Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The first general women’s strikes to demand gender equality in Spain took place on 8 March 2018 and 2019. Both calls were an amazing success, becoming world references for feminism. This research investigates how the strikes were dealt with through Twitter by a Collective Symbolic Coping (CSC) process. Discourses on Twitter were analysed on both years, 4,384 tweets were selected and their content was analysed by lexical analysis. The results from 2018 indicated the CSC phases of 1) awareness; 2) divergence, where feminist demands and the role of men in the strike were debated; and 3) convergence, where the success of the strike was highlighted. However, in 2019 the feminists on Twitter were forced to cope with a great deal of trolling against them. This trolling was maintained in the awareness and divergence phases, making it difficult to reach a convergent discourse regarding the success of the strike. Moreover, the results also demonstrated that there was no reference hashtag in the strikes. It is concluded that discourse on social networks has become a key factor in feminist social mobilizations and that this feminist digital activism will be critical in the continued dissemination of the claims for gender equality in Spain.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... From this research, we conclude that social networks are becoming a field of special interest for analyzing contemporary changes. In particular, some of these studies have analyzed both the evolution of the feminist movement (Idoiaga et al., 2021) and in other cases, violence against women (Idoiaga et al., 2019(Idoiaga et al., , 2020 pointing out that social networks are creating counter-movements that can also be extrapolated to civil society, both in support of victims and victim-blaming. It is therefore necessary to be very attentive to these counter-movements to know at what point violence against women is legitimized in each society. ...
... Moreover, several studies have shown the possibilities of the feminist digital discourse and its potential for transforming individual opinions into effective strategies for action (Sánchez-Duarte & Fernández-Romero, 2017). In fact, several authors have pointed out that the feminist contents that work best on the Internet are those that are written in the first person and that politicize daily experiences with which anyone can identify (Idoiaga et al., 2021;Keller et al., 2018). ...
... A limitation of this work is that our findings are not representative of society as a whole, but only of certain Facebook users. It is also important to consider that although feminist users have an increasing presence in social networks, there are also growing online groups of misogynists that legitimize violence against women in their posts (Idoiaga et al., 2021). In the same vein, the study sample also has certain limitations that should be highlighted. ...
Article
The digital sphere has become a space in which misogyny-laden discourses are constantly presented. In fact, in Mexico persists a rape culture that justifies violent acts against women and blames the victims of the crimes through social opinions. The present study proposed an approach based on the Theory of Social Representations. In this sense, this study aimed to analyze the discourses that emerge in the digital sphere when users give their opinion on five types of crimes against women: femicide, rape, enforced disappearance, abuse, and sexual harassment. The results revealed that there are four types of discourse (representations) framed within rape culture: disbelief of rape, blaming the victim, revictimization, and disempowering women. It is concluded that Mexican society maintains a representation that stereotypes and devalues the image of women, which allows us to understand the aggressions that women suffer in their daily lives.
... Antes de la pandemia destacaron experiencias ciberactivistas centradas en denunciar las violencias contras las mujeres, como las ciber movilizaciones representadas por los hashtags #NiUnaMenos (Laudano, 2019), #Cuéntalo (Fallarás, 2019) o #·EstaEsNuestraManada (Orbegozo-Terradillos et al., 2019), referidas especialmente al mundo latino. En el contexto internacional, constituyen hitos significativos e ilustrativos del activismo digital feminista experiencias como el surgimiento y la consolidación del hashtag #Metoo (octubre de 2017) (Page & Arcy, 2019;Hosterman et al., 2018) para denunciar la agresión y el abuso sexual practicado por el productor de cine estadounidense Harvey Weinstein; las celebraciones del 8 de marzo, Día Internacional de las Mujeres Trabajadoras, especialmente de los años 2017 y 2018 (Laudano, 2018;Idoiaga-Mondragon et al., 2021), y la viralización de la performance participativa Un violador en tu camino creada por el colectivo feminista Lastesis (noviembre de 2019) (Serafini, 2020;Pinto-Veas & Bello-Navarro, 2022;Iwama, 2022). ...
Article
Full-text available
El artículo examina el uso de Twitter por parte de las activistas digitales feministas para desmitificar la figura de Diego Armando Maradona en el ciberespacio tras su deceso, el 25 de noviembre de 2020. El deportista representa al mismo tiempo un ídolo en el mundo del fútbol –mito maradoniano– y un personaje objeto de rechazo por sus actuaciones violentas contra distintos colectivos, entre ellos, el de las mujeres. Se analiza la contribución de los públicos interactivos para construir y deconstruir este mito a partir de los resultados del análisis de más de cinco millones de tuits procesados con técnicas de Big data en Pajek y Gephi. Se detectan 23 comunidades que participan mayoritariamente en la conversación para mitificar a Maradona, aunque uno de cada cuatro tuits critica o reprueban su figura. Los contenidos acordes con los postulados feministas lideran el colectivo de voces críticas y contribuyen a superar la problemática del silencio que perjudica a la libertad de expresión en el espacio público digital e interconectado, si bien también evidencian un impacto limitado de las interacciones de Twitter para visibilizar y reforzar la lucha feminista en el espacio digital.
... Several authors have already contributed to framing fourth-wave feminism as a connected or networked feminism, which was internationally raised by the strength of protests such as #MeToo [34,35]. There has also been a strong recent interest in the particularity of Spanish feminism on Twitter [36][37][38], which is the subject of several of the papers that follow. ...
Article
Full-text available
Internet social media is a key space in which the memorial resources of social movements, including the stories and knowledge of previous generations, are organised, disseminated, and reinterpreted. This is especially important for movements such as feminism, which places great emphasis on the transmission of an intangible cultural legacy between its different generations or waves, which are conformed through these cultural transmissions. In this sense, several authors have highlighted the importance of social media and hashtivism in shaping the fourth wave of feminism that has been taking place in recent years (e.g., #metoo). The aim of this article is to present to the scientific community a hybrid methodological proposal for the network and content analysis of audiences and their interactions on Twitter: we will do so by describing and evaluating the results of different research we have carried out in the field of feminist hashtivism. Structural analysis methods such as social network analysis have demonstrated their capacity to be applied to the analysis of social media interactions as a mixed methodology, that is, both quantitative and qualitative. This article shows the potential of a specific methodological process that combines inductive and inferential reasoning with hypothetico-deductive approaches. By applying the methodology developed in the case studies included in the article, it is shown that these two modes of reasoning work best when they are used together.
Article
Full-text available
Background Incest remains one of the great taboos of contemporary society. Secrecy is also crucial in this type of sexual abuse against children, and many victims do not disclose their testimony. This situation changed, when in France in mid-January 2021, the #MeTooIncest movement emerged, and thousands of victims began to reveal the abuse they had suffered as children. Objective To analyze the discourse on Twitter regarding this hashtag to understand how incest abuse has been dealt with through social media debate. In so doing, we expected to identify the main elements that could explain how people have symbolically constructed and engaged with childhood sexual abuse in general and with incest abuse in particular. Participants and setting In total, 20,556 tweets with the hashtag #MeTooIncest written in French were selected by streaming API from January 14 to February 15, 2021. Methods Their content was analyzed by lexical analysis using Iramuteq software (Reinert method). Results Victims found a space for disclosure in this movement, where they felt believed, protected, and supported. This movement also embraced the victims of celebrity abusers, denouncing them and calling for their exclusion from public life. Likewise, at the societal level, this movement pushed for changes in public policies to protect children and emphasized the importance of breaking the public silence or secrecy about incest abuse. Conclusions This wave of testimonies represents a turning point as it has broken the law of silence and allowed the victims to exist in the media space without being questioned.
Article
Full-text available
En el contexto de la cuarta ola del movimiento feminista, este estudio analiza la Red Estatal de Comunicadoras Feministas como resultado de la acción colectiva ciberactivista Las Periodistas Paramos, desarrollada en España a propósito de la huelga del 8M de 2018. A partir de la revisión bibliográfica, la entrevista en profundidad y el análisis de contenido se describen las nuevas formas de organización, las normas grupales y las redes de información generadas por el colectivo. Los resultados demuestran que, con la creación de una estructura en red, la acción colectiva de Las Periodistas Paramos supera los objetivos iniciales para los que fue concebida, cuando logra un consenso en torno a la identidad feminista que antes no existía, alcanza un nivel superior de organización y una institucionalidad representativa propia, con la dinamización y el respaldo del tejido asociativo formal e informal. Se concluye que la fortaleza de los vínculos creados por el capital social de Las Periodistas Paramos en las redes sociales en línea permite que el debate sobre los asuntos que afectan a las mujeres trascienda el espacio digital e involucre a nuevos actores comprometidos con la discusión pública.
Article
Full-text available
RESUMEN Las redes sociales son interpretadas como espacios horizontales y de colectividad que favorecen los usos comunicativos y los modos de interacción de los movimientos sociales. El feminismo contemporáneo es partícipe de los beneficios que ofrecen los medios sociales digitales ya que suponen un medio para su difusión y creación de alianzas, del mismo modo que un nexo de convergencia de las pluralidades y puesta en común. Pero, a su vez, es atravesado por condicionantes inherentes a las redes sociales y propios del discurso neoliberal. Teniendo en cuenta que las redes sociales responden a nuevas vías útiles para el movimiento feminista por su capacidad de organización, difusión de la información y generar conocimientos, este trabajo cuestiona la relación entre dicho movimiento y las redes sociales con el fin de vislumbrar las características del feminismo que se sucede en estas plataformas y los efectos producidos en la agenda feminista. ABSTRACT Social networks are interpreted as horizontal and collective spaces assisting communicative uses and the modes of interaction of social movements. Contemporary feminism benefits from digital social media because we can share information and create alliances. But, at the same time, it is crossed by inherent social networks' conditions associated with neoliberal discourse. Social networks respond to new useful ways for the feminist movement by its capacity for organization, dissemination of information and generate knowledge. This article will identify the relationship between feminism and social networks in order to highlight the characteristics of feminism in these platforms and the effects produced in the feminist agenda.
Article
Full-text available
Presentamos un análisis de las estrategias de comunicación digital empleadas durante la huelga feminista del 8 de marzo de 2018. Coincidiendo con Día Internacional de la Mujer, se convocaron en 170 países huelgas feministas laborales, estudiantiles, de consumo y de cuidados. La jornada estuvo protagonizada por importantes movilizaciones en las principales ciudades. La repercusión mediática, política y social del evento sobrepasó considerablemente las expectativas que parecían haberse depositado en tal evento. Analizamos la actividad de la web elaborada ex-profeso para el evento (http://www.hacialahuelgafeminista.org) y la co-creación de contenidos comunicativos que se articulan a través de la comisión de comunicación, encargada de la relación con medios de comunicación (prensa/TV); el diseño gráfico unitario y la comunicación online tanto interna como externa: correo electrónico, redes sociales y web. Más allá del evento reivindicativo del 8 de marzo, estas plataformas siguen operativas meses después aunque con un nivel de actividad menor y vehiculando informaciones referidas a movilizaciones y acciones reivindicativas que siguen realizándose en el territorio nacional. Reflexionamos sobre los nuevos modelos de artivismo (activismo artístico) a través de la participación de ilustradoras y artistas independientes que pusieron su obra al servicio de dicha causa, mediante sus aportaciones en la cuenta de la red social Instagram. Discutimos finalmente la presencia de Internet (redes sociales, blogs, medios digitales, web…) como espacio de ocupación creativa con propuestas que se alejan de lo performativo y abundan en lo icónico y simbólico.
Article
Full-text available
La investigación analiza las prácticas de ciberactivismo de "Las periodistas paramos" como acción de apoyo a la huelga feminista del 8 de marzo de 2018. A partir del estudio de caso se describen sus estrategias en el espacio digital para visibilizar la protesta. Entre los resultados se obtiene la construcción de una identidad de género, el apoyo de mujeres periodistas a la huelga y un efecto multiplicador en otros colectivos profesionales.
Article
Full-text available
This article examines the narrative and discursive feminist labor of the Swedish 2010 Twitter-initiated #talkaboutit campaign focusing on sexual “gray areas.” The campaign sought to lessen the perceived gap between experience and discourse and work towards an adequate language encompassing difficult sexual situations presented as residing in the gray area between choice and coercion. Autobiographical narratives of negative sexual situations amounting to something less than rape were summoned, produced, and intensively disseminated online and in print media. I mainly analyze the autobiographical stories produced by what could be called the core members of the campaign as they signal the purpose of collective autobiographical storytelling as well as what is sayable and culturally exigent. I analyze how new grounds of contention in between sex and violence are staked out focusing equally on the feminist act of personal/political storytelling and on the story told about sexual “gray areas.” The article discusses the tension between the feminist collective, side-by-side, mode of storytelling and knowledge building and the equally present neoliberal narrative arc which culminates in a subject personally responsible for acting differently next time.
Article
Full-text available
Social media plays an instrumental role in enabling and facilitating social movements. However, this role depends on the complex social issues in a civic community and dynamics of power in movement politics. Existing literature provides little insight into the formative role of social media in social movements; instead, it tends to focus on the informational role and episodic effect of social media in community activism. We present the case of Bersih, a social media-enabled social movement that pushed for electoral reform in Malaysia. The non-partisan community-driven movement exerted public pressure on institutions and gained formal recognition. In this study, we reveal the significant role social media plays in empowering citizens by enabling them to facilitate and coordinate collective action towards producing change in their community. This research is significant in articulating the precise nature of the role of ICT in addressing complex social problems.
Article
Full-text available
This article offers a critical analysis of the uses of the hashtag ‘#feminism’ on Twitter. To do so, we collected all English-language tweets shared publicly and containing the #feminism on Twitter in one 24-hour period and analyzed the content of those tweets. We found tweets with #feminism content served to (1) discuss understandings of feminism(s), (2) describe perceptions of feminists, (3) respond to/promote misogyny, and (4) express perceived relevance of feminism as a social movement. Beyond describing how #feminism is used in Twitter tweets, our findings inform our presentation of the use of #feminism to wield, shield, and troll feeds on feminism. We also discuss the opportunities for Twitter, as a digital leisure space, to be used to examine more closely complex, ongoing, and evolving conversations about feminism.
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter analyzes #YesAllWomen, one of the largest, most visible, feminist Twitter events of recent years. Though hashtags and other forms of digital activism are not always taken seriously as politics, in this project we investigate #YesAllWomen and its recirculation through media and public blogs, as an important instance of contemporary feminist discursive activism. Specifically, we argue that the hashtag functioned, first, as a site of collective identity for participants, and we describe some of the ways in which this identity building was achieved, and second, we argue that through its links to and recirculation by other platforms and media, #YesAllWomen also functioned as a public protest or agenda-building event with impact on public discourse beyond Twitter. Our project draws on content and discourse analysis methods to analyze the #YesAllWomen hashtag and to trace its interaction with other discourses such as news and blogs, including an automated content analysis of almost two million tweets and an analysis of a sample of 251 media and blog stories. We note that contemporary feminists are using digital media, in this case a Twitter hashtag, to achieve many of the same discursive goals of knowledge building and critique that have previously been achieved using other communications strategies such as consciousness-raising groups, publishing collectives, media strategies, and zaps.
Article
Full-text available
La red se conforma como un emergente espacio de militancia política para el activismo feminista. Las prácticas subactivistas, menos institucionalizadas y más conectadas con la experiencia subjetiva, encuentran en la tecnología digital nuevas formas para conectar la política latente y la participación política cívica con el activismo convencional. A partir de 12 entrevistas en profundidad con activistas con amplia trayectoria en el movimiento feminista y un uso intensivo de las redes sociales, en particular Twitter, para sus iniciativas políticas se intenta definir perfiles y prácticas de uso. Como conclusión se muestra cómo los repertorios de acción colectiva digitales establecen un continuum entre las militancias offline y online así como amplificar, potenciar y democratizar la divulgación feminista. A su vez, las redes sociales se configuran como espacios endogámicos y no conquistados del todo por los colectivos feministas, por lo que se hace necesario crear novedosos escenarios propios y potenciar propuestas y discursos con capacidad política transformadora.
Article
Full-text available
The protests of the Indignados in Spain and their counterpart of Aganaktismeni in Greece have been the most vocal expression of civic discontent against the ways the Euro crisis has been handled by national governments and the Eurozone. This article studies how these protests have been covered in the mainstream press. Drawing upon the ‘protest paradigm’, which longstanding research has employed to describe the template and biased way protests have been traditionally covered, we have conducted content analysis of mainstream Spanish and Greek newspapers. We argue that the overall coverage moved beyond the protest paradigm. It adopted a more positive tone in reporting the protests, including the individual voices of the protesters and covering the performative aspects of the movement in positive terms. At the same time, however, the protests were overwhelmingly reported as a mere expression of resentment against the status quo rather than as offering valid political alternatives.
Article
Full-text available
The appropriation of the Web 2.0 by feminist activism has enabled a greater participation of women in public discourse, providing them with the right tools to launch, disseminate and obtain support for their demands or social and political protests. From the case study of #Viajosola as a transnational feminist mobilization, we performed an analysis of memes in the conversation 2.0. This study has highlighted the common trends in the use of memes in activism 2.0 against gender inequality, mistreatment of women or media sexism.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize the use of Twitter hashtag as a strategy to enhance the visibility and symbolic power of social movement-related information. It examined how characteristics of hashtag drove information virality during a networked social movement. Design/methodology/approach - Twitter data from two days during the Occupy Wall Street Movement in 2011 were collected. With network analysis, the authors identified popular hashtag types and examined hashtag co-occurrence patterns during the two contrasting movement days. It also provides a comparative analysis of how major types of viral hashtag may play different roles depending on different movement cycles. Findings - The authors found that the role of hashtag influencing information virality may vary based on the context of the tweets. For example, movement participants applied more strategic hashtag combinations during the unexpected event day to reach different social circles. Consistent patterns were identified in mobilizing influential actors such as public figures. Different use patterns of media outlet hashtag were found across the two days. Originality/value - Implications on how hashtag type and event dynamics may shape hashtag co-occurrence patterns were discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Hashtag activism happens when large numbers of postings appear on social media under a common hashtagged word, phrase or sentence with a social or political claim. The temporal unfolding of these mutually connected postings in networked spaces gives them a narrative form and agency. Applying Karlyn Campbell’s propositions about rhetorical agency to the case of #BlackLivesMatter, this essay shows that narrative agency in hashtag activism derives from its narrative form as well as from its contents and social context. Narrative agency is communal, invented, skillful, and protean.
Article
Full-text available
Digital media pose a dual challenge to conventional understandings of political agency. First, digital media destabilize long-held assumptions about the nature of collective action, about social movements and their capacity to effect change. This is because digital media are thought to facilitate more decentralized, dispersed, temporary and individualized forms of political action that subvert the notion of the collective as singular, unified, homogeneous, coherent, and mass. One way of resolving this challenge is to view the collective in looser terms, as a process rather than as a finished product, a conceptualization that can be influence our understanding not only of social movements, but also of other political actors and of society as a whole. Second, digital media highlight the need to take communication seriously in how we conceptualize both collective action and political agency. Placing communication at the centre allows us to develop this looser and more processual understanding of the collective by studying it as a process that is constituted in and through communication. Inspired by organizational communication and particularly the work of Taylor and van Every (2000), this essay proposes a conception of collective action as emerging in conversations and solidified in texts. This conceptualization allows for a more multiplex and variegated view of political agency that takes into account the specific context where agency is exercised and the power that different actors can exert in a communicative process of negotiation, persuasion and claim-making.
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the ways in which girls and women are using digital media platforms to challenge the rape culture they experience in their everyday lives; including street harassment, sexual assault, and the policing of the body and clothing in school settings. Focusing on three international cases, including the anti-street harassment site Hollaback!, the hashtag #BeenRapedNeverReported, and interviews with teenage Twitter activists, the paper asks: What experiences of harassment, misogyny and rape culture are girls and women responding to? How are girls and women using digital media technologies to document experiences of sexual violence, harassment, and sexism? And, why are girls and women choosing to mobilize digital media technologies in such a way? Employing an approach that includes ethnographic methods such as semi-structured interviews, content analysis, discursive textual analysis, and affect theories, we detail a range of ways that women and girls are using social media platforms to speak about, and thus make visible, experiences of rape culture. We argue that this digital mediation enables new connections previously unavailable to girls and women, allowing them to redraw the boundaries between themselves and others.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The use of information and communication technologies pervades our lives. Beyond the formal application of these technologies at work, we have recently seen civil society groupings using information technologies to facilitate the organization and coordination of civic actions aiming at collective goals. This research in progress addresses the study of a technologically enabled civic movement wherein ordinary citizens supported and organized a civic action aiming at cleaning up the litter illegally dumped in their country's forests. Our preliminary results indicate that information and communication technologies had different roles throughout this process of organizing a nationwide civic action, which are influenced by the underlying dominant logic of action. This research contributes to a better understanding of the use of information and communication technologies as catalysts for change at societal level and its role in supporting entrepreneurial civic participation.
Article
This article analyses how the group Las Periodistas Paramos (We the Women Journalists Stop) arose and developed within the context of the feminist strike that took place in Spain on 8 March 2018 (‘8M’). The purpose of this research is to understand how this community began and its typology, to analyse the selection of digital tools in the process and to outline the strengths and weaknesses of the group on the basis of participants’ experiences. Using three qualitative methods, specifically an interview, non-participant observation and focus groups, the group’s collective work dynamics and its evolution are defined. The results obtained show that this is a community of interest that has collaboratively broadened its initial objectives, surmounted ideological differences, contributed to the feminist movement and grown exponentially by expanding its activities to embrace other Spanish cities and foreign correspondents.
Article
The gang rape known as the “La Manada” case has had an unprecedented social impact in Spain. This research investigates how this case has been dealt with through Twitter by a collective symbolic coping process (Social Representation Theory). Discourse on Twitter was analyzed at two key points in time: the announcement of the judgment and the aggressors’ release from prison. In total 6,592 tweets with the hashtag #lamanada were selected and their content was analyzed by lexical analysis using Iramuteq software. The results reveal both an awareness phase about the issue along with a divergence phase that saw the emergence of various interpretations about this case, which were confronted. In this divergence phase, feminist discourses took on great significance, expressing anger, calling for social mobilizations, criticizing the victim blaming and creating a dialogue against rape culture. However, the anti-feminist and sexist discourses were also present in this space. It is concluded that discourses on Twitter are a symptom of a shift in mentality whilst at the same time serve as an active constructor of this changed knowledge. Thus, the feminist movement should continue to take this into account in order to converge and normalize the discourse against rape culture. FREE REPRINT: https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/SXB7M2SKVT4RFKHG95NU/full?target=10.1080/14680777.2019.1643387
Article
Under the slogan ‘If we stop, the world stops’, the Spanish feminist movement organized a 24-hour labour, education, care and consumption women’s strike on 8 March 2018 that amazed both international and national public opinion. After all, Spain has traditionally been a Catholic country and its feminist movement is barely institutionalized, lacking both structure and funding. The present profile sets out to account for the 8M strike and points to a long organization process within a broad protest cycle as keys to its success.
Article
During the #MeToo movement, social movement organizations (SMOs) played a crucial role in the online mobilization by utilizing various message frames and appealing hashtags during the social movement. Applying a co-creational approach and using framing as a theoretical framework , the study explored how SMOs use words and hashtags to participate in the #MeToo movement through Twitter. Based on both semantic network analysis and thematic analysis methods, findings of the study enhance literature of social movement organizations and activism as well as provide practical implications for effective social movement campaigns.
Book
Mediating Misogyny is a collection of original academic essays that foregrounds the intersection of gender, technology, and media. Framed and informed by feminist theory, the book offers empirical research and nuanced theoretical analysis about the gender-based harassment women experience both online and offline. The contributors of this volume provide information on the ways feminist activists are using digital tools to combat harassment, raise awareness, and organize for social and political change across the globe. Lastly, the book provides practical resources and tips to help students, educators, institutions, and researchers stop online harassment.
Article
Social media has become an important aspect of contemporary culture and cultural change; it has accordingly become a valuable resource for informing feminist theory. Social media is a digitized social reality that lends itself to analysis and research. This study examines rape culture in the widely used social media platform, Twitter. We collected tweets from four days surrounding the Torrington and Steubenville Rape Trials and the Rehtaeh Parson’s story of rape, victimization, and suicide. Using qualitative content analysis, we identified three themes related to rape culture: (1) the virgin–whore binary and the just world, (2) sharing information on the sexual assault cases as subnews, and (3) rape myth debunking to support victims. Additional analysis indicated that Twitter users who engaged in victim blaming were more likely to be retweeted and have more followers than Twitter users who engaged in tweeting victim support content. The research demonstrates that rape culture is an aspect of social media and that data about rape culture can be readily accessed and studied. It also suggests that in future research, social media can be used to study how individuals and groups who are exhibiting rape culture interact with others who are engaged in victim support.
Article
This book examines how digital communications technologies have transformed modern societies, with profound effects both for everyday life, and for everyday crimes. Sexual violence, which is recognized globally as a significant human rights problem, has likewise changed in the digital age. Through an investigation into our increasingly and ever-normalised digital lives, this study analyses the rise of technology-facilitated sexual assault, ‘revenge pornography’, online sexual harassment and gender-based hate speech. Drawing on ground-breaking research into the nature and extent of technology-facilitated forms of sexual violence and harassment, the authors explore the reach of these harms, the experiences of victims, the views of service providers and law enforcement bodies, as well as the implications for law, justice and resistance. Sexual Violence in a Digital Age is compelling reading for scholars, activists, and policymakers who seek to understand how technology is implicated in sexual violence, and what needs to be done to address sexual violence in a digital age.
Article
Two months before the first Occupy Wall Street (OWS) protest in September 2011, activists were using Twitter to organize and spread the movement. In this study, the earliest Twitter messages regarding #OccupyWallStreet were subjected to network analysis to answer these questions: What were the central hubs in the O WS discourse on Twitter in the summer of 2011? How did OWS emerge from among several social movement organizations to lead a nationwide series of demonstrations? What were the key points in the Twitter dialogue that aided the process ofscale shift? By addressing these questions, this research connects social movement concepts with network centrality measures to provide a clearer picture ofmovements in the digital era.
Article
This article examines contemporary feminist ‘digilante’ responses to the increasing problem of misogyny online. In particular, it focuses on female gamers and a recent incident in which the Australian gamer Alanah Pearce responded to threats of sexual violence from young male Internet users by alerting their mothers. Pearce’s move was celebrated in international media commentary as the ‘perfect’ solution to the problem of online rape threats. This article, however, argues that while ‘do-it-yourself’ strategies such as Pearce’s have some benefits, unsupplemented, they do not constitute an adequate solution to the broader problem of gendered vitriol online. Further, they comport with a wider trend which shifts the burden of responsibility for the problem of gendered cyber-hate from perpetrators to targets, and from the public to the private sphere. Over the course of this article, I will show that the contemporary problem of gendered ‘e-bile’ has parallels with some key social issues addressed by second-wave feminism. As such, I argue that a hybrid of feminist activist efforts – including a recalibrated approach to collectivism – is required to achieve the legislative and corporate reforms necessary to address the significant social problem of gendered hate on the Internet.
Article
'Trolling' refers to a specific type of malicious online behaviour, intended to disrupt interactions, aggravate interactional partners and lure them into fruitless argumentation. However, as with other categories, both 'troll' and 'trolling' may have multiple, inconsistent and incompatible meanings, depending upon the context in which the term is used and the aims of the person using the term. Drawing data from 14 online fora and newspaper comment threads, this paper explores how online users mobilise and make use of the term 'troll'. Data was analysed from a discursive psychological perspective. Four repertoires describing trolls were identified in posters online messages: 1) that trolls are easily identifiable, 2) nostalgia, 3) vigilantism and 4) that trolls are nasty. Analysis also revealed that despite repertoire 01, identifying trolls is not a simple and straight-forward task. Similarly to any other rhetorical category, there are tensions inherent in posters accounts of nature and acceptability of trolling. Neither the category 'troll' nor the action of 'trolling' has a single, fixed meaning. Either action may be presented as desirable or undesirable, depending upon the aims of the poster at the time of posting.
Book
American monetary policy is formulated by the Federal Reserve and overseen by Congress. Both policy making and oversight are deliberative processes, although the effect of this deliberation has been difficult to quantify. In this book, Cheryl Schonhardt-Bailey provides a systematic examination of deliberation on monetary policy from 1976 to 2008 by the Federal Reserve’s Open Market Committee (FOMC) and House and Senate banking committees. Her innovative account employs automated textual analysis software to study the verbatim transcripts of FOMC meetings and congressional hearings; these empirical data are supplemented and supported by in-depth interviews with participants in these deliberations. The automated textual analysis measures the characteristic words, phrases, and arguments of committee members; the interviews offer a way to gauge the extent to which the empirical findings accord with the participants’ personal experiences. Analyzing why and under what conditions deliberation matters for monetary policy, the author identifies several strategies of persuasion used by FOMC members, including Paul Volcker’s emphasis on policy credibility and efforts to influence economic expectations. Members of Congress, however, constrained by political considerations, show a relative passivity on the details of monetary policy. .
Article
Social networks and interpersonal ties are critical to social movements. They help recruit members, sustain organizations, nourish participants' movement identities, and disseminate information. Scholarship has pointed to the formative role of social media and other information and communication technologies in online and offline mobilization. Questions remain, however, regarding how online social and friendship networks shape social movements. In this article, I draw from literature on social networks, online mobilization, and women's movements to examine the role of online feminist social networks in feminist mobilization. Presenting qualitative data from a racially and geographically heterogeneous group of college feminists, I argue that Facebook and feminist blogs enlarge and nourish feminist networks, create online feminist communities, expand recruitment bases for online and offline mobilization, and increase opportunities for online interaction with adversaries. Finally, I consider generational shifts in the feminist movement, and the broader relationship between friendship networks and online and offline mobilization.
Article
Twitter is becoming a discursive but also contested space for articulations of feminist protest. A hashtag that collected experiences with everyday sexism in the German-speaking world was #aufschrei, which became the 2013 hashtag of the year. In exploring the role of online feminist protest in the construction of alternative meanings, this paper draws on theories of the public sphere. Specifically, we build upon a communication studies model that refers to mutually permeating spheres of discourse in three layers, the simple, intermediate, and complex, each of which exhibits its own communication forms and forums. The methodology includes both a quantitative and a qualitative content analysis of #aufschrei tweets and of feminist blogs in order to comprehend argumentation patterns and networking practices. We argue that Twitter adopts the function of a simple public, where values and norms are negotiated at an everyday level. Feminist blogs create an intermediate public, in that they generalize experiences and are oriented towards networking. However, the persistent number of anti-feminist and sexist messages on Twitter likewise shows that online debates on gender topics have been increasingly infiltrated by these positions. Against this backdrop, in the conclusion, we discuss the feminist activist potential of #aufschrei.
Article
This article delivers a snapshot of what digital feminisms can mean today. It argues that a commonality of current digital feminisms is a stance against digital dualism and that it is digital–material assemblages that shape certain forms of digital feminisms. In particular, two relatively recent examples of digital feminist activisms are analyzed, and I suggest ways of understanding the interplay of materialities within them: Germany’s Twitter campaign #aufschrei and the German anti-trolling website hatr.org. Finally, I suggest a typology of digital feminisms with varying degrees of digital–material entanglements.
Article
This article investigates the renewed feminist politics that emerge from the interface of digital platforms and activism today, examining the role of digital media in affecting the particular ways that contemporary feminist protests make meaning and are understood transnationally, nationally, and locally. I consider the political investments of digital feminisms in the context of what Angela McRobbie has termed the “undoing of feminism” in neoliberal societies, where discourses of choice, empowerment, and individualism have made feminism seem both second nature and unnecessary. Within this context, I describe a range of recent feminist protest actions that are in a sense redoing feminism for a neoliberal age. A key component of this redoing is the way recent protest actions play out central tensions within historical and contemporary feminist discourse; crucial here is the interrelationship between body politics experienced locally and feminist actions whose efficacy relies on their translocal and transnational articulation. My discussion focuses on three case studies: SlutWalk Berlin, Peaches’ “Free Pussy Riot!” video, and the Twitter campaigns #Aufschrei and #YesAllWomen. My analysis ultimately calls attention to the precarity of digital feminisms, which reflect both the oppressive nature of neoliberalism and the possibilities it offers for new subjectivities and social formations.
Article
In Spain, in the spring of 2011, millions of people came together in indignation, united with the cry “We are not the merchandise of politicians and bankers.” The indignados occupied hundreds of squares and streets, inaugurating a period of massive mobilization, struggle, resistance, disobedience, and alternatives to austerity. Millions of people of diverse ages, genders, classes, and origins came together with the cry “You don’t represent us.” With their bodies, they recovered the politics of the Left and from below. In acts of civil disobedience, they resisted police efforts to evict protesters from the squares. The intelligent multitude of the squares has rearticulated itself in a community of struggles, with discourses, interventions, and proposals rooted in diverse bodies and life conditions: green tides (Platform of People Affected by Mortgages), yellow tides (education), violet tides (equality and gender equity), orange tides (social services), red tides (culture), garnet tides (forced migration due the economic situation), and even black tides (mining); blocs of migrants demanding rights and documents for everyone, [email protected]/* */ (grandparents), cronicoflautas (people with chronic illnesses), fembloks (feminist blocs); babybloks (blocs of babies), commandos of caretakers, feminist pickets, bicipiquetes (bike pickets) taking over the two general strikes in 2012, motorized commandos of people with illnesses and functional diversity, transmaricabolloputaintersexfeministas blocs (feminists, sex workers, and people from throughout the LGBT community) whose resistance “can’t be cut back,” Indignant Whores protesting against police and administrative persecution, antirepressive rearguards, and so on. May 15, 2011, marked a turning point, making possible the logic of the hive and the open code, according to which millions of people can narrate the same event from different perspectives, completing and even refusing the version articulated by the institutions and by conventional media.
Article
As thousands of demonstrators took to the streets of Ferguson, Missouri, to protest the fatal police shooting of unarmed African American teenager Michael Brown in the summer of 2014, news and commentary on the shooting, the protests, and the militarized response that followed circulated widely through social media networks. Through a theorization of hashtag usage, we discuss how and why social media platforms have become powerful sites for documenting and challenging episodes of police brutality and the misrepresentation of racialized bodies in mainstream media. We show how engaging in “hashtag activism” can forge a shared political temporality, and, additionally, we examine how social media platforms can provide strategic outlets for contesting and reimagining the materiality of racialized bodies. Our analysis combines approaches from linguistic anthropology and social movements research to investigate the semiotics of digital protest and to interrogate both the possibilities and the pitfalls of engaging in “hashtag ethnography.”