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Female Sex Offenders

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Abstract

Despite the perception that women do not commit sexual offenses, female offenders engage in sexual homicide, sexually assault their students or their own children, and, at times, work with co-perpetrators to sexually aggress against their victims. Few studies have used psychological tests to psychometrically map the personality of female sexual offenders. In this chapter, we use the PCL-R, PAI, and Rorschach in studying a sample of female sexual offenders with offenses against minors (N = 39). These women evidenced (1) borderline reality testing, defenses, & thinking; (2) a damaged sense of self (entitlement & victim stance); (3) abnormal bonding and pseudo-dependency (maladaptive neediness); (4) affective instability; (5) impulsivity; and (6) chronic anger couched within a malignant hysterical style that masks an underlying paranoid position. Descriptive personality measure data and two case examples are presented to highlight the dynamics of their offending behavior.

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Chapter
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CHESSSS is an open source project we propose to the Rorschach community. It can be freely distributed and adjusted to one’s particular needs. We have paid much attention to make it as efficient and user-friendly an application as possible. Its use and even its programming do not require a high level of skills in informatics. This project provides solutions for issues concerning computing Rorschach Supplementary Scales, interrater reliability, standardization of Form Quality tables across countries, the search for items in the FQ tables, and the creation of databases. It also addresses the complexity of RCS interpretation. We do hope that CHESSSS will help clinicians, researchers and students to manage their own data as desired in a free and autonomous manner. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The authors review Yochelson and Samenow's (1977) model of the criminal mind. They propose a levels hypothesis for understanding the relationship among object relations, defensive operations, and the conscious cognitive-behavioral style of the psychopath. They advocate the addition of an explicit psychodynamic dimension to Yochelson and Samenow's model. A hypothetical case is presented to illustrate the relationship between unconscious defense process and conscious cognitive-behavioral style of the psychopathic personality.
Article
We examined the usefulness of scores on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) in predicting treatment program violations among 76 sexual offenders civilly committed as sexually violent predators. Scores on the Borderline Features scale (area under the curve [AUC] = .69, p = .005) and Negative Relationships subscale (BOR-N: AUC = .71, p < .001) were the strongest predictors of misconduct, outperforming scores on scales designed to predict poor treatment amenability and antisocial behavior. Incremental validity analyses indicated that BOR scores made a significant contribution to the prediction of misconduct after controlling for scores on measures of overall self-reported distress (e.g., Mean Clinical Elevation, Negative Impression), which were also predictive of program violations. Overall, our findings point to the potential utility of integrating components of treatment for borderline personality disorder into sex offender treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Although a great deal of literature pertains to male sex offenders, it is not known whether these research findings are applicable to female sex offenders because little empirical research regarding female sex offenders exists. Currently, females make up approximately one percent to two percent of all sex offenders. This article includes a case review of the 40 registered female sex offenders in the state of Arkansas. The female sex offenders are compared to the registered male sex offenders in Arkansas. The majority of the female sex offenders were found to be Caucasian with an average age of 31 at the time of the first sex offense. Most of the offenders had a history of only one sex offense with no other criminal history. Most of the offenders were arrested for rape or first-degree sexual abuse. Females were slightly younger the male sex offenders at the time of arrest for their initial sex offense. Females were significantly more likely to be first-time offeders at the time of rest for their first sex offenders. The article concludes that female sex offenders differ slightly from males, indicating the need for the development of a new sex offender typology.
Article
Psychopathology and maladaptive personality functioning are purported to play a significant role in the aetiology of sexual offending (e.g. Ahlmeyer et al., 2003; Murray, 2000). The present study examined whether this applied to those individuals who commit sexual offences against children via the Internet. The sample consisted of 30 Internet sex offenders, all completing mandatory 3-year community rehabilitation orders. Participants were administered the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and two questionnaires pertaining to demographic characteristics and personal history. Results indicated that Internet sex offenders differed significantly from the normal population on a number of PAI scales, most strikingly: Warmth, Dominance, and Depression. This suggests that Internet offenders may experience deficits in interpersonal functioning and affective difficulties. Significant correlations were also found between hours per week spent accessing indecent images of children and PAI scales assessing Schizophrenia, Borderline Features, Depression, and Warmth. These findings are considered in relation to current empirical research and implications for therapeutic practice and future research are discussed.
Article
The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is adapted to measure cognitions regarding self and children in 27 male child molesters and 29 male nonsexual offenders. As expected, child molesters view children as more sexually attractive than do nonsexual offenders. Among the child molesters, viewing children as more sexually attractive is associated with greater risk of sexual recidivism as measured by the Static-99. Viewing children as more powerful is associated with greater risk of sexual recidivism as measured by the Rapid Risk Assessment for Sexual Offense Recidivism. Although not all hypotheses are supported, this study demonstrates that the IAT has much promise as a tool with which to study cognitions associated with sexual abuse of children.
Article
Despite the dramatic increase in the number of convicted child pornography offenders, little is known about their potential clinical needs. The few studies that do explore this subgroup of sex offenders suggest clinical heterogeneity compared with other sex offender subgroups. However, research designs used in many studies have limited generalizability, have examined primarily treated or treatment samples, and have not included comparisons with nontreatment, community samples of men. The current study addresses such limitations by using nontreatment samples and multiple comparison groups to examine mean scales score differences on a commonly used clinical and personality assessment, the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). The sample, drawn from an admissions cohort of federal offenders, those Internet-only Child Pornography Offenders (ICPOs; n = 35) and those with a history of child molesting exclusively (child molesters, n = 26). They were compared with each other and the male normative sample from the PAI. Results indicate that interpersonal deficits and depression featured most prominently in the profiles of the ICPOs. Consistent with prior research, they also obtained lower scores on aggression and dominance compared with the child molesters and the male normative sample. Implications for future research, training, and clinical practice with incarcerated ICPOs are offered.
Article
The current study was a chart review of 31 female sex offenders (FSO), 31 male sex offenders (MSO), 31 female violent offenders (FO), and 31 male violent offenders (MO) using a 2 (female or male) by 2 (sex or violent offender) design. This is the first known study to employ three control groups when researching female sex offenders. Multiple variables appeared related to gender and crime. However, some variables emerged as FSO specific. They reported the least alcohol abuse history and had fewer admissions of guilt to the crime than the two violent offender samples. More FSOs knew their victim and were biologically related to their victim than MSOs. Lastly, the FSO sample was the least discriminating as to their victim’s gender and had the highest overall rate of sexual victimization.
Article
We examined the ability of scores from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) to predict postrelease (M = 4.90 years follow-up) arrests in a sample of 1,412 sex offenders. We focused on scores from 4 PAI measures conceptually relevant to offending, including the Antisocial Features (ANT), Aggression (AGG), and Dominance (DOM) scales, as well as the Violence Potential Index (VPI). Scores from several PAI measures demonstrated small- to medium-sized effects in predicting violent nonsexual recidivism, nonviolent recidivism, and sex offender registry violations, with the AGG scale being the strongest (d = 0.50 for violent nonsexual recidivism, d = 0.55 for sex offender registry violations) and most consistent predictor of recidivism.