Conference Paper

Virtual Reality Public Speaking Training: Experimental Evaluation of Direct Feedback Technology Acceptance

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Abstract

Virtual Reality Speech Training (VR-ST) helps trainees develop presentation skills and practice their application in the real world. Another benefit is direct feedback based on gamification principles. It is not yet clear if direct feedback is accepted by participants. We investigated how direct feedback in a VR-ST affects the participants' technology acceptance based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Our study compares a VR-ST with direct feedback (n=100) with a simulation-based VR-ST (n=100). The results show that direct feedback offers benefits to trainees by improving technology acceptance. Further results show that VR-ST is generally more accepted by participants without public speaking anxiety.

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Embodied virtual reality faithfully renders users' movements onto an avatar in a virtual 3D environment, supporting nuanced nonverbal behavior alongside verbal communication. To investigate communication behavior within this medium, we had 30 dyads complete two tasks using a shared visual workspace: negotiating an apartment layout and placing model furniture on an apartment floor plan. Dyads completed both tasks under three different conditions: face-to-face, embodied VR with visible full-body avatars, and no embodiment VR, where the participants shared a virtual space, but had no visible avatars. Both subjective measures of users' experiences and detailed annotations of verbal and nonverbal behavior are used to understand how the media impact communication behavior. Embodied VR provides a high level of social presence with conversation patterns that are very similar to face-to-face interaction. In contrast, providing only the shared environment was generally found to be lonely and appears to lead to degraded communication.
Chapter
The focus of this chapter is on designing engaging educational games for cognitive, motivational, and emotional benefits. The concept of engagement is defined and its relationship with motivation and cognition are discussed. Design issues with many educational games are examined in terms of factors influencing sustained motivation and engagement. A theoretical framework to design engaging digital games is presented, including three dimensions of engagement (i.e., behavioral, cognitive, and emotional). Later, the chapter considers how to harness the appealing power of engaging games for designing engaging educational games. Various motivational features of game design and learner experiences are considered. In conclusion, the chapter also discusses various methods to assess engagement in order to inform the design of educational games that motivate learners.
Article
This study investigates the user experience to clarify what it is like to experience stories in VR (virtual reality) and how immersion influences story experiences in immersive storytelling. This study explores the immersive storytelling context, developing and testing a VR experience model that integrates presence, flow, empathy, and embodiment. The results imply that users’ personal traits correlates immersion in VR: user experience in VR depend on individual traits, which in turns influence how strongly users immerse in a VR. The way users view and accept VR stories derives from the way they envisage and intend to experience them. Rather than simply being influenced by technological features, users have intentional and purposeful control over VR stories. The findings of this study suggest that the cognitive processes by which users experience quality, presence, and flow determine how they will empathize with and embody VR stories.
Article
Objective: Influenza vaccine hesitancy is common in the primary care setting. Though physicians can affect caregivers' attitudes toward vaccination, physicians report uneasiness discussing vaccine hesitancy. Few studies have targeted physician-patient communication training as a means to decrease vaccination refusal. Methods: An immersive virtual reality (VR) curriculum was created to teach pediatric residents communication skills when discussing influenza vaccine hesitancy. This pilot curriculum consisted of three VR simulations during which residents counseled graphical character representatives (avatars) who expressed vaccine hesitancy. Participants were randomized to the intervention (n=24) or the control group (n=21). Only residents in the intervention group underwent the VR curriculum. Impact of the curriculum was assessed through difference in influenza vaccine refusal rates between the intervention and control groups in the three months following the VR curriculum. Results: Participants included postgraduate level (PL) 2 and PL3 pediatric residents. All eligible residents (n=45) participated and the survey response rate was 100%. In patients aged 6-59 months, residents in the intervention group had a decreased rate of influenza vaccination refusal in the post-curriculum period when compared to the control group (27.8% v. 37.1%; p=0.03). Conclusions: This pilot study suggests that immersive VR might be an effective modality to teach communication skills to medical trainees. Next steps include evaluation of the curriculum in a larger, multi-site trial.
Conference Paper
Many individuals exhibit unconscious body movements called mannerisms while speaking. These repeated changes often distract the audience when not relevant to the verbal context. We present an intelligent interface that can automatically extract human gestures using Microsoft Kinect to make speakers aware of their mannerisms. We use a sparsity-based algorithm, Shift Invariant Sparse Coding, to automatically extract the patterns of body movements. These patterns are displayed in an interface with subtle question and answer-based feedback scheme that draws attention to the speaker's body language. Our formal evaluation with 27 participants shows that the users became aware of their body language after using the system. In addition, when independent observers annotated the accuracy of the algorithm for every extracted pattern, we find that the patterns extracted by our algorithm is significantly (p
Chapter
Virtual reality therapy (VRT) is an innovative and emerging paradigm that provides effective modality of therapy by allowing clients to be exposed to similar stimuli as their real-world experiences using a computer-generated virtual reality. Extensive empirical research in VRT attests to the effective uses of this technology in treating many psychological disorders. In this chapter, researchers provide a thorough description of VRT and discuss the paradigm, emergence, trends, technologies, and research in this field. Furthermore, researchers provide concise direction and innovative ideas for the next generation of VRT applications.
Chapter
This paper presents a conceptual model to the gamification process of e-learning environments. This model aims to help identify which elements are involved in the gamification process. To understand which game elements is commonly used by e-learning systems, we analyzed ten different gamified e-learning systems. As a proof of concept, our conceptual model was used in a existing adaptive e-learning system. As future work, we propose to extend the conceptual model, focusing on making it adapted to the students profile and preferences.
Book
Computer-Assisted and Web-Based Innovations in Psychology, Special Education, and Health examines the rapid evolution of technology among educational, behavioral healthcare, and human services professionals from a multidisciplinary perspective. Section I of the book focuses on Technology for Monitoring, Assessment, and Evaluation, featuring chapters about behavioral, affective, and physiological monitoring, actigraphy measurement of exercise and physical activity, technological applications for individuals with learning disabilities/ADHD, and data analysis and graphing. In Section II, Technology for Intervention, the chapters address telehealth technologies for evidence-based psychotherapy, virtual reality therapy, substance use and addictions, and video modeling. The emphasis of Section III is Technology for Special Education, with chapters on computer-based instruction, alternative and augmentative communication, and assistive technologies. Finally, Section IV considers Technology for Training, Supervision, and Practice, specifically web-sourced training and supervision, legal, regulatory, and ethical issues with telehealth modalities, and emerging systems for clinical practice. Computer-Assisted and Web-Based Innovations is a primary resource for educating students, advising professionals about recommended practices, accelerating procedural innovations, and directing research. Reviews thoroughly the extant literature Categorizes the most salient areas of research and practice Comments on future inquiry and application given current technological trends Cites appropriate product information and related websites.
Article
Intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation have been widely studied, and the distinction between them has shed important light on both developmental and educational practices. In this review we revisit the classic definitions of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in light of contemporary research and theory. Intrinsic motivation remains an important construct, reflecting the natural human propensity to learn and assimilate. However, extrinsic motivation is argued to vary considerably in its relative autonomy and thus can either reflect external control or true self-regulation. The relations of both classes of motives to basic human needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness are discussed.
Conference Paper
In this paper, we compare a full body marker set with a reduced rigid body marker set supported by inverse kinematics. We measured system latency, illusion of virtual body ownership, and task load in an applied scenario for inducing acrophobia. While not showing a significant change in body ownership or task performance, results do show that latency and task load are reduced when using the rigid body inverse kinematics solution. The approach therefore has the potential to improve virtual reality experiences.
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Mobile applications on smart phones and tablets and on mobile devices in general have increased the dependence of the user on icons and graphic elements for effective communication via the interface. Well-designed icons and graphics allow the user to recognize without the need of additional instructions the functions available on the mobile device in question. The present paper offers an analysis of graphic representation by means of icons for mobile devices. In terms of semiotics, the function of representation involves emphasizing the relationship between the object and the interpretant. In particular , we examine how far any icon represents the meaning of the function for which it has been designed, chosen and installed by the mobile phone manufacturer and designer. Among the chief findings are (1) graphical representation affects the recognition rate of icons and influences user perception and (2) there are significant differences in performance in recognizing icons among different age groups.
Article
This study investigated the effects of a counselor's eye contact on the counselor's communication of facultative conditions. 48 undergraduate and graduate majors in education were randomly assigned to one of six types of 10-min. counseling sessions, representing two levels of eye direction (eye-to-eye and eye-to-nose/mouth) and three amounts of eye contact (high, medium, low). Interviews were videotaped. All subjects met with the same counselor. Interrater reliability was .87 for the counselor's maintenance of amount of eye contact and .03 for direction. Two raters independently assessed the counselor's communicated facilitative conditions with high agreement. A two-way analysis of variance with Scheffé's comparisons showed that the communication of respect and genuineness is positively and significantly related to greater eye contact.
Conference Paper
It is heavily debated within the gamification community whether specific game elements may actually undermine users' intrinsic motivation. This online experiment examined the effects of three commonly employed game design elements -- points, leaderboard, levels -- on users' performance, intrinsic motivation, perceived autonomy and competence in an image annotation task. Implementation of these game elements significantly increased performance, but did not affect perceived autonomy, competence or intrinsic motivation. Our findings suggest that points, levels and leaderboards by themselves neither make nor break users' intrinsic motivation in non-game contexts. Instead, it is assumed that they act as progress indicators, guiding and enhancing user performance. While more research on the contextual factors that may potentially mediate the effects of game elements on intrinsic motivation is required, it seems that the implementation of points, levels, and leaderboards is a viable means to promote specific user behavior in non-game contexts.