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Kształtowanie polskiego modelu cywilnych służb specjalnych w latach 1989-1990



The beginning of civil secret service formation is considered to be in 1989. The transformation began after the elections in June, 1989 and an attempt to adjust security apparatus to the standards of a democratic country has been made. At that time the idea of civil supervision over the first secret service institution (Office for State Protection) has appeared. This regulation was formalized by an act issued on 6 April, 1990 concerning Office for State Protection. Under the Law of 6 April 1990 on the Office for State Protection was abolished Security Service of the Ministry of Interior (polish acronym SB) was established the State Security Office (polish acronym UOP). The new intelligence service was to have a structure which will allow it to function properly within the democratic state. Also had to be modified tasks and powers of the UOP. Finally, the activity of a new intelligence service was subject to oversight and control by state institutions entrusted with proper powers. The first step is of such profound changes would be the enactment of new laws. In this article, were compared to organizational structures, functions and powers of the SB and the UOP. This allows you to point out the differences in the status of a new intelligence service. Legislative changes made in 1989-1990 had two priorities. First, it would give a legal basis for the organizational and functional separation of the Police of the UOP. Secondly, the various provisions of the Act were to be formal legal guarantee against the politicization of this service.
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Civilian Control Over Secret Services in Poland from the Perspective of Three Decades of Their Operation The article aims to analyze the current status of civilian control over intelligence services. The years 1990-1991 marked the beginning of a comprehensive transformation of this area of state activity. The article analyses the following issues: how hev the critical problems of civilian control over intelligence services been resolved across the three decades of their operation and to what extent the political system has been transformed in this area? The article consists of four main parts. The first discusses the concept of “special services” which signify specific institutional solutions in Poland. The following parts are organized according to the basic types of civilian control, i.e., executive control, parliamentary oversight, and independent oversight. The considerations focus on the institutional dimension of security. The article is analytical. It is prepared based on the available sources and literature.
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