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Quanta of Spacetime Explain Observations, Dark Energy, Graviton and Nonlocality

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Universe: Unified from Microcosm to Macrocosm: Series Volume 4 ISSN: 2629-1525 ISBN: 978-3-96831-008-4 Modern physics is based on two great concepts: general relativity theory, GRT and quantum theory, QT. However, effects faster than light are called nonlocal, and they seem to be impossible in nature and in GRT, while they occur in QT, this contrast is called EPR paradox. We solve it as follows: The curved spacetime in GRT corresponds to additionally forming vacuum. We calculate its volume, and we discover: It explains curvature of space as well as the expansion since the Big Bang. One half of that volume forms in a nonlocal manner: Thus nature and GRT are nonlocal and so no paradox remains. The formation of spacetime, however, is local. With it we combine GRT and QT: We derive the field theory, the quadrupole or spin 2 symmetry, the waves and the quanta of spacetime. These provide precise accordance to observation without any fit parameter, of course. The quanta of spacetime include the propagation and formation of vacuum. So they explain the dark energy and the time evolution of dark energy and structure, which in turn explains the discrepancy inherent to observed values of the Hubble constant H0 and of matter fluctuations sigma8. The quanta of spacetime include the quanta of gravitational interaction. So they explain the graviton by its symmetry, propagation, quantization and mechanism of interaction: Quanta of spacetime form, the resulting heterogeneity generates curvature, and this causes gravitational force. So the graviton is now understood in exceptionally deep detail! The quanta of spacetime in the visible universe are traced back to one single quantum at the Big Bang. At its space, there immediately formed many quanta of zero-point energies of radiation. Altogether the complete energy and mass of the visible universe is traced back to the Big Bang. The quanta of spacetime are invariant at Lorentz transformations and at all other linear transformations. These quanta solve many fundamental problems and explain various interesting systems, including black holes. We derive all results with a smooth progression, and we summarize our findings in 15 propositions and 34 theorems.
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... {2e} The gravitational fields caused by masses outside the ball cancel each other in the ball [8,59]. ...
... 10 The spacetime quadruple provides the rapid enlargement in the early universe (corresponding to the era of cosmic inflation), whereby no inflaton is used [58,71,72,[82][83][84][85][86][87][88][89]. 11 The spacetime quadruple provides the dark energy and its density ρ Λ [57][58][59]69,70,73,90,91]. This derivation shows how the density, time evolution and physical structure of dark energy are caused by the dynamics of gravity, special relativity and the equivalence principle. ...
... This derivation shows how the density, time evolution and physical structure of dark energy are caused by the dynamics of gravity, special relativity and the equivalence principle. 12 The spacetime quadruple provides an explanation of the H 0 tension and of the local value [29] inflaton [47,58,73], all cosmological parameters have been derived [69], the dark energy and the Hubble tension have been explained [58,59,70,72,73,91] and fundamental forces have been explained [75,80]. So, the postulates identified here provide a large field of applications. ...
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In general relativity, space exhibits curvature: Local curvature can be described by the Schwarzschild metric, SM. A global curvature that can take any value is inherent to the Friedmann Lemaître equation, FLE. However, observations show that the global curvature is zero. That shortcoming of the FLE has been named flatness problem. In this paper, we unify the local SM and the global FLE, and thereby we solve the flatness problem. Moreover, applications of that solution are outlined.
... In this section, we propose a founded sufficient condition for physical reality, see e. g. Carmesin (2021d). ...
... Accordingly, we name that gravity generalized Gaussian gravity, GG, as Gaussian gravity exhibits the same law. The present gravity is more general, as it provides curvature of space, in addition, see e. g. Carmesin (2021d). ...
... This derived global flatness is universal, as it does not depend on the composition of the objects contained in space. We summarize our finding, see also Carmesin (2021d): ...
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Present-day physics is based on two fundamental theories: General relativity including gravity describes spacetime. Quantum physics describes minimal portions occurring in nature. However, we live in one world. Now, we unify these theories! For it, we start with four basic physical principles, each founded by observation and by thought experiment, independently. These principles essentially are special relativity, the equivalence principle, Gaussian gravity and the fact that vacuum is an entity, the dynamics of which can be derived from the other three principles. Using these principles, we derive the postulates of quantum physics, and, in a semiclassical limit, we derive general relativity. Using our unification, we provide a solution of the EPR – paradox: In general relativity, the velocity of light is the highest velocity. In contrast, correlations among so-called entangled quanta can spread faster than light. Now, our unification implies that correlations among entangled quanta can spread faster than light. Moreover, our unification implies a list of solutions of fundamental problems. For instance, our unification implies dark energy, the density of the vacuum observed in cosmology. Furthermore, we provide several tests of our unification. Our results are in precise accordance with observation, whereby we do not apply any fit, of course. On the basis of the four basic physical principles, we derive our results explicitly. So, every interested reader can derive all results on her or his own. Thus, readers are enabled to apply a full self-control of the unification. Thereby, you can achieve a high level of founded independent thinking and deciding. In this manner, you can gain many insights about nature, and you can develop your self-esteem.
... Basically, the dynamics of vacuum have been derived from fundamental physical principles including quantum physics, see e. g. Carmesin (2017Carmesin ( , 2018aCarmesin ( , b, 2019aCarmesin ( , 2021a. Moreover, quantum physics has been derived from gravity and special relativity only (Carmesin 2022a). ...
... Carmesin (2021a, f). Basically, vacuum dynamics describes the formation of space, moreover, it describes the formation of matter as well as the formation of elementary charges, couplings and of fundamental interactions, see Carmesin (2021aCarmesin ( -f, 2022b. Basically, the dynamics of vacuum describes the rate of expansion of space since the Big Bang, including the Hubble constant H0. ...
... Furthermore, vacuum dynamics describes the Hubble tension and the era of inflation (Carmesin 2021a-c). Vacuum dynamics describes the propagation of the gravitational interaction, see Carmesin (2021a). Basically, vacuum dynamics describe the formation and propagation of vacuum at a far distance of a possible black hole with a Schwarzschild radius RS, RS/R>>1. ...
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Matter is an essential concept. Indeed, also fundamental interactions can be transmitted by ele-mentary particles with mass. This fact had become a problem, as the usual principles of least ac-tion and gauge invariance predicted particles of interaction without mass. That problem has been solved by the proposed Higgs mechanism: vacuum exhibits a phase transition that forms mass. However, that mechanism does not provide answers for essential questions: By what mechanism can vacuum generate mass? What spectrum does the vacuum provide in the process of generat-ing mass? Here, my theory of vacuum is presented. That theory provides all parameters of the standard model of cosmology, and that theory provides answers to the above two questions. In this paper, I analyse the didactical perspective of the topic, including the Higgs mechanism as well as the dynamics and spectrum of vacuum. I tested that topic in two learning groups: a research club for classes 8 to 13 and a general studies course at the university Bremen. I report about the experience with the use of the topic in the two learning groups. The paper has been published in PhyDid B
... Thereby, these transitions occur naturally at high density in the early universe (see e. g. Carmesin, 2017Carmesin, , 2019aCarmesin, , 2021a. Accordingly, the student's interest in the era of 'cosmic inflation' and in dimensional phase transitions is founded. ...
... In that framework of quantum gravity, physical systems range from small size at the Planck length = 1.616 ⋅ 10 −35 m to the present-day light horizon at Rlh = 4.1•10 26 m. Moreover, the Planck density ρP = 5.155•10 96 kg/m 3 cannot be exceeded in nature (Carmesin 2021a). Naturally, in a comprehensive physical system, the Planck length can be achieved. ...
... In this section, we apply the droplet model to dimensional phase transitions in the early universe. Thereby, we often use Planck units, and we mark these by a tilde (Carmesin 2019a(Carmesin , 2021a. In our droplet model, a droplet represents a ball in D dimensional space, see Fig. (2). ...
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The continuous expansion of space since the Big Bang has been a great discovery of mankind. However, that continuous expansion is incomplete, as it fails to describe the physics at very high density and high energy of radiation quanta. In this paper, we provide a solution of that incom-pleteness problem by developing and analyzing a droplet model: Droplets of a dimension form and grow, as soon as the density falls below a corresponding critical density. At that dimensional phase transition, the light horizon increases in an extremely rapid manner. As a consequence, the horizon problem is solved. The paper has been published in PhyDid B
... Basically, the dynamics of vacuum have been derived from fundamental physical principles including quantum physics, see e. g. Carmesin (2017Carmesin ( , 2018aCarmesin ( , b, 2019aCarmesin ( , 2021a, moreover, quantum physics has been derived from gravity and special relativity only (Carmesin 2022a). In particular, vacuum dynamics provides various results: Basically, the dynamics of vacuum describe the following: three-dimensional vacuum, and more generally higher dimensional vacuum, see e. g. ...
... Carmesin (2021a, f). Basically, vacuum dynamics describe the formation of space, and more generally the formation of matter as well as the formation of elementary charges, couplings and of fundamental interactions, see Carmesin (2021aCarmesin ( -f, 2022b. Basically, the dynamics of vacuum describe the rate of expansion of space since the Big Bang, including the Hubble constant H0, and more generally the Hubble tension and the era of inflation (Carmesin 2021a-c). ...
... Basically, the dynamics of vacuum describe the rate of expansion of space since the Big Bang, including the Hubble constant H0, and more generally the Hubble tension and the era of inflation (Carmesin 2021a-c). Vacuum dynamics describe the propagation of the gravitational interaction, see Carmesin (2021a). Basically, vacuum dynamics describe the formation and propagation of vacuum at a far distance of a possible black hole with a Schwarzschild radius RS, RS/R>>1, and more generally the formation and propagation of vacuum in the vicinity of a black hole Carmesin (2022a, Eq. 3.250-3.252). ...
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Quantum physics is very successful in describing nature and developing technology. However, quantum physics has not yet been really understood. Instead, quantization procedures and postulates had been proposed without derivation from more general physics. Now, quantum physics has been derived as a natural consequence of the dynamics of vacuum. These dynamics, in turn, have been derived from gravity and relativity. Thus, quantum physics is a natural consequence of gravity and relativity. In this paper, I analyse the didactical perspective of the topic. For it, I derive the dynamics of the vacuum, and there from, I derive quantum physics. On that basis, I propose a didactical concept for a course of quantum physics. I tested that concept in two learning groups: a research club for classes 8 to 13 and a general studies course at the university Bremen. I report about the experience with the use of that concept in the two learning groups. The paper has been published in PhyDid B
... These transitions have been founded physically by gravity and relativity. In particular, four very general and very different and mutually independent models have been used [10,15,16,17]. Here, we provide a geometric derivation additionally, see section IV. ...
... Furthermore, we propose physically founded zero-point oscillations, ZPOs, that represent the vacuum [12,15,16,20,21]. Hereby, we derive geometric properties of these ZPOs, such as directions of propagation and elongation, see section VIII. ...
... Thereby, we execute no fit, and our theoretical density is within the errors of measurement, see figure (4). Note that this density has been derived alternatively by the dynamics of the vacuum, which has been represented by a differential equation, whereby that dynamics additionally represents the Schrödinger equation and quantum physics [12,16,36,37]. ...
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In our universe, distances have increased since the Big Bang. This is directly indicated by the redshift of distant galaxies or of the cosmic microwave background. Usually, that increase of distances is explained by a continuous expansion of space according to general relativity. However, that explanation is very incomplete. This is indicated by the era of cosmic 'inflation'. In addition, the explanation of that era by the standard model of cosmology is hypothetic, problematic and not based on a fundamental concept. In contrast, the era of cosmic 'inflation' is derived and explained by physically founded phase transitions by a discontinuous change of space. These phase transitions provide the spectrum of the vacuum. With it, the density of vacuum is derived here. Moreover, the local value of the Hubble constant has been derived on the basis of that spectrum. Furthermore, many basic problems in elementary particle physics and in fundamental interactions have been solved by using that spectrum. For instance, the Higgs mechanism and the vacuum expectation value of elementary particle physics have been derived and explained. In this paper, we present a geometric derivation of the spectrum of vacuum. This provides further evidence and clarity. Published at: Hans-Otto Carmesin. "Geometric Derivation of the Spectrum of Vacuum.” International Journal of Engineering Science Invention (IJESI), Vol. 11(04), 2022, PP 01-11. Journal DOI- 10.35629/6734
... With it, he elaborated a theory of general relativity, GR. Using GR, we can partially explain the continuous expansion of space since the Big Bang, see Einstein (1917), Wirtz (1922), Hubble (1929) or Carmesin (2020e), Carmesin (2021a) as well as Carmesin (2021d)). ...
... The expansion of space corresponds to an increase of the volume, which is physically caused by an increase of the amount of vacuum, see for instance Carmesin (2018c), Carmesin (2018b), Carmesin (2019a), Carmesin (2021d), Carmesin (2021a). Ac-cordingly, we remind the discovery of the vacuum by Guericke (1672) next. ...
... In fact, that density ρ Λ has been explained and derived, see e.g. Carmesin (2018c), Carmesin (2018b), Carmesin (2019a), Carmesin (2021d), Carmesin (2021a). Altogether, this shows that vacuum forms physically, and it has a density ρ Λ and a volume. ...
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Electromagnetic interactions are omnipresent in everyday life. These are part of the electroweak interactions, including the Higgs mechanism. However, the nature and microscopic structure thereof were a mystery. That mystery is solved in this book. We derive the observed charges and masses of the electroweak interaction from the equivalence principles, gravity and relativity, by analyzing the vacuum. We derive and clarify the origin of electroweak interactions: - Vacuum forming since the Big Bang constitutes space, time and cosmic phase transitions with a large scale energy spectrum. - That spectrum causes electroweak charges and masses. - Thereby, two-dimensional charge space forms. - Hereby, the electric charge, the weak angle, a non-electric charge, a hypercharge, an isospin charge and isospin form. - Electroweak masses originate from transitions at the large scale spectrum. Using the local principles of the formation of vacuum, we derive general relativity and results beyond: the density of vacuum, quantum physics, cosmic phase transitions as well as the electroweak interactions, charges and masses. Our results are in precise accordance with observation, whereby we do not execute any fit. Invited to discover the nature of electromagnetic and weak interactions are classes from grade 10 or higher, courses, research clubs, enthusiasts, observers, experimentalists, mathematicians, natural scientists, researchers …
... Moreover, that expansion has been modelled on the basis of general relativity (see e.g. [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]). However, these models are not complete, see Then the light horizon increases slightly by the formation of vacuum, and it increases extremely rapidly at a series of dimensional phase transitions, without the formation of vacuum (triangles, this process is described by QG). ...
... In this section, we apply the droplet model to dimensional phase transitions in the early universe. Thereby, we often use Planck units, and we mark these by a tilde [20,21]. In our droplet model, a droplet represents a ball in D dimensional space, see Fig. (2). ...
... Similarly, the rate at which vacuum forms is caused by the density D in D dimensional space. The rate of that formation of vacuum has been derived in the framework of quantum gravity as follows, see equation (3.46) in [21]: ...
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The continuous expansion of space since the Big Bang has been a great discovery of mankind. However, that continuous expansion is incomplete, as it fails to describe the physics at very high density and small light radii. In this paper, we provide a solution of that incompleteness problem by developing and analyzing a droplet model: Droplets of high dimensional vacuum form and grow, as soon as the density exceeds a corresponding critical density. At these dimensional phase transitions, the light horizon increases in an extremely rapid manner. As a consequence, the horizon problem is solved. The paper has been published in: International Journal of Engineering Science Invention (IJESI) ISSN (Online): 2319-6734, ISSN (Print): 2319-6726 www.ijesi.org ||Volume 10 Issue 8 Series II || August 2021 || PP 34-38
... In this book, we resolve the relation between QP and relativity: A first hint was provided by Carmesin (2021d) by showing that even relativity is nonlocal. That finding opened the possibility that QP could be included in GR. ...
... • Thereby, essential object's effects upon its vicinity include the gravitational field G * , the curvature of space or of spacetime and properties of the vacuum, see e. g. Carmesin (2021d) or chapter (3). ...
... In fact, we derive the mesoscopic curvature of spacetime on the basis of our microscopic description of the vacuum, see e. g. Carmesin (2021d) or section (2.6). So we confirm that spacetime is curved at a mesoscopic level. ...
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Since Planck discovered quantization in 1900, the nature of quanta was a mystery. That problem is solved in this book. We derive the postulates of quantum physics from the equivalence principles, gravity and relativity, by analyzing the vacuum. We clarify various conundrums of quanta: - We derive nonlocality. - We find the origin of the Schrödinger equation. - We find the origin of the probabilities of quanta. - We find the basis of the Planck constant h. - We find a generalized Schrödinger equation. - We find the origin of quantum gravity. - We discover how quanta, vacuum and curved space are related. Using the concepts of space, time, gravity and vacuum, we discover how vacuum propagates at the velocity of light. We realize how that propagation causes quantization. We apply that propagation to the calculation of the density parameter ΩΛ of the vacuum of the universe. Our result is in precise accordance with observation, whereby we do not apply any fit. Invited to discover the nature of quanta are classes from grade 10 or higher, courses, research clubs, enthusiasts, observers, experimentalists, mathematicians, natural scientists, researchers …
... Moreover, Einstein (1915) discovered the curvature of spacetime, leading to his proposal of general relativity, GR, including a theory for gravity and SRT. Using GR, we can explain the continuous expansion of space since the Big Bang (see continuous line in Fig. 1.1, Einstein (1917), Wirtz (1922), Hubble (1929), Carmesin (2021d)). ...
... Indeed, the new theory of quantum gravity, QG, represents a well-founded theory that ranges from the Planck scale towards the light horizon, see e. g. Carmesin (2021d). Moreover, that theory has been tested in detail by essentially explaining the standard model of cosmology, SMC, see e. g. ...
... Hereby, we introduce the quanta of spacetime, QST. These include the dark energy, the corresponding vacuum (including its time evolution, see These take place at critical densities, see Carmesin (2021d). Some quanta of spacetime of early phases (other lines). ...
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Question Our observable universe ranges from the light horizon at a distance of 4.1 ∙ 10 to the power of 26 m towards the Planck scale at lengths of 1.6 ∙ 10 to the power of -35 m. Corresponding bodies are galaxy clusters, our home region of galaxies Laniakea, our Milky Way, our Solar System, Earth, cities, villages, houses, ourselves and elementary particles. How do these different bodies interact? The heavenly bodies mainly interact by gravity. In contrast, most forces among bodies of everyday life are based on the electric interaction. Gravity and the electric interaction are regarded as two fundamental interactions. However, are these two interactions really fundamentally different? Discovery We discover the formation of the elementary charge based on quantum gravity. Hereby the difference between theory and experiment amounts to five millionth of a percent. Of course, we use no fit parameters. We show how classical electrodynamics and quantum electrodynamics are both based on our finding. Perspective I derived a new theory of quantum gravity. It describes physics ranging from the Planck scale towards the light horizon. With it, I discovered results in cosmology, general relativity and particle physics: In the standard model of cosmology, there are six parameters. One is independent, as it describes the time after the Big Bang. I derived the other parameters from quantum gravity, using no fit. The standard model of elementary particles essentially describes masses of particles and three fundamental interactions: electric, weak and strong interaction. Using quantum gravity, I derived the mass of the Higgs boson, which in turn causes the masses of the other particles, except neutrinos. For these, I derived the cosmological constant of neutrino masses. In this book, we apply the above findings in order to derive the formation of the elementary charge and electric interaction. So the electric charge and electric interaction are not fundamental. It will be interesting and challenging to use a theory ranging from the Planck scale towards the light horizon, in order to investigate other properties of elementary particles. Comprehensive Explanation In this book we derive all findings in a systematic, clear and smooth manner. We summarize our results by many definitions, propositions and theorems. We are classes from grade 10 or higher, courses, research clubs, enthusiasts, observers, experimentalists, mathematicians, natural scientists, researchers …
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The expansion of space since the Big Bang, and the evolution of the early universe in particular, are challenging topics for students in research clubs or similar learning groups. Here we study the conservation of energy during that expansion, the origin of the rapid enlargement in the so-called era of 'cosmic inflation' and the origin of the energy and matter in the universe. The results are worked out in full detail here, so that they can be directly used in a learning group. The paper has been published in PhyDid B
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We present cosmological parameter results from the final full-mission Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies, combining information from the temperature and polarization maps and the lensing reconstruction. Compared to the 2015 results, improved measurements of large-scale polarization allow the reionization optical depth to be measured with higher precision, leading to significant gains in the precision of other correlated parameters. Improved modelling of the small-scale polarization leads to more robust constraints on many parameters, with residual modelling uncertainties estimated to affect them only at the 0.5σ level. We find good consistency with the standard spatially-flat 6-parameter ΛCDM cosmology having a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations (denoted “base ΛCDM” in this paper), from polarization, temperature, and lensing, separately and in combination. A combined analysis gives dark matter density Ωch2 = 0.120 ± 0.001, baryon density Ωbh2 = 0.0224 ± 0.0001, scalar spectral index ns = 0.965 ± 0.004, and optical depth τ = 0.054 ± 0.007 (in this abstract we quote 68% confidence regions on measured parameters and 95% on upper limits). The angular acoustic scale is measured to 0.03% precision, with 100θ* = 1.0411 ± 0.0003. These results are only weakly dependent on the cosmological model and remain stable, with somewhat increased errors, in many commonly considered extensions. Assuming the base-ΛCDM cosmology, the inferred (model-dependent) late-Universe parameters are: Hubble constant H0 = (67.4 ± 0.5) km s−1 Mpc−1; matter density parameter Ωm = 0.315 ± 0.007; and matter fluctuation amplitude σ8 = 0.811 ± 0.006. We find no compelling evidence for extensions to the base-ΛCDM model. Combining with baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements (and considering single-parameter extensions) we constrain the effective extra relativistic degrees of freedom to be Neff = 2.99 ± 0.17, in agreement with the Standard Model prediction Neff = 3.046, and find that the neutrino mass is tightly constrained to ∑mν < 0.12 eV. The CMB spectra continue to prefer higher lensing amplitudes than predicted in base ΛCDM at over 2σ, which pulls some parameters that affect the lensing amplitude away from the ΛCDM model; however, this is not supported by the lensing reconstruction or (in models that also change the background geometry) BAO data. The joint constraint with BAO measurements on spatial curvature is consistent with a flat universe, ΩK = 0.001 ± 0.002. Also combining with Type Ia supernovae (SNe), the dark-energy equation of state parameter is measured to be w0 = −1.03 ± 0.03, consistent with a cosmological constant. We find no evidence for deviations from a purely power-law primordial spectrum, and combining with data from BAO, BICEP2, and Keck Array data, we place a limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r0.002 < 0.06. Standard big-bang nucleosynthesis predictions for the helium and deuterium abundances for the base-ΛCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. The Planck base-ΛCDM results are in good agreement with BAO, SNe, and some galaxy lensing observations, but in slight tension with the Dark Energy Survey’s combined-probe results including galaxy clustering (which prefers lower fluctuation amplitudes or matter density parameters), and in significant, 3.6σ, tension with local measurements of the Hubble constant (which prefer a higher value). Simple model extensions that can partially resolve these tensions are not favoured by the Planck data.
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Universe: Unified from Microcosm to Macrocosm Reihe We see stars at the sky, embedded in unlimited space. In our universe, we discover, photograph and explain a lot by ourselves. With a telescope of length 1 m we take photos of objects near the end of the visible universe. So we observe satellites, comets, protuberances, the formation or explosion of stars, galaxies, curvature of spacetime and signs of the Big Bang. How can we understand all that? Using basic experiments, we obtain the fundamental laws of nature including their universal constants: the universal law of gravitation with the gravitational constant G, thermodynamics with the Boltzmann constant kB, the theory of relativity with the velocity of light c and quantum physics with the Planck constant h. With it we explain the history of the universe. Moreover, we resolve the following mysteries: The cover shows the expansion of the space. We derive that macroscopic dynamics from the microscopic dynamics, and with it we show that the space is flat globally. The cover indicates a very rapid enlargement in the early universe, we explain it by a cosmic unfolding of space. The masses in our daily world originate from the energy of electromagnetic waves, as illustrated at the cover. What is the source of that energy of radiation? For an analysis, we calculate the time evolution of the actual light horizon backwards in time, until we arrive at the smallest possible length, the Planck length. At that length, the omnipresent quantum fluctuations exhibit a huge zero-point energy, ZPE, in their local frame. This ZPE transforms to the available energy of radiation in the process of cosmic unfolding, as can be seen at the cover. In this manner we derive the origin of all mass and energy in the universe, and we achieve precise accordance with observation. On that basis, we can resolve even more mysteries ... We are classes from grade 10 or higher, courses, enthusiasts, friends of experiments, natural scientists …
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Wir entdecken die Geschichte des Universums mit eigenen Fotos und Experimenten Band 2 in: Universe: Unified from Microcosm to Macrocosm Hans-Otto Carmesin, Berlin: Verlag Dr. Köster 2020 Wir können unser Universum gerade heute eigenständig erkunden: Wir entdecken die wesentlichen Naturgesetze und messen die entsprechenden Naturkonstanten mit eigenen Versuchen, unterstützt durch Smartphones zur Datenerfassung und Auswertung. Wir erstellen Fotos von Himmelskörpern, wobei die Entfernung uns nicht mehr einschränkt, dank hervorragender digitaler Kameras. Wir erklären des Fotografierte selbst mit den Naturgesetzen, das gelingt uns besonders einfach mit eigenen Tabellenkalkulationen. Dieser Blick ins Weltall befähigt uns, große Zusammenhänge auch auf der Erde besser zu verstehen: von der Entstehung bis zur Stabilisierung der Atmosphäre. So können wir die Geschichte des Universums und die Zeitentwicklung der Distanzen nachvollziehen: vom Urknall bis heute, von der Planck-Länge bis zum Lichthorizont. Wir, das sind Klassen oder Kurse ab Klassenstufe 10, Experimentierfreunde, Naturbegeisterte … Uns unterstützen Übungsaufgaben im Internet, zum Trainieren oder zur Selbstkontrolle (hans-otto.carmesin.org oder https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Hans_Otto_Carmesin). Unsere so gewonnene Zeitentwicklung des Universums stimmt präzise mit Beobachtungen überein. Dabei wenden wir nur die Gravitation und die Quantenphysik mithilfe etablierter mathematischer und numerischer Methoden an, mit den zugehörigen universellen Konstanten: Gravitationskonstante, Lichtgeschwindigkeit, Boltzmann-Konstante sowie Plancks Konstante. Das ist eine sachliche und klare Bestätigung unserer Ergebnisse. Dabei können wir auch aktuelle Geheimnisse selbst enträtseln. So ermitteln wir den kompletten Zeitablauf selbst: von der experimentellen Entdeckung wesentlicher Naturgesetze bis zum Distanz-Zeit-Diagramm.
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We present the methodology for a joint cosmological analysis of weak gravitational lensing from the fourth data release of the ESO Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS-1000) and galaxy clustering from the partially overlapping Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) and the 2-degree Field Lensing Survey (2dFLenS). Cross-correlations between BOSS and 2dFLenS galaxy positions and source galaxy ellipticities have been incorporated into the analysis, necessitating the development of a hybrid model of non-linear scales that blends perturbative and non-perturbative approaches, and an assessment of signal contributions by astrophysical effects. All weak lensing signals were measured consistently via Fourier-space statistics that are insensitive to the survey mask and display low levels of mode mixing. The calibration of photometric redshift distributions and multiplicative gravitational shear bias has been updated, and a more complete tally of residual calibration uncertainties was propagated into the likelihood. A dedicated suite of more than 20 000 mocks was used to assess the performance of covariance models and to quantify the impact of survey geometry and spatial variations of survey depth on signals and their errors. The sampling distributions for the likelihood and the χ 2 goodness-of-fit statistic have been validated, with proposed changes for calculating the effective number of degrees of freedom. The prior volume was explicitly mapped, and a more conservative, wide top-hat prior on the key structure growth parameter S 8 = σ8 (Ωm/0.3)1/2 was introduced. The prevalent custom of reporting S 8 weak lensing constraints via point estimates derived from its marginal posterior is highlighted to be easily misinterpreted as yielding systematically low values of S 8, and an alternative estimator and associated credible interval are proposed. Known systematic effects pertaining to weak lensing modelling and inference are shown to bias S 8 by no more than 0.1 standard deviations, with the caveat that no conclusive validation data exist for models of intrinsic galaxy alignments. Compared to the previous KiDS analyses, S 8 constraints are expected to improve by 20 % for weak lensing alone and by 29 % for the joint analysis.
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Based on the cosmic shear data from the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS), Kilbinger et al. obtained a constraint on the amplitude of matter fluctuations of σ8(Ωm/0.27)0.6 = 0.79 ± 0.03 from the two-point correlation function (2PCF). This is ≈3σ lower than the value 0.89 ± 0.01 derived from Planck data on cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. On the other hand, based on the same CFHTLenS data, but using the power spectrum, and performing a different analysis, Liu et al. obtained the higher value of $\sigma _8(\Omega _\mathrm{m}/0.27)^{0.64}=0.87^{+0.05}_{-0.06}$. We here investigate the origin of this difference, by performing a fair side-by-side comparison of the 2PCF and power spectrum analyses on CFHTLenS data. We find that these two statistics indeed deliver different results, even when applied to the same data in an otherwise identical procedure. We identify excess power in the data on small scales (ℓ > 5000) driving the larger values inferred from the power spectrum. We speculate on the possible origin of this excess small-scale power. More generally, our results highlight the utility of analysing the 2PCF and the power spectrum in tandem, to discover (and to help control) systematic errors.
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The clumpiness of dark matter on sub-kpc scales is highly sensitive to the tidal evolution and survival of subhaloes. In agreement with previous studies, we show that N-body realisations of cold dark matter subhaloes with centrally-divergent density cusps form artificial constant-density cores on the scale of the resolution limit of the simulation. These density cores drive the artificial tidal disruption of subhaloes. We run controlled simulations of the tidal evolution of a single subhalo where we repeatedly reconstruct the density cusp, preventing artificial disruption. This allows us to follow the evolution of the subhalo for arbitrarily large fractions of tidally stripped mass. Based on this numerical evidence in combination with simple dynamical arguments, we argue that cuspy dark matter subhaloes cannot be completely disrupted by smooth tidal fields. Modelling stars as collisionless tracers of the underlying potential, we furthermore study the tidal evolution of Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Using a model of the Tucana III dwarf as an example, we show that tides can strip dwarf galaxies down to sub-solar luminosities. The remnant micro-galaxies would appear as co-moving groups of metal-poor, low-mass stars of similar age, embedded in sub-kpc dark matter subhaloes.
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We present a measurement of the Hubble constant (H0) and other cosmological parameters from a joint analysis of six gravitationally lensed quasars with measured time delays. All lenses except the first are analyzed blindly with respect to the cosmological parameters. In a flat ΛCDM cosmology, we find $H_{0} = 73.3_{-1.8}^{+1.7}~\mathrm{km~s^{-1}~Mpc^{-1}}$, a $2.4{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ precision measurement, in agreement with local measurements of H0 from type Ia supernovae calibrated by the distance ladder, but in 3.1σ tension with Planck observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This method is completely independent of both the supernovae and CMB analyses. A combination of time-delay cosmography and the distance ladder results is in 5.3σ tension with Planck CMB determinations of H0 in flat ΛCDM. We compute Bayes factors to verify that all lenses give statistically consistent results, showing that we are not underestimating our uncertainties and are able to control our systematics. We explore extensions to flat ΛCDM using constraints from time-delay cosmography alone, as well as combinations with other cosmological probes, including CMB observations from Planck, baryon acoustic oscillations, and type Ia supernovae. Time-delay cosmography improves the precision of the other probes, demonstrating the strong complementarity. Allowing for spatial curvature does not resolve the tension with Planck. Using the distance constraints from time-delay cosmography to anchor the type Ia supernova distance scale, we reduce the sensitivity of our H0 inference to cosmological model assumptions. For six different cosmological models, our combined inference on H0 ranges from ∼73–78 km s−1 Mpc−1, which is consistent with the local distance ladder constraints.