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The Influence of Creative Expertise on the Sensitivity and Selectivity of Analogical Reasoning


Abstract and Figures

This study compared the analogical reasoning of three groups that differed in their creative expertise: professional actors, undergraduate acting majors, and non-actors. Using an Analogy Finding Task, in which participants identified valid and non-valid verbal analogies, three aspects of participants’ analogical reasoning were measured: the number of analogies participants selected as valid (Quantity), the rate of true-positive analogical identification (Sensitivity), and the rate of true-negative identification of non-valid analogies (Selectivity). The Analogy Finding Task was administered under both a baseline and a “think creatively” prompt. Results showed that actors (professional or student) were significantly more Sensitive to valid analogies than non-actors, and these creative experts were significantly more influenced by the “think creatively” prompt, which increased the Quantity, and decreased the Selectivity, of actors’ analogical reasoning. To explain these results, we forward the general hypothesis that creative experts may be more flexible in response to creativity-relevant contextual cues than non-experts. Keywords: Analogical reasoning; creativity; expertise; actors
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Denis G. Dumasa
Yixiao Donga
Michael Dohertyb
aDepartment of Research Methods and Information Science, University of Denver
bActors Equity Association
Dumas, D., Dong, Y., Doherty, M. (in press). The influence of creative expertise on the
sensitivity and selectivity of analogical reasoning. Mind, Brain, and Education.
Author Note
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Denis Dumas, Department of
Research Methods and Information Science, University of Denver, Denver, CO, 80208. Email: This research has followed all ethical guidelines of the American
Psychological Association and was approved by the Institutional Review Board at the University
of Denver.
This study compared the analogical reasoning of three groups that differed in their creative
expertise: professional actors, undergraduate acting majors, and non-actors. Using an Analogy
Finding Task, in which participants identified valid and non-valid verbal analogies, three aspects
of participants’ analogical reasoning were measured: the number of analogies participants
selected as valid (Quantity), the rate of true-positive analogical identification (Sensitivity), and
the rate of true-negative identification of non-valid analogies (Selectivity). The Analogy Finding
Task was administered under both a baseline and a “think creatively” prompt. Results showed
that actors (professional or student) were significantly more Sensitive to valid analogies than
non-actors, and these creative experts were significantly more influenced by the “think
creatively” prompt, which increased the Quantity, and decreased the Selectivity, of actors’
analogical reasoning. To explain these results, we forward the general hypothesis that creative
experts may be more flexible in response to creativity-relevant contextual cues than non-experts.
Keywords: Analogical reasoning; creativity; expertise; actors
Lay Abstract
Recent research has suggested that individuals’ ability to think creatively is closely associated
with their ability to map analogies. Here we showed that individuals with demonstrated expertise
in a profession that requires creative thinking (i.e., stage and screen acting) perform differently
on analogical reasoning tasks than individuals who are not professionals in a creative area. We
interpret these data to mean that actors may be more flexible in their thinking than are non-
The Influence of Creative Expertise on
The Sensitivity and Selectivity of Analogical Reasoning
Analogical reasoning is a relational cognitive process whereby higher-order structural
similarities among pieces of information are mapped (Dumas et al., 2013; Goswami, 2013;
Richland & Simms, 2015). Psychologists and educational researchers have empirically linked
analogical reasoning to important educationally relevant outcomes across nearly every level of
schooling, from preschool (Walker et al., 2018) to medical school (Dumas et al., 2014), and
across domains of learning including science (Murphy et al., 2016), engineering (Dumas et al.,
2016), and history (Van Straaten et al., 2019), among many others. One other fundamentally
important mental attribute to which analogical and relational reasoning have been perennially
linked is creativity (Gentner et al., 1997; Green, 2018). Creativity—defined as the process by
which individuals generate ideas that are simultaneously novel and useful (Runco & Jaeger,
2012)—has long been theorized to require the mapping of structural patterns among ideas across
domains and contexts (Mednick, 1962), and therefore the role of analogical reasoning in the
creative process seems highly pertinent theoretically and pragmatically (Goel, 1997).
Relatively recently, a number of empirical studies have appeared that document the link
between creative thinking attributes and analogical reasoning across contexts including
naturalistic in vivo studies (Chan & Schunn, 2015), more controlled laboratory experiments
(Dumas, 2018), as well as neurological investigations using brain imaging (Green et al., 2012a;
Vartanian, 2011). In the current work, we take a related but distinct approach to studying the
relation between creativity and analogical reasoning: through the recruitment of individuals who
are trained to be experts at creative work (i.e., professional actors), individuals who are
acclimating within a creative domain (i.e., undergraduate acting majors), and individuals who
have not developed expertise in that domain (i.e., non-actors), we generally aim to understand
the influence of creative expertise on analogical reasoning.
What is Creative Expertise?
Typically, within the literature on expertise, experts are defined by their domain-specific
learning (e.g., Ericsson & Smith, 1991), and for this reason, it is less common to describe
expertise as existing on a domain-general mental attribute such as creativity. However, it is also
well-demonstrated that domain-specific expertise requires the development of a variety of more
domain-general abilities that are relevant to the domain (Schunn & Anderson, 2010). For
example, within educational psychology research (e.g., Alexander 2003; Fox, 2009; Wagner &
Stanovich, 1996) the argument has been built that experts in a number of academic domains can
also be accurately described as experts in the domain-general ability of reading comprehension.
In this way, an expert in a reading-heavy domain such as history might demonstrate their
historical expertise via a domain-specific practice (e.g., publishing a history book) but their
expertise would also be expected to manifest on a domain-general reading comprehension
Analogically, we posit the argument that experts in a domain that regularly requires
creative and divergent thinking—such as acting has been repeatedly shown to (e.g., Dumas,
Doherty, & Organisciak, 2020; Kogan, 2002; Noice & Noice, 1994; Stacey & Goldberg, 1953)—
would be expected to be able to demonstrate their expertise both in a domain-specific activity
(e.g., the interpretation and performance of a script) and on a domain-general measure designed
to relate to creative thought. In this way, just as domain-experts in a variety of academic domains
can be identified as expert readers, we suggest that creative experts be defined as those
individuals who have developed deep expertise in a domain that regularly requires creative
thinking, and therefore are also likely to be adept at creative thinking in a domain-general
setting. That said, it is important to note that the concept of creative expertise, although certainly
discussed by some in the literature (e.g., Simonton, 2014), is relatively under-studied, and as
such we see one purpose of the current study to be the empirical observation of this phenomenon
with a sample of expert performing artists to better define creative expertise itself, and to suggest
avenues of future study in this area.
Of course, the creative expertise we begin to describe in this investigation would
necessarily develop through formal and informal educational experiences within a domain that
requires creative thinking. Therefore, expertise can be conceptualized as inherently tied to the
educational contexts in which that expertise is developed (Alexander, 2003). For this reason, we
suggest that, when the influence of creative expertise is under investigation, it would be
elucidating to include participants not only who have already demonstrated expertise, but also
participants who are acclimating to expertise in the same domain, and who have formally
dedicated themselves to the development of competence and eventual expertise (e.g.,
undergraduate students majoring in a creativity-heavy discipline). Following this line of thought,
we contend that research on expertise effects is fundamentally educationally-relevant in that
differences in psychological attributes and processes among experts and students can often be
interpreted in light of pedagogy and education.
State Augmentation of Creative Analogical Reasoning
Within the literature on analogical reasoning and creativity, specific evidence has been
presented that participantscapacity to map semantically distant analogies can be augmented
within a short time-frame by the use of explicit creativity prompts (e.g., Green et al., 2012b;
Weinberger et al., 2016). What this means is that, when participants are cued to “think
creatively” while reasoning with analogies, they map more and more semantically distant
analogies, improving their analogical performance. And, at least within the samples of
participants previously used in this line of research, creativity prompts did not increase the
erroneous mapping of non-valid analogies (i.e., false alarms; Green et al., 2017), but appeared to
specifically augment valid analogical reasoning.
However, up to this point in the literature, no sample of creative experts has been utilized
in testing the state-augmentation of creative analogical reasoning, and therefore open questions
remain about how creative expertise may moderate this previously observed effect. It is well
documented that expertise has a strong effect on cognitive processing within the domain of
expertise as well as potentially on domain-general cognitive processes that play a role in expert
thinking (Ericsson et al., 2018). Therefore, we might predict that individuals who have
developed expertise in creativity may more readily map semantically distant analogies than non-
experts, and experts may also be influenced by a creativity prompt in a different way than are
To Map or Not to Map: Analogies and Incompatibilities
When an individual is thinking creatively, they may attend solely or mostly to valid
instances of relational similarity (i.e., analogies), or they may also specifically focus on instances
of relational incompatibility, where analogical relations cannot be mapped. For example,
Simonton (1999; 2015) has described a process akin to natural selection by which creative
thinkers parse their potential ideas, and Alexander (2012; 2016) has coined the term antinomous
reasoning to describe the process by which individuals identify relations of incompatibility
among ideas: an ability that was shown to be predictive of creative and educational outcomes,
especially in engineers (Dumas et al., 2016).
As a possible counter-argument, creative experts may identify analogical relations across
contexts in a way that other individuals do not see. This argument would shift the
conceptualization of analogical validity from one of true or not-true analogical relations to one
where the validity of analogical relations is socially determined. Following this line of thought,
creative individuals may work, in part, by identifying analogs that are currently not considered
valid, but can be meaningfully connected in a novel and useful way. Sternberg and Lubart’s
(1991) investment model of creativity, in which creative thinkers “buy low and sell high” by
identifying ideas that are not highly valued now, but may be valued in the future, would seem to
support this argument. In addition, Okada and colleague’s (2009) retrospective interview
research with visual artists uncovered a similar pattern, in which creative thinking involved the
constant re-formulation of what constituted socially-valid analogical relations.
Goals and Expectations of Current Study
The current study was conducted in the context of some literature-based expectations and
hypotheses related to the effect of creative expertise on analogical reasoning. For example, based
on literature just reviewed, we hypothesized that creative experts would display some observable
heightening of their analogical reasoning ability. However, how that facility with analogical
reasoning may manifest itself was the basis of various counter-hypotheses. For instance, whether
creative experts would be affected by a state-augmentation condition to a greater or lesser extent
than non-experts was difficult to specifically hypothesize. On the one hand, creative experts
might display heighted analogical ability across all conditions and therefore the state
augmentation may have little effect. On the other hand, creative experts may be more flexible in
response to creativity-related cues, and in that case the state-augmentation prompt may have a
larger effect on them. Moreover, it was not known how creative experts may differ from non-
experts in their mapping of technically non-valid analogies: it might be hypothesized that
creative thinkers would be better able to weed-out non-valid analogies and not map them, or the
inverse could be true, that creative individuals may be capable of mapping analogies across
greater semantic distance, even beyond what might be considered valid by the creators of an
analogical reasoning task. With these goals and expectations in mind, we now introduce the
methodology of this study.
A total of 296 individuals (62.9% female) aged from 16 to 68 (M = 30.81, SD = 11.54).
Sufficient English language proficiency was essential to the verbal analogy tasks utilized, and all
participants reported themselves fluent in English. In terms of race/ethnicity, most participants (n
= 224, 75.7%) reported their ethnicity as White/European-American, while smaller proportions
of the sample reported their ethnicity as Black/African-American (n = 16, 5.4%), Asian/Pacific
Islander (n = 14, 4.7%), Latinx (n = 15, 5.1%) or multiple ethnicities/other (n = 24, 8.1%).
The participants were sampled from three different populations with balanced group
sizes: (a) n = 92 non-acting adults, (b) n = 100 undergraduate acting majors, and (c) n = 104
professional actors. Non-acting adults were recruited online via Amazon Mechanical Turk, a
crowdsourcing platform widely used in psychological research (McKay, Karwowski &
Kaufman, 2017), and compensated $3.00 for participation. Amazon Mechanical Turk has been
shown to produce data that is similar in quality to more conventional data collection approaches
(e.g., undergraduate student participation pool; Buhrmester, Kwang, & Gosling, 2016). In this
data collection, we assumed that the MTurk participants were not experts in acting, acting
students, or experts in another creative discipline: this assumption follows in line with the bulk of
previous work using MTurk, in which MTurk participants are perceived as not likely to hold
demonstrated expertise in any particular domain (see Buhrmester et al., 2016, for a comparison
between MTurk participants and undergraduate psychology students).
Recruitment for undergraduate acting majors was accomplished through existing social
media listservs that connected undergraduate theater and acting students, and they were
compensated $10 for participation. All participating undergraduate students were currently
majoring in theater, although we allowed for diversity in terms of their specific concentrations
within that setting: of the 78 student actors who reported their concentrations 35 (44.87) were in
an acting concentration, 27 (34.61%) were in musical theater, and 16 (20.51%) were in a
directing, playwriting, or production concentration. In addition, the sample was relatively evenly
split among students in terms of the years they had spent in their undergraduate program: of the
87 student actors who reported their year-in-program, 24 (27.59%) were in their first year, 15
(17.24%) were in their second year, 18 (20.69%) were in their third year, 19 (21.84%) were in
their fourth year, and 11 (12.64) were in their fifth year as undergraduates.
Professional actors were recruited via listservs that connected members of two
professional actors’ labor unions: either Actors Equity (which focuses on the representation of
stage actors) or SAG-AFTRA (which focuses on the representation of screen actors), and they
were compensated $20 for their participation. To justify their designation as professional, the
professional actors needed to report either being members of one or both of these acting labor
unions: which exist to protect actors’ livelihood in terms of salary, benefits, and working
conditions. Because of this, union affiliated actors tend to be the only actors in the United States
who are able to make a living wage on acting work and therefore focus on acting principally
rather than other employment. If participants were not a member of either of these unions, we
also identified individuals as expert actors if they had previously booked or produced 10
previous paid theater contracts. Actors who did not report these attributes were not retained in
the sample of professionals. In addition, professional actors reported their past formal training in
acting at a university setting, with 56.38% (n = 53) reported holding a Bachelor’s degree in
acting, while 29.79% (n = 28) reported holding a Master’s degree, and 3.19% (n = 3) reported
holding a doctoral degree. 5 participants (5.32%) reported having no university training, and the
same proportion reported having a non-degree certification from a university. 72.34% (n = 68)
also reported having engaged in additional acting training at a studio apart from their university
Please see Table 2 for specific demographic information within each of the three samples
of participants. Although sample sizes were balanced among the groups, the distributions of
participants in the three groups were significantly related to ethnicity [χ2 (8) = 18.99, p =.015],
gender [χ2 (4) = 24.62, p <.001], and age [F (2, 293) = 108.26, p < .001]. Therefore, the
influences of ethnicity, gender, and age on outcome measures were considered in the following
Measure and Scoring Procedures
In this study, the Analogy Finding Task that consisted of two matrices of word-pairs was
utilized (see Weinberger, Iyer, & Green, 2016 for full measure development details). Each
matrix contained 25 word-pairs: 5 stem pairs on the left side and 20 completion pairs across the
top. Participants were instructed to identify analogies by combining stem pairs with completion
pairs, and they had five minutes to complete each matrix of word-pairs. Following the standard
and validated scoring procedures for this task, each stem pair could be combined with 3 or 4
valid completion pairs, and a maximum of 17 valid analogies (i.e., combinations of stem and
completion pairs) could be identified in each matrix. These analogies varied on how semantically
distant the word pairs were from one another (semantic distance calculated via Latent Semantic
Distance using the Touchstone Applied Sciences corpus; Dumais, 2003;,
and the scoring procedure weighted each correct analogy that participants identify by the
semantic distance associated with that analogy. For example, the analogical pair
Watermelon:Rind::Orange:Peel is highly semantically similar, and was therefore given a lower
weight (x75 based on the scoring guide for this task) than the much more semantically distant but
also valid Watermelon:Rind::Cigarette:Butt (weighted at x269 according to the scoring guide).
In this way, participants received more “points” for mapping analogies that were valid but also
semantically distant in this task. As another example, the stem pair Kitten:Cat was validly
mappable to Puppy:Dog (weighted at x61 based on semantic distance), and also validly
mappable to the more semantically distant Seed:Tree (weighted at x79) and the still more distant
Spark:Fire (weighted at x93).
In the task directions, participants were informed that one stem pair could be combined
with multiple completion pairs, but they did not know the exact number of correct completion
pairs for any stem pair. For the first matrix, participants were given specific task directions to
identify all valid analogical combinations they could, but no prompts or cues related to their
cognitive processes. For the second matrix, the cue “please think creativelywas added to the
instructions. In previous work related to this Analogy Finding Task (i.e., Weinberger et al.,
2016), this creativity cue significantly increased the number of correct analogical pairs identified
(i.e., the sensitivity of analogical reasoning) for an Mturk sample. It should be noted that the two
matrices that make up the Analogy Finding Task were designed to be balanced in terms of the
semantic distance among the valid analogies available in each matrix, with the first matrix
having 1299 total units of semantic distance on its valid analogies, and the second matrix having
1328 total units of semantic distance available. Because the two matrices are close-to but not
perfectly balanced, and more generally do contain different word pairings, some past work has
counterbalanced the order of presentation of these matrices to participants. However, in the
current study, this counterbalancing was not done. For this reason—as is further described in the
measurement sections belowall the outcome measures related to semantic distance (i.e.,
Sensitivity and Selectivity) were divided by the total available semantic distance in that matrix,
so the proportion of the available semantic distance relevant to the outcome became the score for
analysis. Although it is important to note that the non-counterbalanced design is a limitation of
this study, the proportional scoring technique we used likely mitigated some of the issues
associated with that limitation.
As with previous work with this measure, all data were collected via the Internet and
Qualtrics Survey Software. However, unlike previous work with the Analogy Finding task, we
scored both matrices of the task using three different scoring procedures in order to capture three
theoretically differing aspects of participants’ analogical reasoning: (a) Quantity, (b) Sensitivity
and (c) Selectivity. Because this task allowed for participants to identify analogies that were
considered valid as well as non-valid, we conceptualized participant responses to the Analogy
Finding task as a confusion matrix. This confusion matrix cross-tabulated the analogies that were
considered valid or non-valid by researchers who created the administered analogical reasoning
stimuli, and the analogies that were identified as valid and non-valid by study participants, in
order to allow for the quantification of the three outcome variables being investigated in this
study. See Table 1 for a confusion-matrix based delineation of how each of these scores were
operationalized, and details related to the scoring are presented below.
Quantity of Possible Analogical Relations
The responses were first scored by the total number of completion pairs (both valid and
non-valid analogies) that participants selected to combine with stem pairs in each matrix. As
previously reviewed, this scoring procedure aimed to measure how “wide a net” participants cast
in order to catch the valid analogies. The five stem pairs in each matrix were conceptualized as
five items, and participants selected different numbers of completion pairs for each item. The
Cronbach’s α coefficients were .89 for the five items in the first matrix and .84 for the five items
in the second matrix, which indicated these item-level counts were sufficiently reliable to sum
across the 5 items, producing total quantity scores for each matrix for each participant.
Sensitivity to Analogical Mappings
Considering only the valid analogies identified by participants, Sensitivity was quantified
by calculating the proportion of available valid analogical mappings correctly identified by each
participant for each stem pair, weighting those correct identifications by their semantic distance,
and then dividing by the total semantic distance of all valid analogies available for that stem pair.
Therefore, this score can be conceptualized as the proportion of total validly analogically
mappable semantic distance mapped by each participant for each stem pair, or a rate of true
positive identification of valid analogies. With 5 stem pairs per matrix, these Sensitivity scores
showed adequate reliability (α =.81 in both matrices) and were averaged across the five stem
pairs, producing one Sensitivity score per matrix for each participant.
Selectivity of Analogical Reasoning
Then, considering only non-valid analogies in the Finding Task, Selectivity was
calculated by taking the proportion of non-valid analogies that participants correctly identified as
non-valid (i.e., did not select as valid) to the total number of non-valid analogies present for that
stem pair. In this way, Selectivity can be conceptualized as participants’ rate of true negative
identification of non-valid analogies. Across the five stem pairs in each matrix, reliability was
sufficient (α =.89 for matrix 1 and α =.80 for matrix 2) for averaging item-level Selectivity
proportions, producing two Selectivity scores for each participant: one for each matrix of the
Analogy Finding Task.
Analysis Plan
To examine the effects of creative expertise group (i.e., professional actors, student
actors, non-actors), as well as the creativity prompt in the Analogy Finding Task on the three
outcome variables (i.e., Quantity, Sensitivity, and Selectivity) we conducted analyses of variance
with a mixed design: the creativity prompt was a within-subject factor and creative expertise
group was a between-subject factor. Three outcome measures were involved in this study, and
multiple univariate F tests may potentially inflate the operational alpha level (Gamst, Meyers, &
Guarino, 2008). Therefore, a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was performed to
reduce the type I error rate as well as account for intercorrelations among the outcome measures.
Based on the results of that MANOVA, univariate ANOVAs and post-hoc tests were also run in
order to investigate the effects of creative expertise group and the creativity prompt on each of
the three analogical reasoning outcome variables included in this study.
Omnibus Multivariate Patterns
The analysis began with an omnibus examination of the effect of creative expertise group
and the creativity prompt on all three outcome variables, within a multivariate space. Ethnicity,
gender, and age of participants were included as covariates. Notably, the covariance matrices of
the outcome measures were not equal across all levels of the independent variables [Box’s M =
176.18, F (42, 244948) = 4.07, p < .001], and therefore Pillai’s Trace was examined to determine
the effects of the creativity prompt and creative expertise grouping in the MANOVA (Hahs-
Vaughn, 2017). There was a significant multivariate main effect of creative expertise group
[Pillai's Trace = .14, F (6, 564) = 6.98, p < .001, partial η2 = .07], and the interaction effect
between creative prompt and expertise group was also significant [Pillai's Trace = .07, F (6, 564)
= 3.40, p = .003, partial η2 = .04]. Taken together, these multivariate results indicated that the
creative expertise groups differed significantly on the multivariate linear combination of the
three analogical reasoning outcomes depending on whether they received the creativity prompt.
No significant main effect or interaction effect was detected on any of the demographic
covariates, and therefore they were not included in the later analyses.
Outcome-specific Univariate Examinations
To better understand the omnibus multivariate result, univariate repeated ANOVAs and
post-hoc tests were also checked for each of the three outcome measures included in this
investigation. Here, we present the specific univariate results for each of the three outcome
variables included in this investigation: (a) quantity, (b) sensitivity, (c) selectivity. Descriptive
statistics associated with these results are presented in Table 3, ANOVA coefficients are in Table
4, and the quantitative patterns for each outcome variable are illustrated in Figure 1.
Quantity of Possible Analogical Relations
As can be seen in Table 3, participants selected 14.04 (SE = .48) responses on average in
the first matrix. After receiving the creativity prompt, they selected more responses (M = 17.24,
SE = .53), indicating an overall increase in the Quantity of possible analogical relations in the
“think creatively” condition. The main effect of both the creative expertise groups and the
creativity prompt was statistically significant for the Quantity outcome variable, as was the
interaction effect between these independent variables. In Figure 1a it can be observed that,
although all groups showed an increasing trend in Quantity from the first to the second matrix of
the Analogy Finding Task, the magnitude of the increase in the non-acting group was very small,
and the increase in the two acting groups (i.e. professional and students) was much larger.
Statistically, the improvement of the outcome measure was larger for the two acting groups
[student actors: F (1, 99) = 42.75, p < .001, partial η2 = .30; professional actors: F (1, 103) =
43.00, p < .001, partial η2 = .30] than the non-acting group [F (1, 91) = .01, p = .916, partial η2 =
.001], implying that creative expertise may have facilitated the observed increase in analogical
quantity in response to the creativity prompt.
Sensitivity to Analogical Mappings
Table 3 also displays the proportions of available analogically valid semantic distance the
creative expertise groups successfully mapped before and after receiving the creativity prompt. A
significant main effect of creative expertise was observed on Sensitivity (see Table 4 for
ANOVA coefficients), but the main effect of the creativity prompt on Sensitivity was non-
significant. In response to the creativity prompt, Sensitivity improved a small (and statistically
non-significant) amount in the group of professional actors (Mmatrix1 = .58; Mmatrix2 = .60),
remained exactly the in the group of student actors (Mmatrix1 = .53; Mmatrix2 = .53), and decreased a
small and statistically non-significant amount in the non-acting group (Mmatrix1 = .41; Mmatrix2
= .38). See Figure 1b for a depiction of these patterns. Given that the interaction effect was also
not significant, we examined the effects of creative expertise group more closely by conducting
post-hoc tests. Specifically, over both matrices, levels of Sensitivity within the non-acting group
were significantly lower than either professional actors (Mdif = .20, p < .001, d = .94) or student
actors (Mdif = .13, p < .001, d = .68), and the difference between the two acting groups was not
significant (Mdif = .06, p =.07, d = 0.31).
Selectivity of Analogical Reasoning
Both the main effects of creative expertise group and creativity prompt, as well as the
interaction among them, were statistically significant (see Table 4). The Selectivity of all
participants decreased from the first (M = .95, SE = .01) to the second analogy finding task (M =
.91, SE = .01). As shown in Table 3, and illustrated in Figure 1c, the mean Selectivity of non-
actors was similar to the two acting groups in matrix 1. After receiving the creativity prompt, the
Selectivity of non-actors did not go down as steeply as the two actor groups, and the non-actors
ended with the highest levels of Selectivity. So, the effect of the creativity prompt was examined
specifically across the creative expertise groups: we found that the negative impact of the
creativity prompt on Selectivity was much smaller, and non-significant, for non-actors [F (1, 91)
= .26, p = .61, partial η2 = .003] than for either student actors [F (1, 99) = 65.65, p <
.001, partial η2 = .40] or professional actors [F (1, 103) = 58.36, p < .001, partial η2 = .36], for
whom the increase was larger and statistically significant.
The link between analogical reasoning and creativity has long been theorized in the
psychological literature (Mednick, 1962; Gentner et al., 1997), and empirical evidence from the
last decade has begun to identify specific ways in which these two constructs share underlying
cognitive or neurological mechanisms (Dumas, 2018; Green et al., 2012a; Vartanian, 2012).
However, as far as we are aware, this study has been the first to examine the influence of creative
expertise on analogical reasoning within a relatively ill-structured problem space that allowed for
multiple aspects of participants’ analogical reasoning (i.e., Quantity, Sensitivity, and Selectivity)
to emerge. As such, this study forwards a number of key findings related to the influence of
creative expertise on analogical reasoning: key findings that we delineate here.
Creative Expertise was Associated with Higher Levels of Analogical Sensitivity
In this study, the acting groups (i.e. professional or undergraduate student actors)
displayed significantly more Sensitivity to analogical relations than did the non-actors. The
greater Sensitivity to analogies among the professional actors as compared to student actors did
not reach significance, in either the baseline or the “be creative” conditions. This finding appears
to converge in meaning with previous work that identified a greater capability in analogical
reasoning as associated with expert-level innovation in the visual arts (Okada et al., 2009),
medicine (Dumas et al., 2014), engineering (Chan et al., 2015) or the physical sciences (Gentner
et al., 1997), among other domains. Therefore, the findings of this study strongly suggest that
expertise in acting, as in other creatively demanding artistic or scientific domains, is linked to the
greater ability to identify and map valid analogies.
Of course, the methodology of this study was not able to disentangle whether experience
or education in acting supported the development of analogical Sensitivity, or whether those
individuals with a greater Sensitivity to analogical relations self-selected into training programs
and professional work in acting: this question would need to be addressed via a larger scale
longitudinal investigation that remains a future direction for this area of research. Future research
may be designed to answer specific questions about how variability in analogical reasoning
during schooling leads to expertise development and career selection later in the lifespan.
Actors Responded More Strongly to the Creativity Prompt
For two of the three outcome variables analyzed in this study (i.e., Quantity and
Selectivity), significant interaction effects were uncovered, indicating that creative expertise
significantly moderated the influence of the creativity prompt. This finding may provide a
window into the way in which creative expertise affects the way individuals experience and
respond to contextual cues related to creativity. In this discussion section, we further explain
both interaction effects identified in this study: first the interaction related to Quantity, and then
Increase in Quantity of Analogies
In this study, non-acting adults did not significantly change in their Quantity of selected
analogies in response to the “think creatively” prompt. In contrast, both the professional and
student actors did increase significantly in Quantity after being prompted to think creatively.
This finding is related to Green and colleagues’ (2017) finding, also with the Analogy Finding
Task, that the overall number of analogical pairs increased after a creativity prompt and
transcranial stimulation, but that increase was not significant. Because Green et al.’s (2017)
study did not utilize creative experts, or those developing creative expertise through education,
as participants, their findings are fully in convergence with the findings from this study, which
also did not find a significant increase in Quantity for the non-acting group.
Decrease in Analogical Selectivity
Similarly to previous work on state-augmentation of creative thinking (e.g., Green et al.,
2012b; Weinberger et al., 2016), the current study did not find an increase in the number of non-
valid analogies selected by the non-acting group under the “think creatively” condition.
However, the inclusion of individuals who were either creatively expert (professional actors) or
developing creative expertise (acting majors) in this study allowed us to observe that, for both
the professional and student actors, Selectivity of analogical reasoning (i.e., the rate of true-
negative identification of non-valid analogies) decreased, indicating that the actors were
selecting more non-valid analogies in the “think creatively” condition than they did in the
baseline condition. Taken together with the earlier finding of increased analogical Quantity
under the “think creatively” condition for the actors, this finding suggests that, when prompted to
think creatively, the actors began to identify analogical relations among word pairs that—at least
according to the creators of the task—were not-valid. In terms of their Selectivity, both acting
groups included in this study (professionals and students) followed similar patterns in response
to the “think creatively” prompt, and the non-actors differed from them. This finding implies
that, for a domain-general task such as Analogy Finding, those with established creative
expertise (the professionals) and those who are still acclimating to creative expertise (the
students) had similar patterns of performance in response to the prompt. A domain-specific
measurement paradigm may therefore be fruitful in the future to see more marked differences
between professional and student actors.
Also in the future, a think-aloud or retrospective interview methodology would be needed
to understand the way in which the actors themselves conceptualized the analogical relations
they identified. It could have been that, when explained, the technically non-valid analogies
mapped by the actors featured a highly original connection not identified during the formulation
of the Analogy Finding Task. On the other hand, the actors may have simply been casting a
wider net in their analogical reasoning, with the understanding that, in order to encompass the
maximum amount of valid analogies, some non-valid analogies would be included: a strategy
that coincides with classic brainstorming or divergent thinking methods (Acar, Runco, & Park,
2020). For this reason, although these data may be interpreted to indicate that professional
actors’ expertise in their domain positively supported their capacity to be Sensitive to possible
analogical relations even when those relations are semantically distant, a competing (and at this
point, also supported by the data) hypothesis would be that actors simply are more loose in their
associations, perhaps because of the way they are trained to take instructions by a director. At the
current time, future research is needed to disentangle these possibilities.
In general, the findings from this investigation suggest a potential mechanism in which
creative expertise moderates individuals’ experience of contextual cues related to creative work:
those individuals who are creatively expert, or developing competence in a creative domain, may
be more observant to contextual cues that support creative or divergent thinking, allowing them
to change their cognitive strategies to alter or augment their creative thinking more readily,
depending on context. To our knowledge, this type of pattern with experts in a creative discipline
has not been documented before in the psychological literature, and therefore we see this
inference: that creative experts (i.e., professional actors) and those acclimating to creative
expertise (i.e., undergraduate acting majors) may be more affected by a prompt to think
creatively than other individuals as a step towards a psychological understanding of what it may
mean for a person to develop expertise in creative thinking. In order to incorporate this finding
into the nascent conceptualization of creative expertise we presented in this article, we offer this
contextual-flexibility hypothesis of creative expertise as a possible focus for further research on
creativity, as well as the underlying role of relational reasoning in that critically important human
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Table 1.
Example Confusion Matrix for Analogical Reasoning
Researcher Designation
True positive
False positive
False negative
True negative
Note: Study outcome variables are operationalized in the following ways:
Quantity is the total number of analogies selected across both valid and non-
valid conditions; Sensitivity is the proportion of true positive identification;
and Selectivity is the proportion of true negative identification.
Table 2.
Sample Distributions: Ethnicity, Gender and Age across Creative Expertise Groups
Creative expertise groups
N by ethnicity
African American
Asian/pacific islanders
Multiple race/other
N by gender
Non-binary/third gender
Age Means (Std.)
36.98 (11.16)
35.43 (10.14)
20.33 (2.65)
Table 3.
Descriptive Statistics of Outcome Measures
Matrix 1
Matrix 2
Quantity of Possible Analogical Relations
All participants
Non-acting adults
Professional actors
Student actors
Sensitivity to Analogical Mappings
All participants
Non-acting adults
Professional actors
Student actors
Selectivity of Analogical Reasoning
All participants
Non-acting adults
Professional actors
Student actors
Table 4.
ANOVA Coefficients for Three Outcome Measures on Creativity prompt and Creative Expertise
Sum of
F p η2
Quantity of Possible Analogical Relations
Expertise group
Creativity prompt
Interaction effect
Sensitivity to Analogical Mappings
Expertise group
Creativity prompt
Interaction effect
Selectivity of Analogical Reasoning
Expertise group
Creativity prompt
Interaction effect
(a) Quantity of Possible Analogical Relations
(b) Sensitivity to Analogical Mappings
Baseline (Matrix 1) Be Creative Prompt (Matrix 2)
of possible analogical relations (counts)
Non-acting adults Professional actors Student Actors
Baseline (Matrix 1) Be Creative Prompt (Matrix 2)
Sensitivity levels to analogical mappings (proportions)
Non-acting adults Professional actors Student Actors
(c) Selectivity of Analogical Reasoning
Figure 1. Plots for means of outcome measures for the three creative expertise groups between
both matrices of the Analogy Finding Task. The second matrix included the specific prompt for
participants to think creatively. Error bars indicate standard errors of means.
Baseline (Matrix 1) Be Creative Prompt (Matrix 2)
Selectivity levels of analogical reasoning (proportions)
Non-acting adults Professional actors Student Actors
... Recently, researchers who study analogical reasoning have begun to be specifically interested not only in participants' capacity to map analogies that are relationally valid, but also their ability to not map relations that are not valid (Jabalansky et al., 2016). For this reason, some in the literature have begun to investigate instances where participants falsely identify an analogy as valid when the task creators did not intend it to be (e.g., Dumas, Dong, & Doherty, 2021). In order to support this research, some new cognitive performance tasks have been constructed over the past decade that require participants to identify non-valid or incompatible relations rather than solely valid analogies, with some of these tasks being visuo-spatial , and others being verbal (Weinberger et al., 2016). ...
... In a recently published empirical study (Dumas, Dong, & Doherty, 2021), Dumas and colleagues utilized the AFT to study the analogical sensitivity and selectivity of multiple samples of participants who differed on the degree of expertise they had developed in a creative discipline: professional actors who were members of North American acting labor unions, undergraduate student actors, and adults with no acting experience. Multiple conditions for the administration of the AFT were also utilized in this study, including explicit prompts for participants to think creatively while they engaged with the AFT. ...
... Contrary to their hypotheses, Dumas, Dong, and Doherty (2021) found that, when prompted to think creatively, the actors significantly increased the overall quantity of analogues they selected on the AFT, resulting in a greater proportion of non-valid analogies being mapped, and therefore a significant reduction in analogical selectivity. In fact, the actors were significantly less selective in their analogical reasoning than the non-actors, even though the actors were also significantly more analogically sensitive than the non-actors. ...
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Here, we used a cognitive interview methodology and a secondary-data re-sampling technique, to closely examine a curious finding from the recent literature: professional actors appear to be less selective than the general population in the analogies they map, and actors appear to posit higher-order connections among analogical word pairs that were written to be non-valid. Our results suggested that valid and non-valid analogies may be less of a categorical distinction, and more about the degree of semantic distance that separates the analogues. We found that actors were indeed capable of mapping extremely distant analogues, and to do so they drew on four key types of analogies: functional, visual, temporal, and symbolic. We also found substantial positive correlations among actors’ analogical mapping ability and their divergent thinking and neuroticism; and we found significant negative correlations among the analogical mappings and actors’ extraversion and openness.
... Informed consent was obtained for the reviewed studies. Note: two articles for this special issue appeared in an earlier issue of MBE (15:3): Gray & Holyoak (2021) and Dumas, Dong, & Doherty (2021). ...
This article provides an introduction to the special issue on relational reasoning. It first provides a definition of relational reasoning, and provides a conceptual framework for relational reasoning research as follows: The ability to represent concepts abstractly is critical for relational reasoning. Relational reasoning in turn provides a foundation for higher cognitive abilities such as language, and analogical reasoning. Understanding relational concepts is also crucial for STEM education. Experience, including formal education, may enhance relational reasoning ability, which in turn may facilitate future learning, forming a positive feedback loop. Creative problem‐solving or reasoning can also be defined in terms of abstraction or semantic distance, providing an important link between relational reasoning and creativity. Each of the articles in the special issue is briefly discussed and framed within these concepts. This article provides an introduction to the special issue on Relational Reasoning in Mind, Brain, and Education. It provides a definition of relational reasoning and a conceptual framework, as well as a brief discussion of the articles that make up the special issue.
... Very recently (i.e., Dumas, Dong, & Doherty, 2021), it was also demonstrated that the stateaugmentation effect on divergent thinking and verbal analogies was even more marked when participants were experts in a creative domain (i.e., professional actors) or immersed in training within a creative domain (i.e., undergraduate student actors) than if they had no formal experience working in a creative field. This area of state-augmentation research has demonstrated the ease with which participants' divergent thinking can be improved in response to task instructions and has begun to suggest that those improvements may be moderated by other individual differences (e.g., expertise). ...
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Divergent Thinking is a domain-general mental attribute closely associated with creativity that can be quantified through the use of text-mining algorithms. Past research has shown that students’ Divergent Thinking is malleable in response to relatively simple contextual prompts. In addition, there is substantial variance in the degree to which individual students’ Divergent Thinking is malleable, suggesting the presence of a student-specific zone-of-proximal-development in relation to creativity. Here, we adopted a dynamic assessment paradigm that included multiple conditions under which student Divergent Thinking was measured and fit a latent profile analysis model to that dynamic assessment data. We found that, although on average the Originality of student responses can be augmented through a prompt to generate surprising or unusual ideas, three latent classes emerged that differed significantly on their patterns of augmentation. These three latent classes were termed: (a) Conventional Thinkers (7.80% of the sample), whose response to the Divergent Thinking task were highly constrained and unoriginal across all conditions (b) Prompted Shifters (66.56%), whose Originality significantly increased across conditions, and (c) Idea Generators (25.64%), whose responses were highly original across all conditions. These latent profiles were validated in regard to personality characteristics and domain-specific creative activities, with Idea Generators reporting significantly more Openness and Intellect, less Industriousness, and more creative activities across the domains of Literature, Music, Sports, Visual Art, Science, and Cooking than did the other latent classes.
The associative theory posits that creativity relates to people’s ability to connect remote associations to form new ideas, based on the structure of their semantic memory. This theory has spurred several recent studies connecting semantic memory structure and associative thinking to creativity, capitalizing on advances in computational methods. To date, however, this research has almost exclusively focused on assessing creativity in the general population (e.g., assessed via divergent thinking tests), with far less work examining the role of associative thinking in eminently-creative individuals across the arts and sciences. Leveraging data collected as part of the Big-C Project—a sample of world-renowned visual artists (VIS) and scientists, and an intelligence-matched comparison group—we tested whether the ability to generate remote word associations differs as a function of creative expertise. Specifically, we used distributional semantic models to calculate the semantic distance of word associations across three conditions: a free association condition and two goal-directed conditions (common association and uncommon association). We found an interaction between domain expertise and association condition: while artists generated more distant associations overall, this effect was driven by substantially more distant responses in the free association condition. Our findings indicate that VIS spontaneously produce more remote associations—potentially due to a more interconnected semantic memory network structure—but that creative expertise is less relevant for producing associations that require goal-directed cognitive search. The findings are interpreted in the context of the ongoing debate on the domain-generality and domain-specificity of creativity.
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Background. When students generate ideas, important inter-individual variance exists both in the quantity and the quality of ideas they are able to produce (e.g., perfectionists who have few highly creative ideas or mass producers who produce a lot of uncreative ideas). In educational psychology research on creativity, the relation between the quantity and quality of ideas has not been well understood, limiting progress in this area. Aims. We conceptualized Ideational Fluency as a phenomenon that requires participants to “survive” to produce more ideas, and where dropping out of the ideational process was analogous to “dying”. Using this novel paradigm, we aimed to test the relations among Fluency (as a dependent variable); and creative Expertise, Originality, and self-reported Personality attributes (as independent variables). Sample and method. Participants were drawn from three groups: those with demonstrated expertise in stage or screen acting (n = 104); undergraduates being trained in the same domain (n = 100), and adults with no acting training or experience (n = 92). Participants responded to the Alternate Uses Task; Non-parametric and semi-parametric survival models were fit to their Ideational Fluency; and average and maximum Originality scores, as well as self-reported Personality attributes, were used as covariates. Results. Across all participants, the Ideational Fluency survival function showed an S-shape, but the Expertise grouping interacted with that pattern. The survival rate of professional actors decreased the most rapidly during the first few ideas, but after the 5th idea professional actors displayed a clear advantage in survival rate. Participants who were less original on average but who showed a high maximum Originality, as well as those participants who reported more Assertiveness and less Industriousness, also survived further into the Ideational process. Conclusions. Contrary to our hypothesis, professional actors’ advantage in Fluency did not manifest in the survival model until after the 5th idea generated. A quantity-quality trade-off was observed with average Originality being associated with shorter survival, but that trade-off was not observed with maximum Originality, which was associated with longer survival.
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As a profession, acting is marked by a high-level of economic and social riskiness concomitantly with the possibility for artistic satisfaction and/or public admiration. Current understanding of the psychological attributes that distinguish professional actors is incomplete. Here, we compare samples of professional actors (n = 104), undergraduate student actors (n = 100), and non-acting adults (n = 92) on 26 psychological dimensions and use machine-learning methods to classify participants based on these attributes. Nearly all of the attributes measured here displayed significant univariate mean differences across the three groups, with the strongest effect sizes being on Creative Activities, Openness, and Extraversion. A cross-validated Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) classification model was capable of identifying actors (either professional or student) from non-actors with a 92% accuracy and was able to sort professional from student actors with a 96% accuracy when age was included in the model, and a 68% accuracy with only psychological attributes included. In these LASSO models, actors in general were distinguished by high levels of Openness, Assertiveness, and Elaboration, but professional actors were specifically marked by high levels of Originality, Volatility, and Literary Activities.
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Although history standards generally aim at developing historical consciousness among secondary school students, there is not much research-based knowledge to support making connections between the past, the present, and the future in history teaching. This study examines the effects of teaching analogous cases of an enduring human issue in 2 experimental conditions: 1 in which grade 10-12 students (n = 460) were actively encouraged to compare cases and to draw analogies with the present and 1 in which students studied cases without making comparisons or drawing analogies with the present (n = 273). Set against the results of a group of students who followed the usual history curriculum (n = 289), multilevel regression analyses on the collected data revealed that both experimental conditions positively affected students’ appraisals of the relevance of history, more so in the case-comparison condition than in the separate-case condition. Students in the case-comparison condition also deemed the lesson course more valuable and experienced less difficulty with the applied pedagogical approach than students in the separate-case condition. Case comparison did not negatively affect the acquisition of historical factual knowledge. Implications for further research are discussed.
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As reflected in the Next Generation Science Standards, concerns about the adequacy of education and career preparation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields have led to fundamental shifts in the focus of K-12 science education. Such shifts are also highlighted in many of the articles within this special issue, and the issue focus on the role of relational reasoning in learning in STEM domains. Within this commentary, we reflect upon how the articles within this special issue align with, and shed new light on, the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), specifically with respect to relational reasoning. We then describe a novel pedagogical approach designed to augment students? acquisition of NGSS practices and core ideas (i.e., Quality Talk Science (QTs)) and how evidence from our research on QTs has shown increases in relational reasoning. In this section, we also provide multiple discourse excerpts that serve as exemplars for each of the four types of relational reasoning (i.e., analogy, anomaly, antinomy, and antithesis). Finally, we present specific exemplars from QTs that reinforce the ideas and findings forwarded by the authors of each of the papers within this special issue and propose some thoughts regarding future directions for research.
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The Kaufman Domains of Creativity Scale (K-DOCS) is a self-report, domain-specific measure assessing creativity in 5 domains: Everyday, Scholarly, Performance, Science, and the Arts. J. C. Kaufman (2012) provided initial evidence for the K-DOCS’ factor structure. However, the factor structure requires replication and the measure has not been validated. The current study examines the factor structure of the K-DOCS and applies the Amusement Park Theoretical hierarchical model as a framework to establish validation evidence. Adults from Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) (N 825) and Poland (N 500) completed the K-DOCS and a measure of the Big Five. The Polish sample also completed other creativity (e.g., CAQ, creative self-beliefs) and noncreativity (e.g., intelligence, dark triad) measures. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated the factor structure of the K-DOCS was reliable. Additionally, we demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity of the 5 K-DOCS factors based on their correlations with domain-general predictors of creativity and domain-specific predictors. We also explored the existence of latent profiles and found that the measure was not well represented with a profile structure. The current study demonstrates that the K-DOCS is a reliable and valid measure for assessing domain-specific creativity.
Divergent thinking (DT) tests are often used for creativity assessment. They differ from many other tests in that they are open-ended. A great deal of research has examined the influence of test instructions on the number and nature of responses to DT tests. Most instructions explicitly emphasize quantity (e.g., "give as many ideas as you can"). Others target additional features, such as creativity, originality, or idea quality. Do such alternative explicit instructions make any difference? The present meta-analysis examined studies that compared the explicit instructions emphasizing creativity, originality, and quality to quantity instructions. Using a 3-level multilevel approach, analyses with all 204 effect sizes from 31 studies indicated that creativity and quality instructions increased performance on DT when added to quantity instructions (gs = .243 and .271, respectively), more than quantity instructions alone. However, the originality instructions did not change DT performance (g=-.159). Thus, explicit instructions may increase or decrease DT performance, depending on which alternative explicit instructions are used and how they are presented. Practical implications of the findings are discussed, as are limitations of this research.
Analogical reasoning is essential for transfer by supporting recognition of relational similarity. However, not all analogies are created equal. The source and target can be similar (near), or quite different (far). Previous research suggests that close comparisons facilitate children's relational abstraction. On the other hand, evidence from adults indicates that the process of solving far analogies may be a more effective scaffold for transfer of a relational strategy. We explore whether engaging with far analogies similarly induces such a strategy in preschoolers. Children were provided with the opportunity to solve either a near or far spatial analogy using a pair of puzzle boxes that varied in perceptual similarity (Experiment 1), or to participate in a control task (Experiment 2). All groups were then presented with an ambiguous spatial reasoning task featuring both object and relational matches. We were interested in the relationship between near and far conditions and two effects: (a) children's tendency to spontaneously draw an analogy when solving the initial puzzle, and (b) their tendency to privilege relational matches over object matches in a subsequent, ambiguous task. Although children were more likely to spontaneously draw an analogy in the near condition, those who attempted the far analogy were more likely to privilege a relational match on the subsequent task. We argue that the process of solving a far analogy-regardless of a learner's spontaneous success in identifying the relation- contextualizes an otherwise ambiguous learning problem, making it easier for children to access and apply relational hypotheses.
Creativity and intelligence are not the same thing, but intelligent solutions often require creative insights. Reasoning is more commonly associated with intelligence than creativity, but reasoning can be measurably creative when it reveals connections between ideas or experiences that seem different on the surface. This kind of creative relational reasoning, especially in the form of analogy, provides valuable insights that drive advances in science and industry (Holyoak & Thagard, 1995). While intelligence and creativity have both been primarily studied as static traits that vary between individuals, growing evidence indicates that creative relational reasoning is also subject to variations in state creativity within an individual across time. Here I provide a brief review of recent advances in the neurocognition of creative relational thinking and reasoning, focusing in particular on analogical reasoning. I first seek to explicate characteristics that make reasoning creative and strategies that make studies of creative cognition practicable. I provide a brief review of insights about relational cognition achieved by the cognitive neuroscience of analogical reasoning. I then review work that is elucidating cognitive attributes and neural mechanisms of understanding and generating distant semantic relations in analogy and simpler forms of relational cognition. Next, I address the dynamism of creativity as a state, rather than a trait, in relational thinking and reasoning. Finally, I consider new efforts to enhance state creativity through exogenous modulation of electrical activity in the brain, and the potential implications of this work for creative reasoning. Much of the research I review utilizes computational tools for measuring the distance between concepts as a means of quantifying the creativity of relational connections. Such work is largely situated in the verbal domain. It goes without saying that there are many important forms of creativity beyond those considered here; this brief review is not intended to be exhaustive. Relatively simple verbal stimuli and quantifiable characteristics are a good fit for the methods of cognitive neuroscience, and thus have been prominently represented in the first generation of the cognitive neuroscience of creativity. The reviewed literature describes an encouraging trajectory, with quantitative “semantic distance” approaches driving progress, and cognitive state manipulations and electrical neuromodulation showing promise for augmenting creative performance.
Relational reasoning (RR) and divergent thinking (DT) are two critical antecedents of creative problem solving, but the relation between them is not currently well understood psychologically, limiting efforts to support these constructs through education. The threshold hypothesis (TH) is currently the dominant explanation for the relation between RR and DT, and posits that RR fundamentally supports DT, but only up to a point. In this study, quantile regression was used to test the TH among RR and two separate dimensions of DT: originality and fluency. Results generally supported the TH in regards to originality, with RR being significantly positively related to originality, but only in students at or below the median of the originality distribution. However, the TH was not upheld for fluency, which was only significantly predicted by RR at the top (i.e. 9th decile) of the fluency distribution. In general, results suggest that direct instructional intervention of RR strategies may be most supportive of creativity for those students who are simultaneously highly fluent but low-original thinkers.
More comprehensive than other texts, this new book covers the classic and cutting edge multivariate techniques used in today's research. Ideal for courses on multivariate statistics/analysis/design, advanced statistics or quantitative techniques taught in psychology, education, sociology, and business, the book also appeals to researchers with no training in multivariate methods. Through clear writing and engaging pedagogy and examples using real data, Hahs-Vaughn walks students through the most used methods to learn why and how to apply each technique. A conceptual approach with a higher than usual text-to-formula ratio helps reader's master key concepts so they can implement and interpret results generated by today's sophisticated software. Annotated screenshots from SPSS and other packages are integrated throughout. Designed for course flexibility, after the first 4 chapters, instructors can use chapters in any sequence or combination to fit the needs of their students. Each chapter includes a 'mathematical snapshot' that highlights the technical components of each procedure, so only the most crucial equations are included. Highlights include: Outlines, key concepts, and vignettes related to key concepts preview what's to come in each chapter; Examples using real data from education, psychology, and other social sciences illustrate key concepts; Extensive coverage of assumptions including tables, the effects of their violation, and how to test for each technique; Conceptual, computational, and interpretative problems mirror the real-world problems students encounter in their studies and careers; A focus on data screening and power analysis with attention on the special needs of each particular method; Instructions for using SPSS via screenshots and annotated output along with HLM, Mplus, LISREL, and G*Power where appropriate, to demonstrate how to interpret results; Templates for writing research questions and APA-style write-ups of results which serve as models; Propensity score analysis chapter that demonstrates the use of this increasingly popular technique; A review of matrix algebra for those who want an introduction (prerequisites include an introduction to factorial ANOVA, ANCOVA, and simple linear regression, but knowledge of matrix algebra is not assumed); provides the text's datasets preformatted for use in SPSS and other statistical packages for readers, as well as answers to all chapter problems, Power Points, and test items for instructors.