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The Teaching of Maharah Qira'ah in Arabic for Economic Management Department

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PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION (2021) 58(2): 9377-9383 ISSN: 00333077
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The Teaching of Maharah Qira'ah in Arabic for Economic Management
Department
Uril Bahruddin1*, Riko Andrian2, Halomoan3, Zulfi Mubaraq4
1, 2, 3, 4 Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang, Indonesia
*urilbahruddin@pba.uin-malang.ac.id
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study is to develop an Arabic reading textbook specifically applicable to students of the Economic Management department,
and to measure its effectiveness in increasing maharah qira’ah. This study used a Borg and Gall model R&D design with the sample study
consisting of 40 students in the 2nd semester of the Management Economics Department at the State Islamic University of Sultan Syarif Kasim
Riau. The sample consists of 20 students each in the experimental and control groups. Data were collected through interviews, questionnaires,
observation, and tests. The qualitative data utilized in this study were analyzed in four stages, namely collection, classification, presentation, and
conclusion, while quantitative data were analyzed using the help of the SPPS application. The result showed that 95% of students need the
development of this product, the design and development of teaching materials are needed to improve students' reading skills, and the developed
textbooks are effective to improve students' reading skills with an average value of 72, 2 which increases to 84.4. Furthermore, the calculation
results of the t-test formula show that tcount = 4.1 and t-table = 2.09, with t-count> t-table, therefore the null hypothesis (H0) was rejected, and the
alternative hypothesis (Ha) accepted.
Keywords
Development; Textbooks; Reading Skills; Arabic; Economics
Article Received: 10 August 2020, Revised: 25 October 2020, Accepted: 18 November 2020
Introduction
One of the main objectives of learning Arabic is to
have a better understanding of Islam, which is
reflected in the Qur'an [1]. However, it is also
used for political, diplomatic, and economic
interests because one of the opportunities to
develop effective teaching and learning is the
demand for Arabic language skills in the
workplace [2]. Therefore, to be more focused,
there is a need to develop methods, strategies,
medians, and teaching materials according to
students' requirements [3].
The development of teaching materials for
specific purposes is not something new in the
world of education. According to Tomlinson [4],
many educational practitioners have developed
teaching materials in the last four decades. Several
preliminary studies have suggested that Arabic
needs to be presented in a lively and realistic
manner. This is due to the fact that many people
all over the world have distorted opinions on
Arabic culture and Language because of the
media. Jamous and Chik [5] stated that one of the
ways of curbing this factor is through the use of
the ASP model, specifically designed for
international travelers. It aims to provide useful
insights and guidelines for Arabic linguists and
translators of tourist texts [6]. In addition, similar
research was carried out on the theme Arabic for
Tourism. It was also deemed necessary to include
certain reviews in the fields of politics, zoological
philosophy, botany, health, education, and other
sciences [7]. This study is based on a specific
purpose, without analyzes the process associated
with learning Arabic reading skills for economic
management.
Learning Arabic For Economic Management
Purposes aims to make economic management
players and students closer to the dynamics of
Saudi Arabia's economy. This research is an effort
to develop reading and teaching materials
expected to serve as an alternative for lecturers
and students majoring in economics and learning
Arabic. It is also associated with the development
of English teaching materials, which has positive
implications for ESP teachers' pedagogic
competence as a foreign language [8].
Several studies have reported a lack of innovative
teaching materials at the research locus
(Observation, 2019). Therefore, this research was
carried out using a needs analysis to determine
information regarding the students wants and
desires [9]. The research was further adjusted to
suit students’ needs, learning plans, and teaching
materials [10]. According to Ghani et al. [11],
needs analysis is one of the stages used to
determine the most appropriate content, word
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patterns, and Language in teaching materials. The
proposed Arabic language module tends to
provide more effective and specific topics when
applied to learning [12]. The dimensions of
learning Arabic for economics majors are shown
in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Dimensions in Teaching Arabic for
Economic Management Purposes
Therefore, this study to develop reading and
teaching materials for economics majors at the
State Islamic University of Sultan Syarif Kasim
Riau.
Literature Review
Development of Reading Teaching Materials
with the ASP Approach
Maharah means skill, while Qira'ah implies
reading, therefore Maharah Qir'ah is one of the
skills that every language learner needs to master.
The ability to read aids learners to understand the
information passed [13] and knowledge needed to
master other language skills such as writing and
speaking.
In the scope of language learning based on
Specific Purposes, it is necessary to carry out a
need analysis to determine certain information
such as students’ wants and desires [9]. Need
analysis needs to be carried out as one of the
stages used to determine the content, word
patterns, and languages most suitable for the
teaching materials before development [11]. The
aim is based on the fact that there is a relationship
between students’ needs, learning plans, and
teaching materials [10]. Furthermore, the
proposed Arabic language module provides more
effective and specific topics when applied to
learning [12]. In addition, needs analysis is also
useful for gathering information regarding
students' and teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and
opinions towards the desired learning process.
Psychologically, its development in the field of
2nd language learning tends to meet students' and
teachers' needs.
Based on the emergence of foreign language
learning, especially English at that time, which
started with the rule of the United States after
World War II and the tragedy of the 1970s oil
crisis [14], it was concluded that a specific
purpose approach in accordance with the goals
and needs of the learner needs to be adopted. This
led to the process of learning to accelerate the
process needed to master the Language.
Hutchinson [14] proposed a simple logic about
learning foreign languages for specific purposes.
When Language varies from one situation of
use to another, it is possible to determine
specific situations' features and make them
the base of the learner's course.
In contrast to Tu'aimah's opinion, learning Arabic
for specific purposes is the second initiative that
learners consider after they have passed the first
program, namely, Arabic learning for general
purposes. The two opinions serve as optional
materials for practicing this Language, therefore,
educators need to decide on the tendency of using
one of the two. This is because the principles of
the two experts are similar and need to be
integrated. According to Hutchinson & Waters
[14], this approach, which involves the elements,
objectives, content, and learning methods, is based
on certain motives and learners' needs, and that
these needs comprise of professional and
educational fields.
The principles that emerge from learning Arabic
with this approach are prepared to meet the
special needs of students, the suitability of
learning contents such as topics or titles, as well
as language selection in the form of adjustments
to grammar, vocabulary, speech style, meaning
and connotation in accordance with certain fields,
professions, and activities. This is a derivative of
the Arabic language learning program for general
purposes.
However, since its inception, many foreign
language teaching practitioners, both English and
Arabic, have adopted this approach. For instance,
Versteegh [7] stated that the process includes
several discussions in the fields of politics,
zoological philosophy, botany, health, education,
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and other sciences. This is consistent with the
research carried out by Jamous & Chik [5] on
Teaching Arabic for Cultural Purposes. They
stated that Arabic needs to be presented in a lively
and realistic manner because many people have
distorted opinions about this culture and Language
due to the media. Conversely, the ASP model is
an effective way of prohibiting this issue. Mansor
and Salman [6] also carried out similar research
with the theme Arabic for Tourism. They explain
that it significantly provides useful insights and
guidelines for Arabic linguists and translators of
tourist texts.
Methods
This study is based on the research &
development method designed by Borg and Gall
[15]. The steps carried out are as follows
Figure 2: Borg & Gall's version of Research and
Development Steps
The qualitative and quantitative data are
interpretive and positivistic, respectively [16].
Subsequently, there were 40 informants consisting
of 20 students each in the experimental and
control groups, with 1 linguist and teaching
material design validators each.
Data were collected through interviews,
questionnaires, observations, and tests. The
qualitative data were analyzed in four stages,
namely data collection, classification,
presentation, and conclusion. The quantitative
data was analyzed with the help of the SPPS
application.
Results and Discussions
Needs Analysis
After conducting the needs analysis, 2 out of the
40 students or informants stated that they
"disagree or do need" this development, 11 of
them stated that they "agree or need" it while the
remaining 27 stated that they "really agree or
really need" this product.
Figure 3: Needs Analysis
Based on the data in Figure 3, it is obvious that
students in the economic management class are
realistic in developing their mindset when
learning Arabic. This is evidenced by the fact that
more than 90% of them need this product.
To validate the questionnaire, the randomly
selected informants were interviewed to
strengthen the data. From the interview results, it
was discovered that the students of economic
management presume that learning Arabic is
strange (Interview, 2019). They think that the
process and learning outcomes are bound to have
an insignificant impact on their career
development (Interview, 2019). However,
learning this Language aims to maintain the
continuity and integration of knowledge between
economic management and Islam. Uroosa [1]
stated that it aids students to understand Islam
more intensely. The student's opinion is directly
proportional to the research carried out by Uroosa
[1], which reported that there is a dichotomy of
knowledge that tends to juxtapose Arabic with
Islam. Meanwhile, Albantani & Madkur [2]
strongly denied this, they stated that learning
Arabic in Indonesia needs to be oriented towards
improving human resources following the
development of science and technology. In
addition, the opportunity to effectively develop
Arabic language teaching and learning is based on
the governments’ support, demand for its skills in
the world of work, and the availability of
interactive multimedia.
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Students highly appreciated the development of
this teaching material for Economic Management
Purposes because its existence motivated them to
learn Arabic at the language development center
of Sultan Syarif Kasim, Riau State Islamic
University, hoping that it positively impacts their
knowledge. The study of economic management
sciences with Arabic literacy aid served as a
reference in completing their final assignments.
Some of them believe that when they are
employed, they are going to directly interact with
colleagues, and Arabic native speaker clients or
those that use it as their international
communication language.
Based on the results of interviews with lecturers, it
was revealed that "there was once an idea to
develop Arabic teaching materials in accordance
with the Economic Management Purposes
approach." Furthermore, the assumption that the
available teaching materials are ideal is a major
obstacle that causes stagnation in this learning
process's development. This contradicts the
research carried out by Tomlinson [4], which
stated that a lot of literature reports the effects of
using a particular teaching material and does not
encourage the lecturers and students to adopt new
approaches or practices.
Development Design of the Textbook "Arabic
for Economic management Purposes"
Before a textbook is published, it needs to be
designed as a reference to ensure the product is
loaded with the principles of Arabic for Economic
management Purposes. There are four prioritized
aspects, namely, the design of the book, the
Language used, its content, and presentation.
These are manifested in nine characters, stated as
follows
1. The book developed is entitled " 
." The cover contains the title, author,
and background, which explained that the
book was specifically made for economic
management students studying Arabic. It is
intended that the textbook contradicts the
values of "Arabic for Economic
management."
2. The material consists of seven themes, Bank
"," Financial Management " ,"
Marketing Management " ,"
SDM " ," Macro and Micro
Economics "," Investation
"," and Tax "."
3. The textbooks are presented along with
instructions for usage, which are in the form
of teaching methods and strategies as well
as several recommended media. This is
aimed at making it easier for the lecturers
while teaching. The methods and strategies
recommended are optional, lecturers are
allowed to adopt theirs as long as the
learning objectives are achieved.
4. At the beginning of each chapter, news and
realities of the latest issues concerning the
themes discussed in that chapter are
reported. They are stated in Arabic, which is
aimed at stimulating the students to become
interested.
5. At the beginning of each chapter, there are
standards and basic competencies that
students need to achieve. The aim is that the
teachers are able to differentiate between
prioritized and non-prioritized learning
activities.
6. New vocabularies " " always
appears in every text and chapter. This aims
to improve students' analytical skills to
determine the meaning without searching
for it in the dictionary.
7. The material is dominated by Arabic texts
on the themes of economic management.
The text is adapted from several Arabic
books that discuss economic management,
such as, "Approaches in Financial and
Customer Sciences (   
)" [17], "Banking Management
( )" [18], "Principles in
Management ()” {Formatting
Citation}, "Human Resources Growth (
 )" [19], and "Investment
Principles ()" [20].
8. Exercises in textbooks aim to improve the
students' reading skills. The purpose is to
meet their needs, which were identified after
performing the needs analysis.
9. Availability of a glossary at the back of the
book. This aims to make it easier for
students to determine new vocabulary
meanings.
All these characters are contained in the
developed textbook, with several others not listed.
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This is because they are considered as factors that
naturally exist in teaching materials.
Validation of the reading teaching textbooks
developed
The textbooks were validated by the linguist and
the teaching material design expert validators.
Furthermore, the language design was validated
by Dr. Syuhadak, currently the Head of the Arabic
language education study program at Maulana
Malik Ibrahim State Islamic University, Malang.
Dr. Syuhadak’s expertise in Arabic standard is
regarded as perfect because Syuhadak’s
undergraduate studies were in Egypt, while two or
three other courses were completed in Sudan. The
suitability of the Language used in the book in
accordance with the rules of nahw-sharf was
assessed based on the students’ ability, the ease of
reading and understanding the texts. The
Language in tiered form started from easy to
medium down to difficult with the availability of a
glossary at the back of the book to make it easier
for students to understand new vocabularies.
Based on the results of linguist validation, it is
evident that the developed teaching materials
adopted the ideal language characteristics as much
as 92% with the predicate "very good or
approximately 85 to 100". The input from the
validator was in the form of improving grammar
in several parts of the text. In addition, the level of
language difficulty starting from easy to medium
to difficult needs to be contrasted, although not by
moving from "easy" to "difficult" without going
through the "medium" phase.
Meanwhile, the validation of the teaching
materials design was carried out by Dr. R.
Taufiqurrochman, an expert in developing Arabic
teaching materials. Taufiqurrochman’s expertise
in the fields of E-Learning and lexicology is
evident in the designs of several dictionaries such
as "Medical Dictionary 'Nuria': Indonesian-Arabic
or Arabic-Indonesian" [21], and "As-Sayuti's
Indonesian-Arabic Dictionary, Popular Scientific
Terms" [22]. The aspects assessed include cover,
font sizes, spacing, paper, print, color, writing,
images, book identity, bibliography, content,
material composition, and exposure.
The validation results show that the developed
teaching materials' design is based on the ideal
characteristics, which is 89% with the predicate
"very good or approximately 85 to 100". The
validator's input was in the form of improvements
in the use of famous references when adapting
nuanced economic management texts and
publishing them in textbooks.
Product Experiments
The data presentation is shown on the following
graph to further clarify the pre-test and post-test
scores or values obtained from this study.
Graph 1: Pre-Test and Post-test scores of the
Experiment class
The mean value of the pre-test was 72.2, with a
standard deviation of 7.2. Conversely, the mean
value on the post-test was 84.4, with a standard
deviation of 3.7. This shows that there is a
significant difference between them, which is in
terms of the acquisition of learning outcomes after
students are taught with the developed book.
Graph 2: Pre-Test and Post-test scores of Control
class
The mean score on the pre-test was 72.7, with a
standard deviation of 4.7. On the contrary, the
mean value on the post-test was 76.1, with a
standard deviation of 5.9. This shows an
insignificant difference between them in terms of
the acquisition of learning outcomes after the
students were taught with the developed
textbooks.
Table 1: Mean and standard deviation (SD) of the
pre-test and post-test experimental class
Dependent
Variable
Pre-test
N
Mean
SD
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Book X
20
72,6
4,7
76,1
5,9
Textbook developed
20
72,2
7,2
84,4
3,7
The result of t-count = 13.94 while the result of t-table
is 2.09 in df = Nx + Ny-1 = -1 + 20-1 = 19. These
results indicate that tcount> ttable. Therefore the null
hypothesis is rejected, and the alternative
hypothesis is accepted. This means that the Arabic
language books developed effectively improve
reading skills for students majoring in economic
management.
Table 2: The result from the t-test of the post-test
scores
Depende
nt
Variable
D
F
t-
count
t-table
Result
Hypo
thesis
Remark
Reading
skills of
Arabic
19
4,1
2,09
Significant
difference
in means
Ho
Reject
Conclusion
This study led to the discovery that students
majoring in economic management needed the
development of reading and teaching materials
based on Arabic for Economic Purposes with a
percentage level of 27% and a response of 68%,
thereby leading to a total of 95% of those that
responded positively. This research also led to the
design of teaching materials for reading skills,
which was experimented on students majoring in
economic management. Subsequently, there was
an increase in reading skills after majoring in
economic management at Sultan Syarif Kasim
Riau Islamic University. In the experimental class,
the mean score of the increase was from 72.2 to
84.4. However, by studying the results from the
calculation of the t-test formula, it was discovered
that the t-count = 4.1 and t-table = 2.09 where tcount> t-
table therefore, the null hypothesis (H0) is rejected.
On the contrary, the alternative hypothesis (Ha) is
accepted, which means this application has a
significant effect on the Arabic textbook for
Economic Purposes, which was developed to
improve the students' reading ability. It was
therefore concluded that the results of this study
have a significant effect on the students.
Limitations and Future Studies
This research is limited to the teaching materials
developed to improve the students' reading skills.
Therefore, the need to carry out other studies,
such as the development of teaching materials for
other language skills, strategies in accordance
with the ASP approach, methods, and media that
are packaged in a learning model, are
recommended.
Acknowledgement
We gratefully thank the Universitas Islam Negeri
Maulana Malik Ibrahim in Malang, who has
supported the lecturers to increase their
competition through the publication program, also
to colleagues who have provided input for the
perfection of this article.
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Sustainable Development for Smart City Education based on Features and Parameters Assessment Modelling Slope One Algorithm
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Communicative needs of Saudi EFL engineering students in an EAP context: Task-based needs analysis
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Needs Analysis of English for Occupational and Specific Purposes
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The Characteristics Of Propose Arabic Language Module For The Purpose Of Tourism: A Case Study On Tourist's Mosque In Kuala Lumpur
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Rekonstruksi Pengembangan Pendidikan Bahasa Arab
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Bahruddin, Uril. (2017). Rekonstruksi Pengembangan Pendidikan Bahasa Arab. CV Lisan Arabi.