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Abstract

The administration process of the Rorschach test is of utmost importance as it influences both the coding and the interpretative procedures. Performing it appropriately requires complex skills, knowledge, and solid training. The aim of the study is to describe students’ interests in and difficulties with administering the Rorschach (Comprehensive System) for the first time. A two-phase methodology, including an analysis of questionnaire responses followed by a study of students’ written narratives, using Iramuteq textual analysis software, was implemented with two different samples of third-year undergraduates (including 63 and 253 participants, respectively), recruited from a French psychology school. Our results show that students have a strong interest in understanding the test and wish to use it in their future practice. When administering the Rorschach for the first time, students find it difficult to cope with the complexity of the procedures at a technical, emotional, and relational level.

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Exner’s (1995a) Issues and Methods in Rorschach Research provided a standard of care for conducting Rorschach research; however, the extent to which studies have followed these guidelines has not been examined. Similarly, meta-analytic approaches have been used to comment on the validity of Exner’s Comprehensive System (CS) variables without an evaluation as to the extent that individual studies have conformed to the proposed methodological criteria (Exner, 1995a; Gacono, Loving, & Bodholdt, 2001). In this article, 210 studies cited in recent meta-analyses by Mihura, Meyer, Dumitrascu, and Bombel (2013) were examined. The studies were analyzed in terms of being research on the Rorschach versus research with the Rorschach and whether they met the threshold of validity/generalizability related to specific Rorschach criteria. Only 104 of the 210 (49.5%) studies were research on the Rorschach and none met all five Rorschach criteria assessed. Trends and the need for more stringent methods when conducting Rorschach research were presented.
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Personality tests, long a mainstay of clinical training, comprise a diminishing portion of the graduate school curriculum despite increasing evidence of their validity. While defensible given the expanded assessment toolkit and other innovations of contemporary clinical practice, this trend has some limitations. For example, the open-ended verbal productions elicited by sentence stems and story prompts closely resemble the material generated by clients in therapy. Mastery of systematic approaches to the coding of sentence completions and TAT stories enables students to develop interpretive skills that will serve them well in standard clinical practice. This paper highlights several rationales to support this conclusion.
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Objective: The aim of this study was to contribute to differential diagnoses of unipolar and bipolar depression using cognitive variables of the Rorschach test (Comprehensive System). Method: One hundred forty one depressed inpatients (71 bipolar, 70 unipolar; mean age = 46, SD = 15.8; 64% women) previously evaluated and comparable regarding clinical characteristics of their illness (including current mood symptoms) were blindly tested using the Rorschach test (C.S.). Results: The cognitive profile of bipolar depressed patients was more impaired than the cognitive profile of unipolar depressed patients. Combining four cognitive specificities (tolerance to ambiguity, discrimination failure, difficulties in controlling ideational impulses, and impulsive or negligent processing) in a logistic regression model allows the identification of bipolarity with acceptable accuracy. Conclusions: Some aspects of cognitive functioning, as assessed with the Rorschach test (CS), appear to be useful to capture some important cognitive specificities of bipolar depression and could contribute to differential diagnoses of mood disorders.
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Introduction. – La promotion d’une nouvelle Stratégie nationale pour l’autisme (2018-2022) concrétise l’intérêt croissant et justifié des politiques publiques pour le diagnostic des personnes présentant des troubles du spectre autistique (TSA) qui en est l’une des priorités principales. Les démarches diagnostiques standardisées et recommandées par les autorités de santé peuvent présenter leurs limites notamment dans les cas complexes soulevant la question du diagnostic différentiel, ce qui conduit les praticiens à se tourner vers d’autres outils dont peut faire partie le test de Rorschach. Objectifs. – Nous voulons présenter le test de Rorschach comme constituant un outil porteur d’une approche clinique diagnostique différente et ampliative des modalités diagnostiques déjà pratiquées pour les enfants et les adultes notamment dans ces situations diagnostiques complexes. Méthode. – Un argumentaire présentant les intérêts et les limites du test de Rorschach dans la clinique diagnostique des TSA fait suite à un état des lieux de la pratique du test dans les procédures d’évaluation des TSA en clinique infantile et adulte, et sera illustré par une synthèse des études internationales princeps et actuelles soulignant le potentiel différentiel de l’outil. Résultats. – Le test de Rorschach parait présenter un potentiel diagnostique encourageant qui reste à confirmer en mettant en dialogue les résultats issus des différentes études aux épistémologies différentes qu’il faudra ensuite vérifier avec des études aux méthodologies comprenant des cohortes de sujets plus importantes. Conclusions. – Le test de Rorschach parait être un outil prometteur ouvrant à une approche diagnostique des TSA différente susceptible d’apporter un regard nouveau et complémentaire nourrissant les recherches et pratiques cliniques. ------------ Introduction. – The French government announced its new National Autism Strategy (2018-2022), particularly underlining the growing public interest in diagnosing people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), one of this text five major commitments. Thus, Health authorities develop guidelines in which are proposed standardized approaches and recommended diagnostic tools to do so. However this protocol may reach limits, especially in complex cases raising the issue of differential diagnosis. Therefore, this clinical problem leads practitioners to turn to other tools that may include the Rorschach Inkblot test. Objectifs. – This article aims to present the Rorschach test as a tool to support a different and ampliative clinical diagnostic approach for children and adults, especially in these complex diagnostic situations. Methods. – A global presentation will examine the current situation of the tool already used by some practitioners but which does not find its place in the recommended diagnostic procedures. Then, we will focus on the interests and the limits of the Rorschach test for autism spectrum disorders diagnostic. Finally, we will conclude by deepening these aspects in the context of the major problem of differentiating ASD from other psychiatric disorders supported by an integrative review of the literature on the original and current studies around this issue. Results. – The integration of the Rorschach test into ASD diagnostic procedures is possible and even brings complementary data to those sought in the psychological assessment that led to take into account the holistic dimensions of the individual. We argue that this complementarity is also expressed because of the specificities of the test in terms of spatial configuration, conditions of administration, type of data collected and intersubjective relationship. This projective situation appeared non-invasive and adapted to ASD peculiarities. The literature review shows that research on the Rorschach test is emerging in France and around the world since this test seems to highlight particularly interesting indicators related to the autistic semiological characteristics but also the singular cognitive and affective psychological functioning of the individual. These quantitative and qualitative Rorschach elements seem to be able to help clinicians for making a differential diagnosis. The Rorschach test presents a promising diagnostic potential that remains to be confirmed by bringing the results from different studies with different epistemologies into dialogue and which will have to be statistically verified by larger cohorts studies. Conclusions. – The Rorschach test appears to be a promising tool that opens up a different approach to the diagnosis of ASD that can bring a new and complementary perspective to research and clinical practice. Further research is to be expected.
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As part of the conference on the Teaching of Psychology, which took place on September 16th and 17th 2016 at Ecole de Psychologues Praticiens, a round table on the teaching of psychology form the point of view of students and teachers has been organized. In order to serve the students’ point of view, we conducted a survey with 235 French university students in psychology training. We present results that focus on opinions about the more and the less important courses, the teaching of research, the links between courses in the same year and during the training curriculum, courses formats, evaluation and learning styles. The results are discussed with reference to the contributions of the literature concerning university pedagogy, in particular the evaluation of teaching by the students, and the problems of training in psychology in France. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1269176317300287
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Learning to code the imagery, communication, and behavior associated with Rorschach responding is challenging. Although there is some survey research on graduate students' impressions of their Rorschach training, research has not identified which coding decisions students find to be the most problematic and time-consuming. We surveyed students to identify what they struggled with most when learning coding and to quantify how difficult it is to learn how to code. Participants (n = 191) from the United States, Brazil, Denmark, Israel, and Italy rated 57 aspects of coding using a 4-point scale that encompassed both the time required to code and the subjective difficulty of doing so. Mean ratings for coding in general indicated that students considered the overall task challenging. Ratings also revealed that students struggled most with Cognitive Special Scores, Determinants, and extrapolating from the tables to code Form Quality for objects that were not specifically listed. The findings offer suggestions about how to improve the guidelines for some of the more difficult variables and where it is most necessary to focus teaching time. Taking these steps might help new students in learning the Rorschach.
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We surveyed American Psychological Association-accredited clinical psychology doctoral programs' (n = 83) training in psychological assessment-specifically, their coverage of various assessment topics and tests in courses and practica, and whether the training was optional or required. We report results overall and separately per training model (clinical science, scientist-practitioner, and practitioner-focused). Overall, our results suggest that psychological assessment training is as active, or even more active, than in previous years. Areas of increased emphasis include clinical interviewing and psychometrics; multimethod, outcomes, health, and collaborative or therapeutic assessment; and different types of cognitive and self-report personality tests. All or almost all practice-focused programs offered training with the Thematic Apperception Test and Rorschach compared to about half of the scientist-practitioner programs and a third of the clinical science programs. Although almost all programs reported teaching multimethod assessment, what constitutes different methods of assessing psychopathology should be clarified in future studies because many programs appear to rely on one method-self-report (especially clinical science programs). Although doctoral programs covered many assessment topics and tests in didactic courses, there appears to be a shortage of program-run opportunities for students to obtain applied assessment training. Finally, we encourage doctoral programs to be familiar with (a) internships' assessment expectations and opportunities, (b) the professional guidelines for assessment training, and
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One perspective on construction safety practice and knowledge sees them as mutually constituted and intertwined. As such, it is important that construction safety research generates knowledge and understanding which is closely connected with safe working practices across contexts. This paper reviews the construction safety literature in order to explore the extent to which the knowledge generated by research considers the situated nature of safety learning and, therefore, addresses the needs of industry practice. The research methods adopted in 88 construction safety articles published by five highly-ranked international journals and one international conference proceedings were evaluated. The analytical results show that nearly half (43.2%) of the safety papers used quantitative methods while about a quarter (23.9%) applied qualitative methods and very few (9.1%) adopted mixed methods research. The remainder was review or conceptual papers. The implications of the research methods adopted in the 88 papers are discussed in terms of their relationship with the kinds of safety knowledge, safety learning processes, and safety management practices that they inform and/or generate. It is argued that a greater use of mixed methods research might act to better integrate the realms of theory and practice by enabling the co-production of safety theories and knowledge between university researchers and industry practitioners. The research design proposed in this paper provides a framework as a point of departure for academic researchers and industry practitioners to work together to improve construction safety performance.
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This study updates three similar investigations conducted in 1981, 1991, and 2001 on APA Division of Psychotherapy members in order to paint a contemporary portrait of psychologists conducting psychotherapy and to chronicle historical trends among Division 29 members. Four hundred twenty-eight psychologists (43% response) completed a questionnaire in 2012 regarding their demographic characteristics, professional activities, theoretical orientations, employment settings, and career experiences. The results point to an increasingly female and aging membership, which continues to be employed primarily in private practices and universities. Psychodynamic (27%), integrative (25%), and cognitive (17%) orientations continue to prevail. Professional activities have remained quite similar across the past 30 years with the exception of declines in projective testing and growth in neuropsychological and health testing. Training and career satisfactions remain high as well. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
A new scoring system called RN-Rorschach was developed in Norway to provide a simple system focusing on clinical usefulness, with acceptable psychometric properties and with a high level of compatibility with the Comprehensive System (CS). The Rorschach method is a demanding method, and the CS may be too complex for learning the basic aspects of the Rorschach method, especially for students in introductory courses. Experience from teaching in introductory courses indicates that the goal of a simple and useful system has been achieved. Data on psychometric properties indicate that interscorer reliability is generally high. Two overall iota (ι) estimates were found to be .85 and .93. Future developments of Rorschach scoring are discussed.
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This chapter addresses the conceptual basis of Rorschach interpretation; the development and psychometric characteristics of the instrument; the utility of Rorschach applications; legal issues concerning the admissibility into evidence of Rorschach testimony; cross-cultural considerations in Rorschach assessment; the computerization of Rorschach results; and the current and future status of the instrument. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study addresses the effects of structured training on the development of Rorschach coding skills of graduate trainees and broadens the empirical base regarding student acquisition of these coding skills. A course outline for criterion based training in Rorschach scoring is reviewed. A training approach will be described that emphasizes a progressive "vertical" or "response segment" sequence to scoring training. The effects of this structured training protocol for graduate students Rorschach coding of Exner Comprehensive System criterion-scored protocols resulted in good to excellent levels of interrater reliability. The implications of these findings for training in Rorschach coding skills are discussed.
Article
A questionnaire on teaching of the Rorschach technique was sent to all APA-approved graduate clinical psychology programs in the United States and Canada. The questionnaire asked for the degree of emphasis placed on the Rorschach in the primary assessment course, the Rorschach teaching experience of the respondent and the respondent's evaluation of the technique as a clinical tool, a teaching aid and a research instrument. The respondent in each case was the faculty member teaching the major diagnostic assessment course. There was a 100% return of the questionnaires. The major results show that (1) 81% of the programs place major emphasis on the Rorschach Technique in the assessment course; (2) only 24% of the programs offer the course for a full year; (3) respondents with more than 10 years teaching experience rated the Rorschach higher than respondents with less experience, and (4) respondents as a group rated the Rorschach highly as a clinical tool and teaching aid, but gave it generally low ratings as a research instrument.
Article
A questionnaire on teaching of the Rorschach technique was sent to all APA-approved graduate clinical psychology programs in the United States and Canada. The survey represents a 10-year update of a study conducted in 1974 and reported in 1976. The questionnaire asked for the degree of emphasis placed on the Rorschach in the curriculum; the Rorschach teaching experience of the Rorschach instructor; the instructor's evaluation of the technique as a clinical tool, a teaching aid, and a research instrument, and a list of the instructional material used to teach the Rorschach. Based on a 93% return of questionnaires, the major results show that 88% of the programs place major emphasis on the Rorschach in at least one assessment course (compared to 86% in 1974); in contrast to the results of the 1974 survey, there were no differences between the ratings of highly experienced and moderately experienced instructors; as in 1974, instructors as a group highly rated the Rorschach as a clinical tool and teaching aid, but gave it generally low ratings as a research instrument; and the results clearly indicate that the Exner Comprehensive System is widely used as an instructional method.
Article
American Psychological Association graduate student affiliates (500) were sent surveys regarding their Rorschach training experiences and interests. From 254 valid surveys, 87% of students reported that they were offered an introductory course that included the Rorschach; only about one fourth of the students were offered an advanced course. Of the students (212) who had some Rorschach training, the majority (78%) indicated they would like to obtain more. Most students viewed the Rorschach as helpful for understanding a client's personality. More training is needed, however, in applying this understanding to treatment planning and client feedback. Students were more satisfied with their training when they (a) had more Rorschach experience (didactic, practical, and research familiarity), (b) were in a psychodynamic or eclectic versus cognitive-behavioral program, (c) were pursuing a clinical PsyD versus clinical PhD, and (d) perceived a more positive attitude toward the Rorschach in their training program. All of these variables (including training satisfaction) also were related to students' expected likelihood of using the Rorschach in their professional careers.
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