up camp and gone into the wilderness next day (note: it does
not affect the overall timing, even if we assume immediate departure). Various quotes regarding the subsequent stops:
They [the Hebrews] came late in the evening to a place called Marah. (Josephus, Ant. 3.1.1)
“And they came to Elim, and there they found twelve springs of water.” We are hereby apprised that it was specially favoured above all other places. Know this
to be so, for there were twelve springs there, which sufficed for only seventy palm trees; but when Israel came and sixty ten thousands encamped there, it
sufficed for them. (Exod 15:27, Mekhilta d’Rabbi Yishmael)
When Israel camped in the desert of Sin on 15th Iyar, it was likely not more than 10 miles from Maqna (‘Elim’), because quails came from the
sea that evening (cf. Num 11:31). Josephus portrays quails as a bird more plentiful in this Arabian Gulf than anywhere else, flying over the sea.” (Josephus,
Ant. 3.1.5).
Regarding the timing of the provision of manna, the Talmud states:
The Manna fell for them on the sixteenth day of Iyar, which was the first day of the week. (BT Shabbat 87b)
Israel left camp after one week and on the same day she reached Dophkah or Ropheka as per LXX. While we cannot know their exact location,
Ropheka must be in the desert of Sin, likely east of Al-Bad’, while Alush is some 10 miles further north near Wadi al-‘Ifal:
They proceeded to depart from the desert of Sin by stages [Ropheka, Alush] and camped at Rephidim. (Exod 17:1)
Timeline of the Exodus
viii
Figure 4: Rephidim | Exod 17:1
Timeline of the Exodus
ix
Given the fight with Amalek, the smiting of the rock, the building of the altar, plus Jethro’s visit and advice, Israel must have stayed for four
days at Rephidim. It was the 26th Iyar when living water gushed forth from the split rock, ten days before Shavuot. It foreshadowed Yeshua’s
promise of ‘Living Water’ ten days before Shavuot: the outpouring of the Ruach HaKodesh (Spirit of Holiness).
Moshe on a mountaintop and his prayer reaching the throne of G-d foreshadows the Messiah’s ascension from the Olivet.
Given the high seismic activity in the area, one cannot insist the topography was identical 3,500 years ago. Certain wadis may have been open
which would have shortened the final journey. The Talmud even proposes a 1-day trip from Rephidim to Mount Sinai:
They left Refidim and arrived and camped in the desert on the same Sunday. (BT Shabbat 87b)
That Sunday was the 1st Sivan:
In the third month of the Exodus of the sons of Israel from the land of Mizraim, on that day, the first of the month, came they to the desert; for they had
journeyed from Rephidim, and had come to the desert of Sinai; and Israel encamped there in the desert, of one heart, nigh to the mountain.
(Exod 19:12, Targum Palestine)
And on the 6th Sivan they received the Torah:
In the third month from the children of Israels departure from Egypt, on the sixth day thereof, the Lord gave to Israel the ten commandments on Mt Sinai.
(Jash 82:6)
On the 6th day of the month of Sivan, the Ten Commandments were given to the Jewish people. (BT Shabbat 86b)
A final remark on Exod 4:27, since it is frequently cited to undermine that “Sinai is a mountain in Arabia” (Gal 4:25): I doubt the slave Aharon
simply left Goshen after work, hiked 380 km to meet Moshe at Jabal Musa (the traditional Mt. Sinai), and then both walked back 380 km to meet
with the elders. Since Egypt has many gods (and likely some hills), םיהלאה רה ought to be rendered “hill of the gods” probably some dunghill on
Goshen’s eastern periphery.
Timeline of the Exodus
x
Appendix | THE WISE MEN FROM ARABIA
Circumstantial evidence of Mt. Sinai being in Midian may be gleaned from the fact that the magoi came from Arabia. Justin Martyr, writing in
150 CE, gives this location (Dial. 77, 78, 88, 102, 103, 106), which is also affirmed by Tertullian, Clement of Rome, and Tanakhic prophecy:
Caravans from Midian and Ephah will come to your light. The kings of Sheba will bring gifts of gold and frankincense and bow down before him. (Isa 60:3, 6;
Ps 72:1011, paraphrased | note: frankincense and myrrh are harvested from trees that only grow in southern Arabia).
Referencing Ps 72:17, the Talmud identifies the honored one as the Messiah:
Before the sun was, His name was Yinnon [‘will continue’]. (BT Sanhedrin 98b).
Moreover, a 4th-century Syriac version of the Protogospel of James states that the Magi were translated by the Spirit:
They set out from [Arabia] at cockcrow and at daybreak they entered Yerushalayim. E. Budge, The History of the Blessed Virgin Mary (London, 1899), 36.
Besides features such as the Green Tree (Marah), the Smitten Rock (Rephidim), or the Moses-like Prophet (Mt. Sinai), all of which are associated
with Arabia, the clearest type of Bethlehem’s Heavenly Bread is the bread that first fell from heaven in Midian.
The Messiahs birth, ministry, death, resurrection, and ascension were foreshadowed in Midian. Wise men from Arabia, i.e. Nabateans, seem
therefore more fitting than soothsayers from Babylon, the latter location being an emblem of idolatry throughout Scripture.
Timeline of the Exodus
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REFERENCES
Baring-Gould, Sabine. Legends of the Patriarchs and Prophets: And Other Old Testament Characters from Various Sources. New York: American
Book Exchange, 1881.
Budge, E. A. Wallis, ed. The History of the Blessed Virgin Mary and the History of the Likeness of Christ which the Jews of Tiberias Made to Mock at:
the Syriac Text Edited with English Translations. London: Luzac & Co, 1899.
Gaster, Moses, trans. The Chronicles of Jerahmeel or The Hebrew Bible Historiale: A Collection of Apocryphal and Pseudo-Epigraphical Books Dealing
with the History of the World from the Creation to the Death of Judas Maccabeus. London: Royal Asiatic Society, 1899.
Ginzberg, Louis. The Legends of the Jews. Vol. 3. Bible Times and Characters from the Exodus to the Death of Moses. Philadelphia: The Jewish
Publication Society of America, 1911.
ADDITIONAL IMPRESSIONS OF THE EXODUS ROUTE BELOW:
Timeline of the Exodus
xii
Figure 5: Canyon winding its way through Migdol (Copt. megtol ‘many hills’) 0.5 miles from Pi-Hahiroth, the ‘Mouth of Freedom’ (Egypt) | Exod 14:3
Timeline of the Exodus
xiii
Figure 6: Marah (Arab. Al-Malhah ‘the salty’) | Exod 15:23
Timeline of the Exodus
xiv
Figure 7: Elim with its twelve natural springs and seventy palm trees (Arab. Maqna ‘sufficiency’) | Exod 15:27
Timeline of the Exodus
xv
Figure 8: The Wilderness of Sin between Elim and Mount Sinai | Exod 16:136
Timeline of the Exodus
xvi
Figure 9: Remains of a mudbrick settlement in the Wilderness of Sin (20 miles southwest of Rephidim) peradventure Ropheka | Num 33:12
Timeline of the Exodus
xvii
Figure 10: Mount Sinai | Exod 19:2
Timeline of the Exodus
xviii
ADDITIONAL IMAGES OF THE RED SEA CROSSING SITE & MOUNT SINAI AT:
(PDF) THE RED SEA CROSSING A SELECTION OF IMAGES (researchgate.net)
(PDF) MOUNT SINAI A SELECTION OF IMAGES (researchgate.net)
www.hanotzrim.com
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Legends of the Patriarchs and Prophets: And Other Old Testament Characters from Various Sources
  • Sabine Baring-Gould
Baring-Gould, Sabine. Legends of the Patriarchs and Prophets: And Other Old Testament Characters from Various Sources. New York: American Book Exchange, 1881.
The Chronicles of Jerahmeel or The Hebrew Bible Historiale: A Collection of Apocryphal and Pseudo-Epigraphical Books Dealing with the History of the World from the Creation to the Death of Judas Maccabeus
  • Moses Gaster
Gaster, Moses, trans. The Chronicles of Jerahmeel or The Hebrew Bible Historiale: A Collection of Apocryphal and Pseudo-Epigraphical Books Dealing with the History of the World from the Creation to the Death of Judas Maccabeus. London: Royal Asiatic Society, 1899.
Bible Times and Characters from the Exodus to the Death of Moses
  • Louis Ginzberg
Ginzberg, Louis. The Legends of the Jews. Vol. 3. Bible Times and Characters from the Exodus to the Death of Moses. Philadelphia: The Jewish