Article

Organisationale Technokulturen: Kritik und Humor in der „Industrie 4.0“

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Abstract

Zusammenfassung Der Artikel untersucht organisationskulturelle Praktiken der Technikkritik im Kontext der „Industrie 4.0“. Empirische Grundlage ist die ethnographische Untersuchung der Aneignung algorithmischer Arbeitssteuerung durch Produktionsbeschäftigte in zwei Industrieunternehmen. Als Analyserahmen für die geteilten kulturellen Bezüge der Beschäftigten auf die digitalen Technologien wird der Begriff der organisationalen Technokulturen vorgeschlagen. Dabei können offizielle Technokulturen kontrastiert werden mit Technokulturen der Kritik. Während erstere eine Techniknutzung entsprechend den Organisationszielen propagieren, grenzen sich letztere von diesen ab und stellen stattdessen den Eigensinn der Akteure ins Zentrum. Inwiefern sich diese Technokulturen manifestieren, ist stark kontextabhängig. In Situationen, in denen das Management der untersuchten Unternehmen nicht anwesend war, manifestierte sich die Kritik der Beschäftigten in expliziten und vehementen Anklagen digitaler Würdeverletzungen. Aber auch im Arbeitsalltag kam es zu kritischen Aneignungspraktiken. Diese nahmen vor allem die weitgehend gefahrlose Form des subversiven Humors an. Entgegen einer Position, die Beschäftigte als passive Objekte oder als ‚Komplizen‘ digitaler Kontrollregime versteht, kann hier gezeigt werden, dass die Beschäftigten spezifische interpretative Kompetenzen entwickeln, um Freiheitsräume auszumachen und Kritik zu üben.

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... Der Grund dafür liegt in seiner inhärenten Tendenz, sich an Projekten zu beteiligen, die von Teilen der Belegschaft abgelehnt werden, was zu einer Entfremdung von den offiziellen Organisationen führt. Dies führt wiederum, wie andernorts dargelegt(Schaupp 2021b), dazu, dass sich Konflikte in die Aneignungsarena verschieben, also auf die Ebene des unmittelbaren Arbeitsprozesses, in dem verschiedene Formen des Widerstands gegen Digitalisierungsprojekte geübt werden -Digitalisierungsprojekte, die von Gewerkschaft oder Betriebsrat befürwortet wurden und werden. Die technopolitische Strategie der Industriegewerkschaften im Umgang mit industrieller Digitalisierung lässt sich insgesamt als gestaltungsorientiert-kooperativ beschreiben. ...
... In the case of Smart Delivery, this division is also manifested on a cultural level as a stark difference between the official organisational culture in the complete organisation and organisational subcultures in the partial organisation. As we have seen in section 4, however, the decoupling between complete and partial organisation structurally requires the possibility of the emergence of deviant organisational subcultures (Fantasia, 1989;Schaupp, 2021;Jermier et al., 1991). ...
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[Die] Überschrift [entspricht dem] Titel eines Buches. [Meine] Aufgabe [ist] nicht, [den] Inhalt dieses Buches zu referieren. Statt dessen [werde ich] Elemente einer soziologischen Theorie der Organisation [darlegen]. Im einzelnen [handelt es sich um] vier Teile: (1) was ist Organisation im Unterschied zu anderen sozialen Systemen, (2) was leistet Organisation; [das ist die] Frage nach der Funktion, [es folgt die] Diskussion (3) [der] Konsequenzen für das Verhältnis von Organisation und Umwelt [und] (4) [der] Konsequenzen für Rationalisierung.
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