Sultan Qaboos University
College of Economics and Political Science
Economics and Finance Department
Risk Management and Insurance
Due Date: 8/12/2019
Instructor: Dr. Alya Al Fori
Student Name: Student ID Student Signature
1) Taif Salim Al Kalbani1 118328 …….………….
2) Hamida Mohamed Al Ajmi 119261 ………………..
3) Amal Mahmood Bahanta 119104 .……………….
• I (We) declare that this assignment is all my (our) own work and the sources of
information and material which I/we have used, including the Internet sources, have
been fully identified and properly acknowledged through citations and references, as
required by the referencing style of American Psychological Association.
• I (We) confirm that this assignment, or parts of it, has not been previously submitted
for evaluation elsewhere.
• I (We) agree that, if necessary, investigations can be made regarding the authenticity of
• I (We) have read and understood the SQU’s policy on academic misconduct and
Risk management is an essential part of each institution. The ability to deal with risk helps the
organization to achieve its goal and make decisions confidently. Each organization must take
risks into consideration to define objectives and give them various options on how to deal with
potential problems. In addition, the organization must use Risk management process to help
them achieve goal, which are: determination of objectives, identification of risks, evaluation of
risks, selection of the tool, implementing the decision and finally evaluation and review. The
Main Library at Sultan Qaboos university serves a wide range of people not only SQU students.
It provides them reading and borrowing books and e-resources database searching. This report
will discus the Risk Management process that The Main Library analyze in order to identify and
quantify risks and minimize the negative impact may have.
1. Objectives and risk policy:
The risk department of the main library objective is to reduce anxiety so that employees will be
able to work freely without worrying about future accidents and incidents.
Objective of the library is to provide accurate and transparent information. Moreover, the main
library must keep its records of books up to date since it’s using online checking in and checking
out for printed collections and that is to not create confusion for the library visitors. In addition,
the library must keep its machines in a good shape by doing periodic check-ups.
The main library employees must learn the ethics and rules followed by the organizations to
avoid incidents that are led by dishonesty acts. Also, the strategy of library must be maintained
and checked regularly to ensure its relevancy. In addition, the main library must ensure its
objectives consistency with the strategy.
The main library is a public library therefore it must provide its full and complete library services
to public to spread awareness of the need to read books and to keep the public educated and
informed of its surroundings.
The main library risk department will avoid, reduce or transfer any risk the main library could
face in the future.
Risk policy of the main library will deal with losses that could arise from property damage, legal
liability and dishonesty and have small exposures that will not have a strong impact on the main
library operations through avoidance.
Risk policy of the main library will deal with losses that are arise from property damage, legal
liability and dishonesty that can impact the main library operations and can be covered by the
library’s cash flow.
In this risk policy, the main library will purchase insurance for equipment or machines that its
loss of its property or damage could result to a high financial loss that cannot be covered by the
main library’s existing cash flow.
The risk department of the main library will be responsible for buying insurance and ensuring
the safety of the employees by providing a safe working environment.
The risk management department will be given an annual budget for buying insurance and
paying premiums. In addition, the department will purchase detectable in case the budget does
not cover the total insurance.
2. Identification of risks:
Delaying of fines
Fines related to delaying the return of books on the date of return or
destruction of some library materials and resources.
Consuming more money for repair and maintenance as a result of an
emergency event or accident that causes material, people and general
Loss of property
This risk can cause some resentment in the library if it occurs
frequently, especially for important things such as books and
resources, or anything essential in the library such as furniture,
computers, magazines and newspapers intended for public use.
Failures due to wiring problems may interrupt electricity or networks.
As well as the failure of equipment that may cause downtime or
inability to use the library systems and databases, thus will be
difficult to deal with the customers or may cause prolonged service
delivery time for the them (efficiency).
Fires cause interruption of work or production for a period until
maintenance. It may also affect equipment, resources and people on
the fire site.
Lake of external
Delays in communicating with customers regarding fines and
payments may lead to financial or operational gaps that should be
reduced to achieve the highest quality of work. So, lake of
communication with clients could lead to many problems with
bookings rooms in the library.
of rules, laws and
Lack of understanding of the laws and regulations of the library by
employees or clients may lead to many problems. It can also cause
embarrassment situations with third parties such as management and
Exposure to racist or abusive situations in the library, whether among
the staff themselves, or with employees and clients, creates a negative
atmosphere and a bad reputation for the library, which may cause the
customer to refuse the library and may speak and share things that do
not benefit the library. Instead, the matter may be settled through
3. Evaluation of Risks:
• Priority Ranking Based on Severity:
Severity is the extent of Damage to the institution, its objectives, and its people
because of a risk event occurring. Our corrective actions must prioritize by addressing
Highly Risk before Low Risk. The Risk are ranked as following:
➢ Critical: can cause bankruptcy
➢ Important: requires borrowing
➢ Unimportant: dose not require borrowing , can be met using
Delaying of fines
Loss of property
Lake of external
of rules, laws and
• Priority Ranking Based Frequency:
Frequency is an estimate of the probability of the risk occurrence. It is useful in differentiating
among exposures with relatively equal potential severity. Exposures with high frequency must
have more attention than low frequency.
➢ Almost nil: the loss is probably not going to occur
➢ Slight: the event is possible (did not occur and is not expected to take
place in future)
➢ Moderate: occasionally took place (expected to happen again)
➢ Definite: regular happen (will probably occur regularly again)
Delaying of fines
Loss of property
Lake of external
of rules, laws and
4. Consideration of alternatives - selection of the tools
• Delaying of fines payments
Make clear laws on library policies on use of books and resources, which are easy to access and
remember. To retain the risk, reminders and messages can be sent at regular intervals to clients,
reminding them of borrowing and return times. A receipt can be printed after each borrowed
book explaining the above. Alerting employees to notify customers and spread the necessary
awareness seems good solutions though.
• emergencies' financial reserve
Some of the emergency risks that may occur may cause significant material damage resulting
in funds for maintenance and repair of the premises to be prepared to complete the provision of
library services. It can also cause money to go to compensation in the event of serious human
damage. The library prepares its reserve budget based on forecasts of hazards due to exposure
and frequency, but some events may spiral out of control, requiring the library to prepare a
system of insurance by transfer the risk and to put a comprehensive security system in the
library, starting with alarms, cameras and guarding on the main doors, trying to reduce the
possibility of the risk.
• Loss of property
Loss of property is common in public places, so this can be avoided by placing cameras and
guarding at gates with scanning devices/gates. It can be retained internally in case of the loss of
simple things such as papers, pens and notes ... The risk, if infrequently occurring on more
important things, such as books and important sources, can be reduced by imposing disciplinary
actions and fines on the perpetrator.
• Electrical equipment & wiring
The risks of electricity bear many consequences if they occur, so the library must retain the risk
by putting a backup power generator. Maintenance should be periodic for wires and electrical
system. It can also set up guidelines for dealing with emergency situations If anything goes
• Fire risks
We can avoid risk by applying the latest safety standards in the building, equipped with alarms,
fire extinguishers and buttons to call for help to the need and clarify the nearest exits. The risk
can also be reduced in the event happened, people can contact local risk management office,
civil defense and police numbers. Staff can also be trained on first aid and be able to deal with
• Lake of external Communication
The library should avoid the risk of loss of customer trust or any problems arising from
ineffective use by promoting effective communication and establishing an integrated database
containing the data of the main clients of the library and follow-up on an ongoing basis. This
risk can be reduced if it occurs by reminding the client of his fines and borrowing policies and
notifying him about the violation of the library's laws. The library can put a recommendation
or note box so that clients can participate and communicate with the library in different ways.
• Misunderstanding of rules, laws and regulations
This risk can be avoided by ensuring that all staff and clients understand the library's policies
and laws. It can also work to raise awareness of all those involved in the library of legislation
and policies of the library. Library policies can also be clearly marked on signboards in the
building and on its official website. If things go wrong, this risk could be retained, and people
could have a second chance and sign a pledge not to violate the laws again.
• Violence/ Verbal abuse
Verbal attacks, racism and violence could exist in the library, but rarely. If this happens, the risk
can be minimized and reduced by direct contact with the affected person and an apology verbally
or through an official letter. He may be asked to visit the library to speak with staff or
management to express what happened. This would ensure that he is important and valuable.
5. Implementing the Decisions:
The main library will first add security measures to ensure safety of the employees and the
library’s visitors and that is by installing fire detectors and security cameras. Moreover, the
library will keep checking and maintaining the safety machines. in addition, the main library
will teach its employees how to handle emergencies and how to do first aid.
The main library will teach its employees the objectives of the main library and make sure that
the employees are aware of the risk policy. The risk department then will buy insurance for the
machines and the building. Therefore, in case the loss occurs, the insurance will cover the
financial loss. However, not all machines will be entirely insured since it could be costly for the
main library. Therefore, the risk department will purchase detectable which half the machine
loss will be insured by the insurance company and rest will be covered by the main library’s
Any risk that has a high frequency and low severity will be retained by the main library. For
example, the delay of fines payments can be retained by the main library since it has high
frequency but low severity. The main library will avoid risks that has high severity and low
frequency. For example, the frequency of a fire erupting in the main library building is every
low but the severity is extremely high. Therefore, the main library will implement security
measure by installing fire detectors and making sure that fire extinguishers are placed in each
floor of the building and in areas where its easy to reach.
6. Evaluation and review:
Evaluating and reviewing the risks identified previously an integral part of the risk
management. Evaluating is the process to make sure that the steps you did for
correction action as you intend. Also it allows to discover mistakes before they
become costly. Each year there is changing and modification so the measures also
changes to fit the new situation.
Review is to check Whether the methods worked as expected. This happened by
repeating the process to insure that technics were appropriate.
In order to deal with risk and the correction action, it is very important to gather as much
information as possible for analyzing to help mange and minimize risk. Determination the risks
that Main library wants to achieve is the main and first step to help us identification the risk they
will face. After Defining risk, evaluation risk is a vital element that can be by using severity or
frequency ranking. Next step is to make decision toward risks by either control or avoid it. last
two steps are implementing decision to minimize risk then review assessment and update as and