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Handedness, intelligence, visual-perceptual and motor functions in young adults

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Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate intelligence and visual-perceptual and motor functions in relation to hand dominance and the moderating role of gender and in young adults. The participants included 120 left-handed and right-handed individuals. A demographic questionnaire, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and the Bender-Gestalt II (BGT-II) were used for data gathering in this study. Analysis did not show any significant differences between left-handed and right-handed individuals in intelligence, performance and both recall and motor subscales of BGT-II in the present study. Findings showed significant group differences for the copy and the perceptual subscales of BGT-II in these samples. Left-handed individuals had significantly higher scores than right-handed individuals in the copy and the perceptual subscales of BGT-II. Also, there were no significant differences between males and females on the WAIS-R and all subscales of the BGT-II in this study. This study indicated the different effect of hand preference in intelligence and visual-perceptual and motor functions among young adults with the moderating role of age.
Handedness, intelligence, visual-perceptual and motor functions
in young adults
Siamak Khodarahimi
1
&Amir Karami
2
&Nasrollah Mazraeh
3
&Ezatolah Ghadampour
2
&
Maria Mercedes Ovejero Bruna
4
Accepted: 18 March 2021
#The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2021
Abstract
This study was conducted toinvestigate intelligence and visual-perceptual and motor functions in relation to hand dominance and
the moderating role of gender and in young adults. The participants included 120 left-handed and right-handed individuals. A
demographic questionnaire, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and the Bender-Gestalt II (BGT-II) were
used for data gathering in this study. Analysis did not show any significant differences between left-handed and right-handed
individuals in intelligence, performance and both recall and motor subscales of BGT-II in the present study. Findings showed
significant group differences for the copy and the perceptual subscales of BGT-II in these samples. Left-handed individuals had
significantly higher scores than right-handed individuals in the copy and the perceptual subscales of BGT-II. Also, there were no
significant differences between males and females on the WAIS-R and all subscales of the BGT-II in this study. This study
indicated the different effect of hand preference in intelligence and visual-perceptual and motor functions among young adults
with the moderating role of age.
Keywords Handedness .Intelligence .Visual-perceptual and motor functions .Gender
Introduction
The determination of handedness is the result of multifaceted
biosocial development that begins at the prenatal phase and
continues into adulthood (Alibeik & Angaji, 2010; Michel
et al., 2013a,b). Left-handed people comprise about 10% of
any random population (Johnston et al., 2009). Self-
description of hand preference for using a pencil or pen pro-
vides a relatively accurate categorization of an individuals
hand preference (Chapman & Chapman, 1987). Research
has shown that left-handershave a less satisfactory psycho-
logical and cognitive life experience than those that are right-
handers(Porac & Searleman, 2002). Johnston et al. (2009)
showed that left-handed individuals perform at a significantly
inferior level in almost all measures of development than
right-handed persons at the age of 5, particularly in boys.
Overall, studies have examined how handedness relates to
functional hemispheric asymmetries, neurospatial, cognitive,
social, and emotional functions, as handedness represents dis-
similar patterns of hemispheric specialization (Michel, Babik,
et al., 2013b; Piper et al., 2011; Schmitz et al., 2019). This
study aimed to examine the inflence of handedness on intelli-
gence and visual-perceptual and motor functions with regard
to the moderating role of gender in young adults.
Handedness, Intelligence and Cognitive Functions
Handedness has been linked to normal and abnormal perfor-
mance in intelligence and other cognitive functions,which can
have valuable outcomes as well as unfavorable ones
(Heilman, 2005;Nichollsetal.,2010). McManus (2002)sug-
gested that left-handedness denotes a general cognitive im-
provement. Johnston et al. (2009) found considerable evi-
dence that left-handedness is associated with lower levels of
cognitive ability in early childhood. They provided several
alternative explanations for lowered cognitive functioning
among left-handed and mixed-handed individuals, than
right-handed individuals including: (1) the presence of higher
immune disease, deafness, and asthma problems in left-
*Siamak Khodarahimi
khodarahimi@yahoo.com
1
Eghlid Branch, Islamic Azad University, Eghlid, Iran
2
Psychology Department, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran
3
Susangerd Payam Noor University, Susangerd, Iran
4
Psychology Department, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain
Current Psychology
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-01651-5
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