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Healthy Foaming agents use in oxygen cocktails

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The effect of high intensity ultrasound (HIUS) may produce structural modifications on proteins through a friendly environmental process. Thus, it can be possible to obtain aggregates with a determined particle size, and altering a defined functional property at the same time. The objective of this work was to explore the impact of HIUS on the functionality of a denatured soy protein isolate (SPI) on foaming and interfacial properties. SPI solutions at pH 6.9 were treated with HIUS for 20min, in an ultrasonic processor at room temperature, at 75, 80 and 85°C. The operating conditions were: 20kHz, 4.27±0.71W and 20% of amplitude. It was determined the size of the protein particles, before and after the HIUS treatment, by dynamic light scattering. It was also analyzed the interfacial behavior of the different systems as well as their foaming properties, by applying the whipping method. The HIUS treatment and HIUS with temperature improved the foaming capacity by alteration of particle size whereas stability was not modified significantly. The temperature of HIUS treatment (80 and 85°C) showed a synergistic effect on foaming capacity. It was found that the reduction of particle size was related to the increase of foaming capacity of SPI. On the other hand, the invariable elasticity of the interfacial films could explain the stability of foams over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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The aim of this work was to study the foaming, gelling and rheological properties of albumen as simultaneously affected by the housing system (i.e. conventional cage, organic and barn) and the age of layers (27, 30, 35, 43, 53 and 68 weeks). Significant effects of the two considered factors and of their interactions were found for almost all the studied properties. In particular, with the increasing of the hen age, a loss in albumen consistency and a weakening of the albumen gel structure were observed. As regards the housing system, differences observed, even if statistically significant, were little and unlikely to have a real effect on technological performances of the eggs when used as food ingredients. Significant correlations amongst technological properties of albumen and its pH and protein content were also found.
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Fruit peels are generally considered as waste. This may not hold true for all types of fruit peels. Therefore, an attempt has been made to reveal the protective role of Citrus sinensis, Punica granatum, and Musa paradisiaca peel extracts in diet-induced atherosclerosis and thyroid dysfunction in rats. Wistar albino male rats were fed an atherogenic diet composed of 4% cholesterol, 1% cholic acid, and 0.5% 2-thiouracil (CCT) for 14 days to induce atherosclerosis and were then treated with one of the standardized doses of a peel extract (25 mg/kg of C sinensis, 200 mg/kg of P granatum, or 100 mg/kg of M paradisiaca) for 10 consecutive days. At the end of the experimental period, changes in the levels of different serum lipids, thyroid hormones, insulin, and tissue and serum lipid peroxidation were determined in rats. In addition, histologic evaluation of liver, heart, and kidney were compared between the CCT-fed rats and those that received both the CCT diet as well as the peel extracts. In rats fed the CCT diet alone, there was an increase in tissue lipid peroxidation, serum lipids, and glucose, with a parallel decrease in the levels of triiodothyronine and thyroxine, insulin, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Abnormal histologic observations such as fatty liver with vacuolated hepatocytes, fatty cyst and nucleus pushed to periphery, and increased cardiomyocyte width and mild damage in renal tissues were seen in these rats. However, simultaneous treatment with C sinensis, P granatum, or M paradisiaca extract ameliorated most of the biochemical and histopathologic alterations induced by the CCT diet, suggesting the protective role of these fruit peels against diet-induced atherosclerosis and thyroid dysfunction.
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In this work, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was added into whipped cream for improving its textural and whipping properties. By determination of the particle size distribution, a single peak for the emulsion after homogenization and two distinguishable peaks for the emulsion after whipping for 5 min were observed. With the increase of HPMC level, the average particle size (d3,2) decreased for the emulsion after homogenization and increased for the emulsion after whipping for 5 min. Both whipping time and HPMC level showed positive effects on the partial coalescence of fat globules. The partial coalescence of whipped cream with 0.125% HPMC after whipping for 5 min reached 56.25%, significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that (4.77%) without whipping treatment. Surface protein concentration was measured to evaluate the change of protein content at the droplet interface. The results indicated that the increase of HPMC level could decrease the surface protein concentration slightly. The overrun of whipped cream slightly increased when the HPMC level increased in the range of 0.025–0.125%. Firmness, cohesiveness, consistency and viscosity of whipped cream were analysed in this work. HPMC showed a positive dose-dependent effect on all these textural properties.
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Ten female subjects consumed a fiber concentrate made from citrus fruits under strict dietary control in a randomized cross over study comprising 2 experimental periods each of 4 wk duration. The citrus fiber concentrate contained 68.6 g total dietary fiber per 100 g, half of which was soluble. The fiber preparation was incorporated into various fiber free or low fiber foods in an amount providing 24 g total dietary fiber daily. The control diet contained these foods but without added fiber. Total dietary fiber intake was 21.2 and 45.1 g/d during the control and the high fiber diet periods, respectively. When the control diet was fed, mean total serum cholesterol levels remained stable, whereas high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was reduced by 6.5% after 4 wk. When the citrus fiber was consumed for 4 wk, both serum total and HDL-cholesterol levels were decreased significantly by 10.6 and 14.5%, respectively. The addition of citrus fiber to the diet increased fecal wet and dry weight by 1.5 and 0.2 g, respectively, per gram of additional fiber. Fecal excretions of both energy and nitrogen were increased due to the intake of citrus fiber, whereas fecal fat was not affected. The additional fiber source was fermented completely. The partial digestible energy value of the citrus fiber was calculated to be 12 kJ (2.9 kcal)/g.
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Surface-active polysaccharides are attracting increasing interest for use in a variety of applications. Amongst these, methylcellulose (MC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) have been developed, in part, for their foam and emulsion stabilising properties, together with their water holding and viscosity enhancing properties. The aim of this research is to quantify the competitive adsorption between proteins and MC/HPMC, as they are often used together in many applications, and the results of potential effects of competition are unknown.Two proteins were compared; β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and β-casein (BCAS). BLG forms an elastic interface, whereas BCAS does not. Hence, BCAS is displaced by surfactants more easily than BLG. The surface rheology, surface tension and foam stability of the mixed protein:polysaccharide systems were determined to elucidate the mechanism and consequences of competition.In contrast to surfactants, both MC and HPMC formed highly elastic interfaces, more elastic even than BLG. Both HPMC and MC were more surface active than the proteins, therefore at higher MC and HPMC concentrations, the polysaccharides began to dominate the interfacial properties. Whereas surfactants reduce the elasticity of the protein adsorbed layer, the elastic properties of the polysaccharides enhanced the overall strength of the interface, which will potentially result in more stable foams.
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High dietary fibre (DF) powders from Persian and Mexican lime peels were prepared and their dietary fibre composition and antioxidant capacities determined. The total dietary fibre (TDF) contents of both varieties were high; 70.4% and 66.7%, respectively. Both lime peel varieties had an appropriate ratio of soluble/insoluble fractions. The water-holding capacities (WHC) of DF concentrates are high (6.96–12.8 g/g). The WHC was related to the soluble dietary fibre (SDF) which was higher in the DF concentrate of Mexican lime. As part of this analysis, the antioxidant activity (AA) of total extractable polyphenols (TEP) was studied, using three methods: azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) ABTS radical-scavenging activity, α,α-diphenyl–picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene-linoleic acid antioxidant assay. DF concentrates of Persian lime peel had greater polyphenol contents than those of Mexican lime peel. The polyphenols associated with the DF in both lime peel varieties showed a good AA. From a nutritional standpoint, DF lime concentrates may be suitable as food additives.
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