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Efficient Technologies for Producing Cast Iron Billets and Products with Specified Properties and Microstructure

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The article discusses the use of resonant-pulsating refining technology in order to improve the quality of cast iron products. This technology is used in the cast iron production and cast iron mold induction. It is relatively simple and easily fits into existing production. The effectiveness of this technology is at the world’s best indicator level. The chemical composition and smelting modes of cast iron influences significantly on the microstructure of gray cast iron. The determining factors are the content of silicon in cast iron, carbon, manganese, titanium and vanadium. The carbon content affects significantly taking into account its content above 3.8%, since this content increases the content of large, ripe forms of graphite in cast iron. Titanium and vanadium also influence significantly on the microstructure of cast iron. These two elements, even in small amounts, affect the size and shape of graphite greatly. It also affects the amount of ferrite, perlite and cementite in the structure of cast iron. Vanadium also affects greatly the service life of cast iron products.
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Efficient Technologies for Producing Cast Iron Billets and Products with
Specified Properties and Microstructure
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MEMT 2020
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1118 (2021) 012027
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1118/1/012027
1
Efficient Technologies for Producing Cast Iron Billets and
Products with Specified Properties and Microstructure
D A Lubyanoi1, А V Markidonov2, Е Yu Pudov1, V N Shakhmanov1, Е G Kuzin1,
and О S Semenova1
1Kuzbass State Technical University named after T. F. Gorbachev (a branch in
Prokopyevsk), 19A Nogradskaya Str., Prokopyevsk, 653033, Russia
2Kemerovo State University (a branch in Novokuznetsk), Tsiolkovsky Str.,
Novokuznetsk, 23654000, Russia
E-mail: lubjanoy@yandex.ru
Abstract. The article discusses the use of resonant-pulsating refining technology in order to im-
prove the quality of cast iron products. This technology is used in the cast iron production and
cast iron mold induction. It is relatively simple and easily fits into existing production. The ef-
fectiveness of this technology is at the world's best indicator level. The chemical composition
and smelting modes of cast iron influences significantly on the microstructure of gray cast iron.
The determining factors are the content of silicon in cast iron, carbon, manganese, titanium and
vanadium. The carbon content affects significantly taking into account its content above 3.8%,
since this content increases the content of large, ripe forms of graphite in cast iron. Titanium and
vanadium also influence significantly on the microstructure of cast iron. These two elements,
even in small amounts, affect the size and shape of graphite greatly. It also affects the amount of
ferrite, perlite and cementite in the structure of cast iron. Vanadium also affects greatly the ser-
vice life of cast iron products.
1. Introduction
Metallurgy has a significant impact on key industries in the global economy. Many countries of the
world are developing their own metallurgical production to meet domestic and external demand in the
required range of metal products.
The main trend in the development of metallurgy and mechanical engineering is to reduce the mate-
rial consumption and increase the durability of cast iron products. It is possible to increase the service
life of products by changing the microstructure of cast iron using new high-performance technologies.
The change in structure is achieved by micro-alloying cast iron transforming the size and shape of graph-
ite inclusions. These inclusions increase the strength properties of the parts. It is also possible to use the
technology of thermal processing and resonant-pulsating refining. These technological influences sig-
nificantly increase the operational properties of gray cast iron products.
The introduction of modern resource- and energy-efficient technologies for the production of prom-
ising steels and cast iron remains relevant to meet the needs of economic sectors.
2. Formulation of the problem
It is necessary to determine the optimal content of alloying elements for the optimal technology for
producing cast iron with the necessary properties. At the same time, it should be noted that optimal
alloying could significantly reduce the content of manganese and silicon in heat-resistant cast irons.
The cast iron is industrially used for the manufacture of wear-resistant parts [1, 2] worldwide. The
enterprises of Kemerovo region totally produce generally purposed grey cast iron of grades SCH-10 -
MEMT 2020
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1118 (2021) 012027
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doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1118/1/012027
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SCH-30, grey cast iron of replacement steel casting equipment and mills for ferroalloys, grey half-cast
iron of special purpose, and white alloyed cast iron of special purpose. The microstructure of grey and
half-cast iron is shown in Figure 1 a), b).
The microstructure of gray cast iron is significantly influenced by the chemical composition and
smelting modes of cast iron. The determining factors are the content of silicon in cast iron, carbon,
manganese, titanium and vanadium. The carbon content affects greatly its content above 3.8%. Since
this content increases the content of large, ripe forms of graphite in cast iron. It is mandatory to refine
the metal in a ladle with nitrogen or argon in order to eliminate them or to conduct thermal treatment of
the melt in an induction furnace. The influence of silicon also affects the microstructure of cast iron
greatly. Thus, when in some cases its content is less than 0.8%, they could observe the appearance of
cementite in the structure of cast iron. It is necessary to carry out either additional alloying of the metal
in the furnace in order to eliminate it. Modifying the metal with ferrosilicon in the ladle is also necessary.
Nitrogen purging also contributes to a favorable cast iron microstructure. Excessive silicon content in
cast iron leads to an increase in ferrite in the structure of cast iron. This leads to a decrease in strength
in cast iron and a decrease in the performance of cast iron products.
non-etched cast iron structure а) etched cast iron structure
non-etched cast iron structure b) etched cast iron structure
Figure 1. Influence of silicon content on the metal base and graphite phase of pallets (×100):
a) Si-0.97%, V-0.04%, MEq.- 0.72%; b) Si-1.02%,V-0.04%, MEq.- 0.59%.
It should be noted that the microstructure of cast iron is also greatly influenced by the mode of
thermal treatment of the melt. For example, with a thermal exposure of 10 minutes, when overheating
to a temperature of 1520-1550 ° C, mainly half-cast iron is formed (Figure 1, a). Heating the metal at
the same exposure to temperatures of 1480-1520 ° C contributes to the formation of mainly gray cast
iron, which has high strength characteristics and high thermal resistance, indicating as the world’s best
[3, 4]. The microstructure of cast iron is also significantly affected with the content of vanadium.
3. Research result
The microstructure of cast iron is also significantly influenced by titanium. These two elements, even in
small amounts up to 0.1% significantly affect the size and shape of graphite and the amount of ferrite,
perlite and cementite in the structure of cast iron. Vanadium also affects the service life of cast iron
products greatly. In cast iron of Kemerovo region the vanadium content is usually in the range of 0.04-
MEMT 2020
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1118 (2021) 012027
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1118/1/012027
3
0.07%. To select the optimal microstructure and chemical composition of cast iron with a vanadium
content of 0.04-0.05% in cast iron and a structural diagram was developed. It allows choosing the
optimal chemical composition of cast iron under the appropriate modes of thermal treatment of the melt
(Figure 2).
Figure 2. Structural diagram of grey naturally alloyed cast iron. The ranks of the limit region: 4-
white cast iron, 3-half cast iron, 2-perlite gray cast iron, 1-perlite-ferritic cast iron (V 0.04-0.05%).
White and half cast iron are used for producing rolls and other wear-resistant products. Perlite gray
cast iron is used for manufacturing engineering products with increased structural strength (beams,
brackets). Perlite-ferritic cast iron is used for the manufacture of heat-resistant products, in mechanical
engineering and metallurgy (mills, pallets, intermediate bucket covers of continuous casting machines
(CCM), machine beds).
Thus, setting the microstructure of cast iron based on the application of methods of thermal
processing of the melt allows you to obtain special-purpose cast iron with the specified properties. The
use of modern technologies for the cast iron production can significantly reduce the metal content of
products. It can also increase their operational stability and reduce the cost of production.
In conclusion, it would be liked to note the following. As it follows from experimental studies, the
micro hardness of phosphate eutectic in naturally alloyed titanium and vanadium blast furnace cast iron
is 12-15%, which is higher than in cast irons that do not contain these elements [5-7]. Thus, alloying
elements are able to neutralize the harmful effects of impurities. It is obvious that detailed research of
this problem in the conditions of industrial production is not cost effective. Therefore, in this case,
computer modeling is more rational. With the help of a computer modeling you can test theoretical
developments, explain and predict phenomena that have not been fully covered yet by other research
methods. In addition, the relative cheapness of data acquisition distinguishes the computer modeling.
Therefore, a comprehensive study of this problem, which includes not only field experiments but also
computer experiments, has been decided to conduct. There is a large volume of results of current
computer modeling of binary Fe-C systems [8, 9]. For the Fe-P, Fe-S, Fe-V, and Fe-Ti systems, the
volume of research is much smaller [10, 11], but there are studies of impurities of other elements.
For example, the interaction of impurities of various elements with grain boundaries in iron was
studied in the work [12-15]. At the same time, the binding energy of clusters containing segregated
atoms was calculated with the first-principle modeling. The interaction of impurities and alloying
elements was also studied in the work [16]. The energy of dissolution of hydrogen atoms in an iron
crystal is estimated as a function of the distance to the alloying elements. In General, it should be noted
that in most works on modeling triple Fe-X-Y systems, one of the elements is usually hydrogen or
MEMT 2020
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1118 (2021) 012027
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1118/1/012027
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carbon (see, for example, [17, 18]). For triple systems containing harmful impurities and alloying
elements, such as Fe-V-P, the results of research are practically not found in both domestic and foreign
literature.
The study resulted to the influence of the alloying elements Ti and V on the process of segregation
of impurity atoms P and S. The optimal temperature conditions that promote migration of impurity
atoms in the iron matrix were determined. The influence of P and S impurities on the strength properties
of the iron polycrystal was evaluated.
Solving these tasks from a scientific point of view allowed us to deepen fundamental knowledge in
the field of the influence of impurities on the properties of iron-carbon alloys. From the point of
application, the research will improve technologies for updating the mechanical properties of structural
materials. In addition, the approaches taken after the study allowed expanding the study and then
switching for improving the wearing capacity of the replacing equipment like forging and bluming mills.
4. Conclusion
Thus, microalloying of cast iron with titanium and vanadium increases the strength properties of cast
iron significantly thereby increasing the wear resistance of products operating in conditions of abrasive
wear and high temperatures greatly. The optimal content of titanium and vanadium in gray cast iron is
found to be in the range of 0.04-0.1%. This provides the required strength properties of the parts of the
units increasing at the same time their heat resistance. Products made of this cast iron have the required
wear resistance and can improve the equipment operational reliability. From a scientific point of view,
the solution of these problems has significantly deepened the fundamental knowledge in the field of the
impurities influence on the properties of iron-carbon alloys.
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  • D A Lubyanoy
  • Tolstikova Yu
  • A Markidonov
  • A V Kuzin
  • E Buymov
Lubyanoy D A, Tolstikova Yu A, Markidonov A V, Kuzin E G and Buymov D V 2020 Proceedings of higher educational institutions. Ferrous metallurgy 63 218
Efficiency of modern ways to improve the quality of cast iron products and the development of metallurgical and machine-building enterprises in a competitive environment
  • D A Lubyanoy
  • B A Kustov
  • N I Novikov
  • I A Sinyavsky
  • Shulgin Yu F, Kokolevsky
  • I Kalashnikova
Lubyanoy D A, Kustov B A, Novikov N I, Sinyavsky I A, Shulgin Yu f, Kokolevsky I V and Kalashnikova V V 2004 Efficiency of modern ways to improve the quality of cast iron products and the development of metallurgical and machine-building enterprises in a competitive environment (Novosibirsk: Publishing house of IEOPP SB RAS)
  • D A Lubyanoi
  • A V Markidonov
  • V M Nevolin
  • D Lubyanoi
  • I O Kambalin
Lubyanoi D A, Markidonov A V, Nevolin V M, Lubyanoi D D and Kambalin I O 2020 IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 848 012048