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Abstract

The sustainable development in librarianship is relatively a new research field. This paper aims to increase readers' understanding of sustainable development challenges in Library and Information Science (LIS) in terms of complexity and diversity. A detailed plan was drawn up from Preferred Reporting Items for the Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) to achieve the objectives of this study. An inclusion and exclusion criteria was established and each study item passed through identification, screening, eligibility and inclusion before being placed in the final pool of items. This paper reviewed literature chosen from LISA, LISTA, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases spanning from 2000 to 2020. Findings revealed that there was diverse type of sustainable development challenges in Library and Information Science (LIS). Absence of sustainable strategies, lack of sustainable education in the LIS curriculum, operations, services and buildings designs and massive energy consumption due to long service hours of libraries were major challenges. More importantly, the rapid digital and technological advances have made libraries' current equipment irrelevant casting a large carbon footprint on the globe. Challenges to adaptation are compounded by clinging to old traditions and resistance to change which limit the ability to plan for long term sustainable development (SD) goals. There is need to remove these obstacles to accrue benefits for today and far reaching implications for the future. The study provides an integrative report to help library leaders and educational policy makers in Pakistan to apply SD initiatives more effectively according to the institutes' contextual needs. The results of this study will also help further the sustainability agenda in LIS by incorporating sustainability into the LIS curriculum.

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... It is also a widely held belief that this concept is composed of three main components, namely, of an environmental one, an economic, and a social one. This three-fold structure is sometimes called the "triple bottom line", or the "three pillars" or "three axes" arrangement [3][4][5]. The pillars were ultimately and formally established during the Sustainable the social component of sustainable development because of the social and cultural nature of libraries as institutes, i.e., agencies, that are meant to provide their communities with opportunities to learn, develop, and increase access to various types of information [5]. ...
... This three-fold structure is sometimes called the "triple bottom line", or the "three pillars" or "three axes" arrangement [3][4][5]. The pillars were ultimately and formally established during the Sustainable the social component of sustainable development because of the social and cultural nature of libraries as institutes, i.e., agencies, that are meant to provide their communities with opportunities to learn, develop, and increase access to various types of information [5]. What is more, it was also noticed that information is an inherent part of every development and innovation, which is why sustainability issues ought to be a prominent research topic within LIS [20,21]. ...
... The concern, as it relates to green library designs, visibly intensified in 2007, when a seminar "Going Green" was held in Chicago, Illinois. The city planners, architects, and librarians attended to share the cutting-edge solutions that were possible to adopt at that time [5,13,14,30]. One of the biggest and most acute challenges in this area is the so-called carbon footprint of libraries, which is connected to their print and electronic material usage, external and internal architectural design, as well as to energy consumption. ...
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In times of real threats to the continuity of the human civilization resulting from environmental degradation, depletion of natural resources, overpopulation, and other adverse factors, the issue of sustainable development is the subject of interest of many scientific disciplines. As a leading objective of this paper, the authors take up the topic of sustainable development seen through the lenses of the library and information science, which is considered with special attention paid to its economic, social, environmental, and cultural dimensions. In addition to reviewing the most important literature, the authors also explore the subject matter from a quantitative perspective. As a result of the research, the authors identify the key areas that affect libraries as cultural and scientific institutions, in which work related to the sustainability concept is actively carried out. Quantitative research allowed to determine the proportions of efforts made by scientists within the previously selected areas, and to outline trends observed within those areas—that is, to identify which areas have recently been gaining importance, and which may have ceased to be exploited. The authors hope that the research results not only shed light on the landscape of world science in the subject matter, but above all, that they support contemporary researches of these fields by identifying potentially the most important works influencing the shape of particular research areas, and the identification of current trends, which are present within the mentioned areas as well. Further research directions, which are potentially worth undertaking, are also emphasized.
... The articles emphasizing only upon the medico legal examinations were excluded. 30,31 Research assistants helped in reviewing the articles and finally ten articles met the inclusion criteria ...
... PRISMA chart of reviewed studies30,31 ...
Article
Background: Sexual violence against women is a commonly prevalent human rights violation and a widespread public health problem. It is associated with substantial short and long-term ill consequences for women and their families. As the response of the community is increasing day by day to sexual assault, new interventions have evolved in the form of sexual assault centers. These centers are community-based organizations that work to counteract the potential negative impacts of sexual assaults on the physical, mental, and psychological health of the victims. Objective: The objective of the study is to find out the multi-disciplinary professional services provided by these centers globally to treat sexual assault victims. Methods: The information is collected from secondary sources. This systematic review was prepared according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Online databases were searched including, Research Gate, Taylor & Francis, Wiley Online Library, Scopus, and Google Scholar, and the search included the term ‘sexual assault centers, rape crisis centers, integrated services at sexual assault centers’. Results: The important post-assault services provided by these centers include medical treatment, forensic examination, police services, and psychological counseling to the sufferers of the tragic event. In addition, these centers are also involved in carrying out significant research and educational work. Practical Implication: These rape crisis centers are providing multidisciplinary services to rape victims including services of specially trained nurses, treatment and care of medical injuries, forensic medical examination, police services, counseling by psychologists and a highly organized follow-up. Conclusion: These centers are providing valuable multidisciplinary services including medical treatment, forensic examination, police services, and psychological counseling to the sufferers of sexual abuse under one roof. The understanding of these multidisciplinary services could be used to endorse the development of sexual assault centers in different parts of the world Keywords: Sexual assault, sexual assault centers, multidisciplinary services
... Por otro lado, al realizar una búsqueda complementaria a la anterior combinando los términos "green libraries", edificios (building) y ODS (SDG), los resultados son escasos y se centran más en el funcionamiento de las bibliotecas y en las actividades relacionadas con el medio ambiente (Khalid;Malik;Mahmood, 2021), y acciones de concienciación (Zrnić et al., 2021). No obstante, existen excepciones como el trabajo de Gupta (2020), que se centra con precisión en el concepto de biblioteca verde y su impacto en la reducción del consumo energético, definiendo medidas y prácticas clasificadas en cuatro categorías: -diseño interior ecológico; -incorporación de prácticas ecológicas en el día a día de la biblioteca; -desarrollo de colecciones ecológicas; -programas de alfabetización y adopción de tecnologías inteligentes. ...
... Por otro lado, al realizar una búsqueda complementaria a la anterior combinando los términos "green libraries", edificios (building) y ODS (SDG), los resultados son escasos y se centran más en el funcionamiento de las bibliotecas y en las actividades relacionadas con el medio ambiente (Khalid;Malik;Mahmood, 2021), y acciones de concienciación (Zrnić et al., 2021). No obstante, existen excepciones como el trabajo de Gupta (2020), que se centra con precisión en el concepto de biblioteca verde y su impacto en la reducción del consumo energético, definiendo medidas y prácticas clasificadas en cuatro categorías: -diseño interior ecológico; -incorporación de prácticas ecológicas en el día a día de la biblioteca; -desarrollo de colecciones ecológicas; -programas de alfabetización y adopción de tecnologías inteligentes. ...
Article
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La consecución de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) es una de las preocupaciones presentes en el trabajo de muchas bibliotecas. Además de la sensibilización, la formación, el desarrollo de colecciones… etc. los edificios e infraestructuras bibliotecarias también pueden contribuir a lograr las metas y objetivos marcados en la Agenda 2030. La IFLA, diferentes asociaciones y organismos trabajaban en esta línea, aunque el porcentaje de acciones en este sentido es todavía minoritario frente a las otras líneas mencionadas. En este artículo, se estudia la importancia de los edificios bibliotecarios sostenibles, así como las medidas que se están implementando y que buscan contribuir al cuidado del medio ambiente mejorado la vida en el planeta.
... From the viewpoint of readers, the fundamental functionality of the library can be subdivided into resources, space, circulation, consulting, training, acquisition, etc. [21,22,36,37]. The readers can enjoy different kinds of services provided by the library, meanwhile, from the aspect of librarianship [24,38], the traditional library itself has the responsibility for maintaining the normal operations for sustainability [24,[39][40][41] and personal security [24,[42][43][44][45], on both of which there is still a massive amount of room for improvements. Furthermore, the library, as a public service organization, not only needs to provide efficient services, but also needs to take the responsibility for bearing societal obligations [38,46,47] such as sustainability and personal security. ...
... Unfortunately, there hardly exists a formal and generally accepted definition for "Smart Library" yet. By reviewing a considerable amount of works, we define the "Smart Library" as a smart entity with AI-aided IoT technology deeply deployed to efficiently promote all aspects of operational efficiencies, for improvements of readers' needs and sustainable social responsibilities [21][22][23][24][25][38][39][40][41][42][43][44]46,47]. ...
Article
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With the boom in artificial intelligence (AI) and Internet-of-Things (IoT), thousands of smart devices are interconnected with each other and deeply applied into human society. This prosperity has significantly improved public service and management, which were traditionally based on manual work. As a notable scenario, librarianship has embraced an era of “Smart Libraries” enabled by AI and IoT. Unlike existing surveys, our work comprehensively overviews the AI- and IoT-based technologies in three fundamental aspects: smart service, smart sustainability, and smart security. We then further highlight the trend towards future smart libraries.
... The trainings should be conducted to improve the health literacy and how to access the medical resources for patients in Pakistan. 26,27 ...
... The trainings should be conducted to improve the health literacy and how to access the medical resources for patients in Pakistan. 26,27 ...
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Background: Perceived health competencies (PHC) means "the competency of a person that he/she feels that he will successfully handle their health behaviors and outcomes, which is important in the learning process of nursing students throughout academics and in clinical skills. Therefore the study was conducted with the aim to determine the perceived health competencies (PHC) of nursing students and its association with academic performance. Methodology: The study design was a correlational descriptive study conducted in the nursing institutes of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa from April to June 2023. The sample size of the study was 341 using convenient sampling technique. The instrument for data collection was the Smith 8 items perceived health competencies Scale, with a reliability of 0.82, while the academic performance was analyzed through the GPA (grade point average). Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated using SPSS 20.0. Results: In the current study, the total number of participants was 341, with the majority of male participants (62.2%) compared to female participants (37.8%). The maximum number of students PHC score was high (72.7%), then average competencies (20.5%) and (6.7%) competencies was low, while the overall means score was (3.9 ± 0.86). The maximum academic performance of the students was best (58.7%), followed by average academic performance (35.5%) and remaining (6%) performance was poor. Conclusion: The study concluded that nursing student's academic performance and PHC was high. The study also determines that PHC are significantly associated with gender, age, college status, and academic performance of the students. If changes occur in the perceived health competencies of students it will affect the performance of students. Practical implications: Students with good health tend to perform better in school than those with poor health. Problems that emanate from poor health include limited resources available on medical education and research in Pakistan: lack of access to medical and health resources to the patients about disease; limited knowledge and trainings, and awareness about disease.
... The trainings should be conducted to improve the health literacy and how to access the medical resources for patients in Pakistan. 26,27 ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Perceived health competencies (PHC) means "the competency of a person that he/she feels that he will successfully handle their health behaviors and outcomes, which is important in the learning process of nursing students throughout academics and in clinical skills. Therefore the study was conducted with the aim to determine the perceived health competencies (PHC) of nursing students and its association with academic performance. Methodology: The study design was a correlational descriptive study conducted in the nursing institutes of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa from April to June 2023. The sample size of the study was 341 using convenient sampling technique. The instrument for data collection was the Smith 8 items perceived health competencies Scale, with a reliability of 0.82, while the academic performance was analyzed through the GPA (grade point average). Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated using SPSS 20.0. Results: In the current study, the total number of participants was 341, with the majority of male participants (62.2%) compared to female participants (37.8%). The maximum number of students PHC score was high (72.7%), then average competencies (20.5%) and (6.7%) competencies was low, while the overall means score was (3.9 ± 0.86). The maximum academic performance of the students was best (58.7%), followed by average academic performance (35.5%) and remaining (6%) performance was poor. Conclusion: The study concluded that nursing student's academic performance and PHC was high. The study also determines that PHC are significantly associated with gender, age, college status, and academic performance of the students. If changes occur in the perceived health competencies of students it will affect the performance of students. Practical implications: Students with good health tend to perform better in school than those with poor health. Problems that emanate from poor health include limited resources available on medical education and research in Pakistan: lack of access to medical and health resources to the patients about disease; limited knowledge and training, and awareness about disease.
... Libraries can play an essential role in increasing individual knowledge about environmental sustainability and helping improve community welfare (Lankes, 2012). However, in this case, the library faces multidimensional challenges, such as low awareness and readiness of users and librarians (Khalid et al., 2021). The same situation also occurs in Indonesia, particularly in Bangka Belitung Islands, where public awareness of environmental damage prevention and preservation is still low, environmental damage management and prevention are only partially implemented, and legal enforcement is ineffective (Rusfiana & Hermawan, 2019). ...
Article
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Libraries are essential in educating people about sustainability and environmental issues, particularly in preserving East Belitung's mangrove ecosystems. The goal of this study is to determine how the Mangrove Literacy House Library, which the Peat and Mangrove Restoration Agency established in collaboration with the Environmental Council of Muhammadiyah Central Executive, has changed into a library that emphasizes social inclusion in the areas of environment and sustainability, particularly concerning the preservation of mangrove ecosystems. This qualitative descriptive study data is gathered through interviews, observation, and documentation and is then analyzed using Miles and Huberman's models. The findings of this study demonstrated that the RLM library works in partnership with the Sayang Kampong Farmers Group to increase public awareness of environmental issues and sustainability, particularly concerning the preservation of the mangrove ecosystems of East Belitung. Through this partnership, students learn about the environment and sustainability through reading activities at the RLM Library and hands-on experiences at the Sayang Kampong Farmers Group. Students can even put their knowledge of mangrove ecosystems they have learned about in the RLM Library into practice for the Sayang Kampong Farmers Group, making the RLM Library a library based on social inclusion in the environment and sustainability.
... They further stress the need to consider adequate consultation and adoption of this knowledge in developing the criteria and indicators, including values and goals for sustainability certification (Smith, 1998). It has been challenging to integrate TEK into the sustainability certifications programme (Khalid et al., 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
The Marshall Decision of Canada’s Supreme Court inspired the Mi’kmaq in the 1700s regarding recognizing fishing rights to the Mi’kmaq communities. Despite this recognition, the Mi’kmaq communities did not have access to commercial fisheries due to the denial of absolute recognition of territories and rights and underrepresentation and participation in resource allocation, governance, and decision-making processes. A potential approach to these issues is the development of third-party Indigenous community-based sustainability certification standards for the American lobster (Homarus americanus) commercial fishery of Nova Scotia by Mi’kmaq communities. An Indigenous certification is a market-based tool that focuses on a holistic approach to the sustainability of the resource, followed by independent accreditations and standards. This study identifies the gaps, challenges, and opportunities of Indigenous-based certifications for the American lobster commercial fishery. We adopt a participatory approach to conventional policy analysis and perform a secondary analysis of existing legal and scientific resources to glean valuable information for supporting the establishment of an Indigenous certification for the American lobster. Certification could provide benefits such as increased control over fisheries management, governance, rights, and socioeconomic interest, building capacity for Mi’kmaq communities, and improving stakeholder relationships. However, there are issues with the entry points of certification for Indigenous peoples related primarily to the dominant actors in accreditation. This study will support further research and engagement of the Mi’kmaq people toward developing an Indigenous certification scheme.
... According to their opinions, a manuscript's authors are already involved in editing, reviewing, and writing their ideas. Still, before publishing, the peer reviewer works as a gatekeeper to check the concepts, words, and elegances and polishes the sketch of the article before publication and circulation in the academic world 10, [23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30] . ...
... According to their opinions, a manuscript's authors are already involved in editing, reviewing, and writing their ideas. Still, before publishing, the peer reviewer works as a gatekeeper to check the concepts, words, and elegances and polishes the sketch of the article before publication and circulation in the academic world 10, [23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30] . ...
Article
Introduction: The Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences have been peer-reviewed and is included in the Scopus-Elsevier database. This study represents (PJMHS)'s contribution to research productivity from 2019 to 2009. Methods and Materials: The published data records were obtained from the PJMHS website and the Scopus-Elsevier database for MS Office Excel Sheet tabulation. The frequency of publications, the type of papers, the use of pages, citations, and the initial author's affiliation with their country. Results: In 43 issues, 15401 (4%) authors wrote 3817 items in seven categories. The average number of pages consumed was (2.8%), with 896 (23.4%) citations in publications. The collaboration of three authors provided 1339 (36.6%) papers and received the top spot, while four authors, 3344 (21.7%), contributed 836 (22%). The first authors from 29 nations engaged in publications, with Pakistan leading the way with 3484 (91%), Iran second with 79 (2%), Indonesia third with 77 (2%), and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia fourth with 65 (1.7%). Practical Implication: The information assess the influence and relevance of the research published in the Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences. In nut-shell, the published data empowers readers to stay informed about the journal's publication trends, authorship patterns, and the breadth of content available. It enables researchers to identify potential collaborators, explore different document types, and gauge the impact of published articles through citation analysis. Conclusion: Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences (PJMHS) is a peer-reviewed journal that is published continuously and assists medical and health sciences research communities in gaining their attention in sharing ideas on a reciprocal basis from similar specialties or sub-specialties of common disciplines Keywords: Bibliometric, Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, Pakistan, medical education and research, bibliometric, Zameer Baladi.
... Data was analyzed using SPSS version. [22][23] ...
Article
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Background: The health of pregnant women and their newborns is critical. Prenatal care and breastfeeding are fundamental components of optimal maternal and child health. Despite the well-recognized importance of these practices, the worldwide prevalence of suboptimal antenatal care and breastfeeding remains high. The lack of awareness and knowledge among pregnant women regarding these practices is a leading cause. This study aimed to explore the attitudes, knowledge, and practices of pregnant women regarding antenatal care and breastfeeding. Objective: to identify critical areas for intervention and highlight gaps in knowledge to offer a foundation for future research and awareness-raising. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Lahore from 1st of January, 2022 to 1st of March, 2022. The data was collected of pregnant women from Ghurki Trust Teaching Hospital, Lahore, For this cross Sectional survey 400 pregnant women, ranging from <20 to 40 years or above were approached. Results: The majority of the respondents had education up to secondary level, and half had their previous baby delivered at home. The findings revealed that the majority of pregnant women had visited less than four times for prenatal checkups during the current pregnancy and expressed a willingness to come for proper prenatal checkups in their next pregnancy. Practical Implication: In order to achieve the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the baby, it is imperative to have educational programs aimed at enhancing the knowledge around prenatal care and breastfeeding practices amongst expectant mothers. Conclusion: Respondents were aware of the benefits of breastfeeding, but their knowledge of optimal breastfeeding practices, including colostrum feeding, was insufficient. Addressing these gaps in knowledge and practice is essential through community awareness programs, health care provider training, and support mechanisms for new mothers. Ultimately, improving maternal and child health will enhance the welfare of families and the community as a whole. Keywords: Pregnant, Knowledge and Perception, Prenatal Care, Breastfeeding
... The research data were downloaded under the term "Professional attitudes" in the menu bar or research bar of dashboard of databases. 30,31 A comma-separated-value (CSV) file was downloaded with the information on open access, year-wise distribution, authors' affiliation, subject areas, document format/type, publication stage, source title, key-words, funding sponsor organization, and the language of manuscripts. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The research aims to investigate and assess the existing knowledge surrounding professional attitudes within this journal selection for 20 years. The study explores the year-wise distribution of published manuscripts, examines the various formats utilized in these publications, and investigates the patterns of languages used in the manuscripts. Through this analysis, the research aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the literature on professional attitude and identify potential gaps or trends in research. Methods: The data of manuscripts relating to "Professional attitudes" on the three modules, year-wise distribution, document format/type, and manuscript language were examined on the Comma-Separated-Value (CSV) file from the Scopus-Database. The data helped meet the study objectives. The data was examined, tabulated, and sorted results in the Al-Nafees Central Library of Ibn-e-Sina University Mirpurkhas Sindh Pakistan in June 2023. Results: Total 1907 manuscripts published with the average of 95.3% on Twelve Formats/Types; 1558, 81.7 articles, 153, 8% review papers, 9, 0.4% books, 75, 4% book-chapters, 69, 3.6% conference papers, 4, 0.2% conference reviews, 1, 0.05% data-paper, 5, 0.26% editorials, and errata, 9, 0.47% letters, and notes, and 10, 0.52% short surveys. The 1688, 88.5% manuscripts were published in English language as supporting global language out of 29 languages. Practical Implication: The evaluation and assessment of papers or presentations presented to a conference by academics, scholars, or specialists in a specific topic is referred to as a conference review. Review articles synthesize and analyze the existing literature on a particular topic. These articles will likely provide an exhaustive summary of the research conducted on professional attitude Conclusion; Based on the findings of manuscripts relating to "Professional attitudes" published in a variety of formats/types and languages, the majority were published as articles, which were the most common format for disseminating knowledge on professional attitudes, followed by review papers, book chapters, conference papers, and other eight formats. A large proportion of research was published in English, indicating that it is widely used as a global language for scholarly communication.
... Females with abnormal bleeding and clotting profile (PT>20sec, aPTT>15sec, INR>2)  Females with thrombophilia (on medical record)  Females with hypertension (BP≥140/90mmHg), gestational or chronic diabetes (BSR>186mg/dl), deranged LFT (ALT>40IU, AST>40IU), creatinine>1.2mg/dl. 17,18 Data Collection: 175 females fulfilling selection criteria were included through OPD of Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Lady Willindgon Hospital, and Lahore. Informed consent was obtained before including females in the study. ...
Article
Introduction: Placental insufficiency is a serious condition that affects pregnant women and can lead to a range of complications during pregnancy. One potential treatment for this condition is the use of low molecular weight heparin. Objectives: The main objective of the study is to assess the outcome of low molecular weight heparin for management of females presenting with placental insufficiency. Material and methods: This descriptive case series was conducted in Unit II, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Lady Willingdon Hospital, Lahore. Sample size of 175 cases was calculated with 95% confidence level, 4.5% margin of error and taking expected percentage of SGA i.e. 10.1% with LMWH in females placental insufficiency. Data was collected through non-probability consecutive sampling technique. Results: In this present study total 175 females were enrolled. The mean age of the females was 29.70±6.36 years with minimum and maximum ages of 20 & 40 years respectively. In this study the mean gestational age of the females was 33.99±1.43 weeks with minimum and maximum values of 32 & 36 weeks respectively. 35(20%) females had null parity, 37(21.14%) females had primary, 45(25.71%) females had secondary parity and rest of the females belonged to multiple parity. Practical implication: This study will be helpful in finding outcome by LMWH for management of females presenting with placental insufficiency Conclusion: According to this study the outcome by LMWH for management of females presenting with placental insufficiency showed preterm delivery in 26.9% and SGA in 8% females. Keywords: LMWH, Delivery, Patients, Pregnant, Treatment, Weight
... Children who have a documented systemic illness with blood in their stools. 23,24 Data Collection Procedure: Eighty participants were included in the study (forty in each group) after receiving ethics committee approval. After receiving CPSP's permission of the synopsis, the cases were enrolled from the Peads Ittifaq Hospital's Lahore department. ...
Article
Introduction: Acute gastroenteritis-related diarrhea is a major contributor to pediatric morbidity and mortality. Although the success of various oral rehydration formulations varies and the treatment of choice ultimately depends on the underlying reason, oral rehydration remains crucial for efficient early therapies. Objective: To compare outcome of Glucose ORS with and without rice based ORS in treatment of acute gastroenteritis from 6 month to 5 years in terms of mean stool frequency. Study Design: Randomized clinical trial Settings: The study will be done at department of Peads Ittifaq Hospital Lahore from 9 December 2018 to 19 June 2019. Sample Technique: Non probability consecutive sampling Methodology: Children of both sexes were included in this analysis of gastroenteritis cases between the ages of 6 months and 5 years. They divided into two separate groups. For 48 hours, group A was given G-ORS, whereas group B was given rice soup. Over the course of 48 hours, the typical individual needs to use the washroom. Results: Eighty people took part in the study (forty in each group). There were 25 males in Group A (40.02%), and 26 in Group B (50.98%). The average ages of those in Group A and Group B were very comparable (3.30±1.18 vs. 2.07±1.03 years, p=0.29). The baseline stool frequency of Group A was 4.11±2.33, while that of Group B was 5.01±2.81 (p= 0.51). Group A also had a higher mean weight, at 6.87±1.97, than Group B, at 6.28±2.01. Group A had an average of 2.15±0.77 bowel movements in 48 hours, while Group B had an average of 2.08±0.73 (p=0.91). The mean frequency was 2.170.78 for males, 2.14±0.69 for females, and 2.11±0.72 for both sexes combined (p=0.91). There were no statistically significant differences in age, BMI over 10, or baseline frequency. Practical implication: The purpose of this research was to more exactly explain the authentic benefit of rice-based ORS in comparison to glucose ORS and to evaluate whether or not there is significant differences. Conclusion: Both groups reduced the number of incidences of the confounding variable roughly at the same rate, and there was no statistically significant difference between them either in terms of that reduction or in terms of stratification of any of the study's other confounding variables. Keywords: G-ORS, Gastroenteritis, Stool frequency, Rice soup
... It is important to rule out other causes of oligomenorrhea or anovulation, such as NC-CAH, Cushing's syndrome, androgen-secreting tumors, hyperprolactinemia, thyroid illnesses, drug-induced androgen excess, and so on were excluded from the study. 28,29 Sample Size Calculation: On the WHO sample size calculator, a total of 160 subjects were chosen based on a prevalence of 52% 2 polycystic ovaries prevalence with 95% confidence interval and margin of error was 5%. Study Participants: During the study period, volunteers were recruited from hospitals and requested their consent. ...
Article
Background: The aetiology of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is unknown, even though it is the most frequent endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. Previous community-based studies were unable to directly estimate the prevalence of PCOS in these communities since they did not conduct comprehensive biochemical and clinical screening. Objective: This research focused on polycystic ovaries and associated clinical and biochemical features in young women. Study Design: Cross-sectional study Study Setting: This study was conducted in Department of Biochemistry Central Park Medical College, Lahore from 1st August 2022 1st February 2023. Methodology: During the study period, volunteers were recruited from hospitals and requested their consent. While women were informed specifically that ovaries scan (ultrasound) would be used to detect polycystic ovaries. After the confirmation of polycystic ovaries, they were taken 201 as a case group. To compare the data, we also recruited 233 healthy participants as a control group. After taking consent and filling the questionnaire both cases and controls participants were requested for biochemical and hormonal analysis. SPSS version 20 was used for data analysis. Results: The mean age of control 25.83 ± 4.6 years and 27.12 ± 5.52 years of with significantly increased BMI in the women with PCO as compared to controls (p = 0.001). Insulin and resistance are significantly increased in those women suffering from PCO. LH, oestradiol are significantly increased and FSH is significantly decreased in cases as compared to control. The level of testosterone is not significant in this cohort. SHBG and also free testosterone index are also not significantly different. Practical implication: Even though many women in rural areas experience signs of a disease, they are hesitant to see a gynecologist or endocrinologist for treatment due to a lack of disease awareness, management, and medical therapy that conforms to criteria. Most patients don't get treatment because of this hesitation, which can cause a host of problems down the road. This study was done to better understand the clinical and biochemical characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome in young women. Conclusion: Most women with infertility in Pakistan's leading medical centers have polycystic ovaries. Women with polycystic ovaries may not always experience the symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome. However, 26 percent of women in this research had PCOS. Women with polycystic ovaries often have hyperinsulinemia and high levels of insulin resistance. While LH and FSH are both considerably higher in cases than in controls, they are unrelated. The results of this investigation showed that although testosterone levels did not influence PCO, a negative correlation between insulin levels and SHBG hormone was seen in individuals with elevated insulin. Hence, the management of insulin can reduce the risk of PCO. Keywords: PCO, PCOS, LH, FSH, oestradiole, hyperinsulinemia, HOMA-IR
... However, baby born after 34 week of gestation, baby allergic to fortified human milk, presence of congenital diseases and comorbid conditions, preterm infants who require respiratory or cardiac support, babies who cannot tolerate 50% of daily requirement of calories by milk, and haemodynamically unstable were excluded from the study. 26,27 Data collection Procedure: The study conducted after approval from institutional ethical committee. A total of 160 preterm infants fulfilling the inclusion criteria and enrolled in the study after informed consent from parents. ...
Article
Background: The addition of medium chain triglycerides is preferable as they are more easily digested and quickly absorb in bloodstream than long chain fat and provide ready supply of energy by increasing fatty acid bioavailability. Modular products like micro lipids and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oils are now focused as a fat supplementation. The rate of weight gain with MCT is not well known, and there is very less research done in Pakistan. Objective: To determine the effect of MCT oil supplemented human milk compared with un supplemented human milk fed to preterm infants on promoting weight gain. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial Study Setting: This study was conducted in Department of Neonatology, Children Hospital, PIMS, Islamabad, Pakistan from 20th August 2022 to 20th February 2023. Methodology: The study conducted after approval from institutional ethical committee. A total of 160 preterm infants fulfilling the inclusion criteria and enrolled in the study after informed consent from parents. The patients were receiving enteral feeding of human milk within neonatology department of hospital was included and they were randomly assigned to Group NF (receiving 20 ml of human milk without MCT oil), Group F (receiving 20ml of human milk with 1 ml of MCT oil fat). Primary outcomes were including growth in term of weight gain at measured at 1st ,5th and 10th day of MCT oil intake after hospital admission. Secondary outcome included feeding intolerance, diarrhoea, sepsis and necrotising enterocolitis. All the data was collected in the form of a questionnaire. The statistical analysis was done by using SPSS version 20. Results: One sixty very low birth weight infants were analyzed in this study. All infants were randomly divided into two groups: F and NF, the demographic details. The weight of infants was measured on first day, fifth day and tenth day and noted that the frequency of infants improved the weight gain after taking human milk without fat supplementation or human milk with fat supplementation. We found the gradually infants more increasing their weights in Group F as compared to Group NF. On tenth day 75% infants reaches between1400-1490 gm weight (p<0.001). The average daily gain in weight of Group F infants (g/kg). 12.2 Group A, 13.6 in group B were calculated on day first. The average daily weight was shifted in Group B from 13.6 to 14.9 on day fifth then it was further increased as 15.6 in Group C, and 15.8 in Group D. Practical Implication: The fat in the milk of humans is a significant source of energy. In an underdeveloped State like Pakistan that is short on resources, (MCT) oil can be a useful substitute for MCT due to its high MCT content. Few research studies have been conducted into this area thus far. Previous studies have had a low number of participants and produced contradictory findings. Therefore, this study was carried out to compare the efficacy of feeding preterm infants human milk supplemented with MCT oil to that of feeding them human milk without the supplement. Conclusion: Our study shows the average weight gain in those infants fed fat supplementation of MCT oil added in breast milk. The study provides data regarding the selection and use of fat supplemented human milk over non-supplemented human milk and this reduces the morbidity and mortality rate due to insufficiency of nutrients. Keyword: Fat supplementation, MCT oil, breast milk, preterm infants, weight gain rate.
... Inclusion criteria were as follows 21,22 : participants aged 18 and above who reported experiencing moderate or severe dizziness, as measured by visual analog scale (VAS). The exclusion criteria were individuals affected by central nervous system diseases, non-vestibular causes of imbalance, degenerative or tumors, acute infection, lower limb anomalies, cervical or suboccipital spine morphological alterations, neuromuscular disease, or trauma that hindered exercising. ...
Article
Background: Our sense of balance and spatial orientation is reliant on intricate network of structures in the inner ear called the vestibular system. Any disruption or damage to this system can result in various vestibular disorders that significantly affect an individual's balance and mobility. Objectives: The study highlighted the impact of vestibular disorders on balance and mobility of the body, its importance of early detection and outcome. Methods: The research was conducted at Mufti Mehmood Memorial Teaching Hospital, Dera Ismail Khan, from September 2021 to December 2022, comprising 86 participants having trouble in body balance and mobility diagnosed with vestibular disorders. They were investigated though a balance questionnaire including questions about their history of dizziness and falls for 01 year and a balance test through modified Romberg Test. Results: Mean age of patients was 54.22+10.47 years. It was seen that out of 86 patients, 17 had a history of falling (19.76%), 23 (26.74%) reported experiencing dizziness, 63 (73.26%), 8 (9.3%) patients reported having a history of fainting, while 38 (44.18%) reported mild vertigo, 13 (15.11%) reported moderate vertigo, and 7 (8.13%) reported severe vertigo. The impact of vestibular disorders on balance and mobility measured through Modified Romberg Test revealed that only 15 (17.44%) patients passed Romberg Test and 71 (82.55%) were failed and ranked positive cases for loss of body balance and mobility. Practical implication: Overall, research on vestibular disorders and their impact on balance and mobility has important practical implications for healthcare providers and patients. Early detection, targeted interventions, education, assistive devices, and a multidisciplinary approach can all help improve balance and mobility and reduce the risk of falls. Conclusion: Vestibular disorders can have a significant impact on an individual's balance and mobility. The presence of vestibular dysfunction significantly raises chances of falls, which are among the most debilitating and expensive health conditions affecting elderly individuals. Keywords: Fall injuries; Romberg test; Vertigo; Vestibular dysfunction.
... Patients with a history of appendectomy, those who were pregnant, and those whose CT indicated perforation of the vermiform appendix were not included in the research. 25,26 Sample Size Calculation: On the WHO sample size calculator, a total of 295 subjects were chosen based on a prevalence of 30% 6 appendicitis with 95% confidence interval and margin of error was 5%. Study Protocol: Medical files and CT scans for a total of 300 patients were selected and examined. ...
Article
Background: Delaying acute appendicitis diagnosis may cause appendix perforation and abscess or peritonitis. Appendectomy is one of the most common surgeries in Pakistan, however little is known about vermiform appendix variation architecture. Hence, appendix anatomy may improve prognosis, this research identified appendix anatomical locations, length, and age and sex relationships. Objective: This study aimed to identify the anatomical sites of the appendix, the length of the appendix and to examine the associations between these factors and age and sex. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study Study Setting: This study was conducted in anatomy department of Islamic International Medical College, Rawalpindi from August 2022 to January 2023. Methodology: This retrospective cross-sectional research was completed in the (department and hospital name) between (year). This study was approved from Ethical review committee with IRB (no). The patients reports were taken for the completion of the study. The CT scan of both gender from 8 to 60 years with the help radiologist suggestions were included in this study. Together with a radiologist, we analyzed CT axial images, a coronal of 1.5 mm thickness, and a sagittal reconstruction to assess the anatomical findings of the vermiform appendix retrospectively. Results: There were 300 total participants in this research, 165 (55%) were female and 135 (45%) were male between 8years to 60 years of age. In both sexes, the following sites were found Pelvic, Post ileal, Pre ileal, Retro caecal, Retro colic, Retro Para colic, and Sub caecel. Appendix length and site was shown to be significantly different in gender and age (p<0.001). Children less than 10 years old were more likely to have an incomplete mesoappendix. According to our findings, males have a longer appendix than females do. On the other hand, we discovered that the appendix tends to become longer with age. Practical implication: The location of the appendix reportedly varies among ethnic and geographical groups. Preoperative planning requires knowledge of these variations. Although appendectomy is one of the most common operations in Pakistan, very little is known about vermiform appendix variation anatomy in the country. Conclusion: This study's findings showed that the vermiform appendix is most often seen in the pelvic position on CT in the Karachi-based population. In conclusion, the high prevalence of anterior location and full mesoappendix in our group suggests that acute appendicitis may be more easily and quickly diagnosed in our demographic, with fewer instances of sequelae including perforation and gangrene. Keywords: Vermiform Appendix, Pelvic, Post ileal, Pre ileal, Retro caecal, Retro colic, Retro Para colic, and Sub caecel
... Patients taking medication that could affect GERD symptoms such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or H2 blockers, within the last 4 weeks before the study  Patients participating in other clinical trials within the last 30 days before the study. 27,28 Sample Size: Based on a previous study, we estimated that a sample size of 50 patients per group would be sufficient to detect a clinically meaningful difference in GERDQ score between the two groups with a power of 80% and a significance level of (P≤ 0.05). Methodology: A total of 100 patients with GERD symptoms were recruited for the study. ...
Article
Background: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can lead to significant medical complications such as esophageal ulcerations, peptic stenosis and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Aims and Objectives: The aims and objectives of current study was to evaluate the biochemical and physiological parameters associated with daily food which caused gastroesophageal reflux disease in population of Pakistan. Study Design: This was a comparative clinical study designed to investigate the effect of different dietary interventions on the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Place and Duration: Current study was conducted medical units of Jinnah Hospital Lahore and Jinnah Hospital Karachi from June 2022 to February 2023 comparatively. Statistical analysis: Raw data was analyzed by using SPSS software (version 26.0). Descriptive statistics were used to summarize demographic and clinical characteristics of the study population. Methodology: A total of 100 adult patients with confirmed GERD diagnosis were randomized to either a standard GERD diet. The primary outcome measure was the change in GERD symptom severity, as assessed by the Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Questionnaire (GERDQ) score after 12 weeks of dietary intervention. Secondary outcome measures included changes in esophageal inflammation, measured by endoscopy, and patient-reported improvement in quality of life. Practical Implications: Current study focuses on evaluation of the biochemical and physiological parameters associated with daily food which caused gastroesophageal reflux disease in population of Pakistan which will spread awareness among community for the prevention of GERD. Results: Demographic characteristics of the study population are presented in Table 1. The mean age of the patients was 48.7 years, and there were slightly more females (60%) than males (40%). The majority of patients (60%) reported a history of smoking, and 10% reported regular alcohol consumption. There was a significant (P≤0.05) difference between the two groups with respect to age, sex, smoking history and alcohol consumption. The findings of this study suggest that dietary interventions, particularly a modified Mediterranean diet, can significantly improve the symptoms and quality of life of patients with GERD. Conclusion: In conclusion, our study found that a modified Mediterranean diet may be more effective than a standard GERD diet in reducing the severity of GERD symptoms and improving quality of life in patients with GERD. This was evidenced by a significantly greater reduction in GERD score in Group B compared to Group A, as well as a higher proportion of patients reporting improved quality of life in Group B. In addition, the incidence of esophageal inflammation was lower in Group B, although this difference was not statistically significant. Keywords: dietary intervention, Mediterranean diet, symptom severity, quality of life, esophageal inflammation
... If so, then should librarians also not be involved in a more impactful way by ensuring that duplicate/redundant publications, if found, are retracted, so as not to distort information records? Absent rigorous standards, for and by librarians, especially those related to data curation, indexing, and the integrity of information, library and information science may fail to attain sustainable development (Khalid et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Current ethical guidelines, as defined by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), note that redundant publications or duplicate copies should be retracted because they partake no new information, and may be perceived as unfair. Elsevier and its journals are COPE members. In 2000, four Elsevier journals (Anaerobe, Journal of Theoretical Biology, Journal of Autoimmunity, Food Microbiology) published an identically worded notice related to the digital object identifier (DOI), i.e., it was published in quadruplicate (four copies). Despite an alert to all four journals about this quadruplicate, none were retracted. If academics would like to cite this announcement, which of the four copies should they use? This case study raises an important deontological argument regarding the laissez-faire attitude of these journals, which charge a fee (US$27.95-31.50) to access this document’s four PDFs. Yet, other cases of duplications / redundant publication in Elsevier journals are frequently retracted. In the case of these four DOI-related papers, what does ignoring the three redundant copies suggest?
... All managers at the senior level should master these methods. Nevertheless, Khalid, Malik and Mahmood identify significant deficiencies or gaps at this strategic level in their literature review [22]. To achieve this level, it is therefore particularly important that sustainability issues are given sufficient attention at the senior management level. ...
Article
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This article discusses three questions: “How can libraries make an effective contribution to resolving the sustainability challenges we are collectively facing?”; “When are libraries truly sustainable?”; and “How can library management support this shift?”. Looking across libraries and their history over the last few decades, the author discerns different stages of development leading to sustainability. In line with the work of Dyllick and Muff the author describes Sustainability Levels 0.0 to 3.0. The highest level requires a quantum leap and shifts from thinking inside out to thinking outside in. This article addresses the need that there is virtually no academic management literature on the topic of sustainability in libraries. It shows that whilst there are many examples of individual projects or activities, there is a serious lack of methodology at the senior management level.
... The claim of Khalid et al. [8], that sustainable LIS is a fairly newly emerging research field , and bearing in mind the fact (or maybe a well-empirically grounded assumption), that such fields are in a phase of constant development, rapid expansion, differentiation, and slowly upcoming gradual unification of their key concepts, seem to be also in accordance with the aforementioned line of reasoning. ...
Article
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Despite the fact that the concept of sustainable development was born as early as the late 1980s, in the field of library and information science there has been a significant growth in interest only in recent years. This observation inspired the authors to explore this particular area with regards to productivity both in quantitative and qualitative terms. One of the important factors influencing scientific productivity is broadly understood research collaboration. Interestingly, in the scholarly literature dealing with the topics of scientific productivity, the researchers are most often representatives of the LIS field who study, also applying bibliometric methods, various scientific disciplines. However, so far there have been no studies on scientific collaboration concentrated around the discipline of sustainable library and information science (LIS) itself. Therefore, in this paper, the authors present the results of research into the phenomenon of co-authorship in this specific area. The results indicate not only the most important collaborating entities contributing to the research field and trends in research cooperation, but also verify certain general hypotheses put forward in the areas of the fundamental sustainable development of the discipline of sustainable LIS.
... All managers at senior level should master these methods. Nevertheless, Khalid, Malik and Mahmood identify significant deficiencies or gaps at this strategic level in their literature review (Khalid, Malik, and Mahmood 2021). To achieve this level, it is therefore particularly important that sustainability issues are given sufficient attention at senior management level. ...
Preprint
This article works on the three questions: “How can libraries make an effective contribution to resolving the sustainability challenges we are collectively facing?”; “When are libraries truly sustainable?”; and “How can library management support this shift?”. Looking across libraries and their history of the last decades, the author discerns different stages of development leading to sustainability. In line with the work of Dyllick and Muff (2016) the author describes Sustainability Levels 0.0 to 3.0. The highest level requires a quantum leap and shifts from thinking inside-out to outside-in. This article addresses the need that there is virtually no academic management literature on the topic of sustainability in libraries. It shows that whilst there are many examples of individual projects or activities, there is a serious lack of methodology senior management level.
... According to Khalid, et, al. (2021) all types of libraries worldwide must be socially, environmentally, and economically sustainable to be available for future generations. They further mentions that around the world, libraries and library associations such as the International Federation of Library Association and Institutions (IFLA) and the American Library Association (ALA) are encouraging, supporting, and integrating sustainability into their practices. ...
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to review the literature on green buildings and the BIM model to see in which aspects of the sustainable library this technology can be implemented in to identify areas of opportunity to introduce the BIM model in green libraries. It is important to note that a search in major databases such as Scopus and Web of Science has identified a considerable number of academic papers that talk about green libraries, green buildings, BIM model, and BIM model in green buildings; however, there is still no literature on green libraries using green BIM. In this sense, the chapter offers the current view on green buildings, green libraries, and BIM model and the possible future implications of the use of technology and BIM model in libraries to increase processes, reduce margins of error in construction, costs, and waste of resources. The present research opens a wide range of possibilities for information exchange and opportunities for green library construction and remodeling, especially in developing countries.
Article
The quarterly digest BiblioGorizont has been published since 2021. It is a new periodical by the Russian National Public Library for Science and Technology on the spectrum of problems of the library information industry. The digest comprises brief analytical reviews of publications in the English-language professional journals. Both printed serial and electronic versions are registered with the Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology and Mass Media of the Russian Federation. Each abstract comprises title translation, author(s) name(s), extended content review, keywords, UDC, GRNTI code, DOI (if any) and link to the original source. If necessary, additional information on the authors, terminology, mentioned editions, etc., is added. The access to the electronic edition is free; the search by text, title, author, keywords is available. The goals of the digest are specified: widening information base of the Russian library science, advancing professional education and international cooperation, etc. The reviewer analyzes 8 first issues of the digest from the viewpoint of professional and research subject scope of the English-language publications and the information needs of Russian librarians and researchers. She emphasizes that BiblioGorizont provides wide coverage of publications in the professional periodicals, both geographical and thematic; and highlights the problems both theoretical and applied practical. The reviewer discusses extensively the subject scope of the articles, from conceptual, philosophical and sociological problems to the technological aspects of library services; from the problems of library digital transformation, open science and open access to copyright, professional education and ethics; from bibliometrics and scientometrics to AI, sustainable development, etc.
Article
Background: A great burden is placed on patients by the increased rate of being anxious and mood abnormalities. In this group, there is a clear need to halt the prevention of psychopathology because their offspring are more likely to have these diseases themselves. Due to the substantial coexisting disorders, preventative programs should concentrate on both anxiety and depression. Furthermore, although increased sensations are frequently a sign of preventive actions, resilience-based prevention programs may also be advantageous for children with other high risk profiles. Method: A randomized control clinical trial is used in the current study. It is designed for high-risk people who are symptomless as well as those who have sub-syndrome symptoms. Two among the criteria of the High Risk are met by individuals who do not exhibit any symptoms (attempt). Among a previous study, this measure was created, and it correlates with a higher risk in children of depressed individuals. Children between the ages of 8 and 17 (n = 204) who exhibit sub threshold symptoms or who meet the requirements on the HRI are randomly assigned to either (a) 10 sessions every week for child with CBT (b) limited information.. The main result is when a child's anxiety or mood condition first manifests itself. Secondary end factors include the number of days spent feeling depressed or anxious, the severity of symptoms in children and parents, living quality and financial efficiency. Researchers has chosen coping, parent-child relationship, personal attachments , optimism/pessimism, therapies, and emotion processing as potential mediators of treatment outcome based on the etiology of mood and anxiety disorders as well as processes of change during therapies. Results: The happy and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) is a 20-item self-report scale used to assess both happy and negative affect. Positive and negative affect both reflect dispositional characteristics; high negative affect is characterised by unpleasant engagement and subjective distress, whereas low NA is characterised by the lack of these feelings. PA, on the other hand, is a measure of how much an adult enjoys engaging with their surroundings. The Attentional Breadth Task, a computer task that was preprogrammed in e-prime, was also used to measure mother-child attachment. The task is based on the supposition that persons with insecure attachment may process information differently when it comes to data that is pertinent to attachments, Practical Implication: Using a quick and focused intervention aimed at strengthening the family unit, the present intervention trial seeks to drastically lower the chance of passing mood and anxiety disorders down the generations and resiliency in youngsters who could be at risk. We intend to determine the mechanisms of change and assess the efficacy and the intervention's efficacy and cost. Conclusion: Positive and negative affect both reflect dispositional features, according to the study's findings. High negative affect is marked by subjective anguish and unpleasant engagement, whereas low negative affect is marked by the absence of these emotions. Keywords: Anxiety, Mood disorders, Depressed, Youth, teenagers, Pakistan
Article
Background: The salivary composition in diabetic patients varies depending on the type of saliva examined (whole or parotid, resting or stimulated) and the choice of participants insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients, or a heterogeneous population with various additional systemic diseases or treatments. In Pakistan there is very few studies done on the clinical significance of saliva amongst diabetic patients. Objective: Clinical oral findings and salivary analysis of patients with and without diabetes mellitus Study Design: Case-control study Study Setting: This study was conducted at Department of Oral Biology Akhtar Saeed Medical and Dental College, Lahore from September 2022 to February 2023. Methodology: Out of 421 participants 228 were healthy taken as control and 193 were diabetic patients taken as cases were enrolled in this study. The questionnaire was made to describe the demographic variables age, gender, weight and height for BMI, educational status, socioeconomic status, marital status, and ethnicity. The biochemical parameters were estimated in saliva, collected from diabetic and non-diabetic participants. The 5ml saliva was collected from case and control participants in container and aliquoted at -800C. The samples were thawed at the time of estimation. The salivary biochemical parameters including glucose (mg/dl), insulin (IU/ml), creatinine (umol/L), urea (mml/L), albumin (md/dl), Lactoferrin (ug/ml) and IgA (mg/dl) were done in the lab and estimated through Randox kit according to the manufacturer protocol. The statistical analysis was done by using SPSS version 20. Results: The research included 421 participants in which 294 men (69.8% of the total) and 127 women (30.2% of the total). The average age was 26.4±5.1 years (range: 16.0 to 48.0) of both groups enrolled participants. While the mean of BMI was 23.4±4.5 Kg/m2 (range: 15.10 to 41.90). In this study very low- income status (73.9%) and high frequency of married with 84.6% were enrolled. Diabetics also had considerably higher levels of creatinine, urea, lactoferrin and IgA in the saliva of diabetic patients (p=0.0001). However, albumin was significantly low in diabetic saliva as compared to healthy participants (p=0.015). Practical implication: Studies towards the effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on oral health has been conducted, but it is not yet known how common oral manifestations of the disease are or how widespread these effects are, especially in Pakistan. The purpose of this research was to compare the effects of diabetes on the dental health and salivary evaluation of people with and without the disease. Conclusion: New information on salivary parameters and oral results on Pakistani population with and without diabetes was presented in this research. The major results showed that those with diabetes had a decreased salivary flow rate, an increase in salivary glucose, and an increase in urea, creatinine, lactoferrin and IgA concentrations. However, the albumin is low in concentration. The results showed that the clinical significance of saliva amongst diabetic patients and can be used as diagnostic marker. Keyword: Saliva, biochemical parameters, diabetes mellitus, glucose, urea, Albumin
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2030 και οι Στόχοι Βιώσιμης Ανάπτυξης (ΣΒΑ) του ΟΗΕ αποτελούν το θεματολόγιο της διεθνούς κοινότητας για την επίτευξη μιας βραχυπρόθεσμης, μεσοπρόθεσμης και μακροπρόθεσμης ανάπτυξης, που θα εγγυάται την κοινωνική ευημερία χωρίς αποκλεισμούς, εξασφαλίζοντας ταυτοχρόνως την προστασία του περιβάλλοντος και των φυσικών πόρων προς όφελος τόσο των σημερινών όσο και των μελλοντικών γενεών. Η εστίαση στην επάρκεια και στη βέλτιστη χρήση των οικονομικών πόρων, στις ανθρώπινες ανάγκες, στη διατήρηση της ποιότητας των φυσικών πόρων, στην επιβίωση των φυσικών οικοσυστημάτων και στην αντιμετώπιση της ρύπανσης, στην οικονομική ανάπτυξη και στην βελτίωση της οικονομικής ευημερίας και του περιβάλλοντος, αποτελούν θεμελιώδη ζητήματα εξασφάλισης της ποιότητας ζωής στον άνθρωπο. Η παρούσα εργασία έχει σκοπό να κάνει γνωστές τις δράσεις που υιοθέτησε το ΔΙ.Ο.ΒΙ. προκειμένου να ενημερώσει, και να προάγει τους 17 Παγκόσμιους Στόχους της Βιώσιμης Ανάπτυξης για τους οποίους δεσμεύτηκαν η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση, διεθνείς και εθνικοί φορείς
Article
This paper explores sustainability, sustainability awareness, and how it is measured in academic libraries in the United States, and considers how assessment tools or key performance indicators (KPIs) could enhance sustainability efforts in these libraries. The American Library Association core values include sustainability, and several other associations outline the need for sustainability and provide suitable policies and guidelines surrounding sustainability for its successful implementation. However, owing to the complexity of sustainability, often only one of the issues (i.e., social equity, economic feasibility, or environmental stewardship) is addressed, with little consideration for their interactions with the other issues, and most often, is not directly assessed or measured. Therefore, this study assessed sustainability awareness and sustainability efforts and how they are measured in US academic libraries using a survey. Although a limited response was received, the results indicated that few libraries embraced sustainability holistically, with limited assessment of sustainability initiatives, and little direction from leadership. However, for sustainable solutions, it is necessary for library leadership to recommit to their values, promoting a culture of sustainability through continual assessment to benefit their communities in the long term.
Chapter
Universities and libraries are applying the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in their academic planning, but this study shows the current situation with the green libraries in the country. The aim of this study is to explore how sustainable 30 academic libraries are. Beyond an analysis of library spaces, this study explains the perspective of their librarians, management of resources, and care of the environment as a part of their day-by-day activities. A survey was submitted, and all the participants described their definitions and approach to the topic. As a result, this study found that the perception of sustainability in academic libraries has a significant connotation towards the issue of budgets and space design, not towards water use, recycling, and electricity use, among other aspects. Finally, this study suggests some good practices of sustainability for the academic library.
Article
Purpose This study aims to investigate the sustainable development goals (SDGs) awareness of public librarians, their perceived understanding of public libraries to achieve United Nation Sustainable Development Goals (UNSDGs) and identify the challenges affect the library adoption to SDGs. Design/methodology/approach In this study, a quantitative survey method was used to collect responses. The study population was all head of public libraries in Bangladesh. Seventy-one personalized individual e-mails with a link to a Web-based questionnaire were sent out to the public librarians (head of public libraries) inviting them to participate in this study. Fifty-nine responded to the survey, which was 83.09% of all population. Findings The findings revealed that public librarians working in different public libraries were generally aware of UNSDGs. The perceived understanding on the role of public libraries to achieve SDGs varies from SDG#1 to SDG1#7. However, most of the librarians’ responses ranked well in line with SDGs#1, #2, #3, #4 and #17, and they believed that their public libraries are doing well on some of these goals. Out of 17 SDGs, public libraries are working well on 7 goals. Lack of SDG-related activities, awareness, funds, implementation plan and unwillingness of the policymakers are challenges identified in this study. Originality/value There are not many studies on public libraries in Bangladesh, and the research areas are not diverse. There are only few studies in this area, and there is a need for different kinds of studies to reach a better overview and understanding when developing public library services to support SDGs. This could serve as the basis for a deeper study.
Article
Purpose This article presents a discussion of how librarians' engagement in certain social movements manifests itself in public libraries, how librarians justify their engagement with specifically the LGBT + movement and the climate movement and what it might entail in terms of legitimacy. Design/methodology/approach Besides an extensive international literature on libraries and climate/LGBT + issues, the article draws on data from an interview study with librarians from Denmark and Sweden. Theoretically, the article utilizes the orders of worth framework by French sociologists Boltanski and Thévenot. The framework is used to analyse librarians' justifications for engaging in certain agendas in society. Findings Active engagement in social and green agendas takes place through strategies of education, efforts to make the cause more visible in the library and by setting an example. Justifications for active engagement in social movement agendas draw on inspirational, civic, projective and green orders of worth (OoW). Originality/value Much of the existing research on librarians who engage themselves in either climate issues or in agendas concerning minorities has a normative character. However, this study shows that there is no causal (positive or negative) relation between active engagement in social movements' causes and legitimacy of libraries, but that the justifications for doing so might have an impact on legitimacy.
Chapter
This paper intends to discuss critically the pedagogical experience of developing and implementing a sustainability literacy approach within the Master of Information Management and Curation’s curricula at Universidade NOVA de Lisboa (2018–2019) addressing student’s epistemological beliefs. It pursues two objectives: (1) to identify the relevant key competences in sustainability literacy and, (2) to synthesize the transition from competencies to learning objectives/outcomes linked to information literacy. Qualitative methodologies have been used in this study to investigate learning impacts, using a narrative approach to provide access to beliefs and the meaning students ascribe to specific pedagogical experiences. The main outcomes emphasize that this approach prepares students for sustainability intervention areas: (1) information literacy trainers/facilitators for internal and/or external audiences; (2) advocacy – evidence gathering and promotion of information services contribution to sustainable development; (3) Research on Sustainable Information Behaviour (SIB) and greening libraries to embed the concept of sustainability into our everyday life information practice.
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Conceptual, technological, and material advancement has a deep influence on all sectors of life including libraries. Libraries are coping with these developments accordingly, however, the pace of development is not the same around the globe. This study aims to explore the adoption status of green library practices in the university libraries of Pakistan. The peer-reviewed literature including IFLA’s checklist was encompassed to model twelve aspects/practices of green library initiative. The feedback from the selected, senior university librarians of Pakistan on the proposed model of green library practices was collected through interviews. The librarians apprise the green library model as an effective combination of related aspects and technologies. The findings reveal that each participating library has adopted some of the green library practices. However, a lot of more work is to be done to fully understand and adopt the green library initiative.
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Zusammenfassung Wo stehen Wissenschaftliche Bibliotheken in Bezug auf die Nachhaltigkeit? Welche Entwicklungsstufen sind erkennbar? Inwiefern ist ein transformatives Umdenken erforderlich oder möglich, um die Nachhaltigkeitsziele umfassend zu erreichen? Um diese Fragen zu beantworten, werden die Entwicklungen der letzten Jahrzehnte in Wissenschaftlichen Bibliotheken vor dem Hintergrund der Nachhaltigkeit analysiert und bewertet. Zur Erreichung der Nachhaltigkeit 3.0 braucht es allerdings einen weiteren Quantensprung. Hierfür bietet die Autorin neue Denkansätze und fordert einen Wandel vom Inside-Out- zum Outside-In-Denken.
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The revised edition of the Handbook offers the only guide on how to conduct, report and maintain a Cochrane Review. The second edition of The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions contains essential guidance for preparing and maintaining Cochrane Reviews of the effects of health interventions. Designed to be an accessible resource, the Handbook will also be of interest to anyone undertaking systematic reviews of interventions outside Cochrane, and many of the principles and methods presented are appropriate for systematic reviews addressing research questions other than effects of interventions. This fully updated edition contains extensive new material on systematic review methods addressing a wide-range of topics including network meta-analysis, equity, complex interventions, narrative synthesis, and automation. Also new to this edition, integrated throughout the Handbook, is the set of standards Cochrane expects its reviews to meet. Written for review authors, editors, trainers and others with an interest in Cochrane Reviews, the second edition of The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions continues to offer an invaluable resource for understanding the role of systematic reviews, critically appraising health research studies and conducting reviews.
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Sustainable development (SD) has become a popular catchphrase in contemporary development discourse. However, in spite of its pervasiveness and the massive popularity it has garnered over the years, the concept still seems unclear as many people continue to ask questions about its meaning and history, as well as what it entails and implies for development theory and practice. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the discourse on SD by further explaining the paradigm and its implications for human thinking and actions in the quest for sustainable development. This is done through extensive literature review, combining aspects of the “Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and the Recursive Content Abstraction (RCA) analytical approach. The paper finds and argues that the entire issue of sustainable development centres around inter- and intra- generational equity anchored essentially on three dimensional distinct but interconnected pillars, namely the environment, economy and society. Decision makers need to be constantly mindful of the relationships, complementarities and trade-offs among these pillars and ensure responsible human behaviour and actions at the international, national, community and individual levels in order to uphold and promote the tenets of this paradigm in the interest of human development. More needs to be done by the key players – particularly the United Nations (UN), governments, private sector and civil society organisations - in terms of policies, education and regulation on social, economic and environmental resource management to ensure that everyone is sustainable development aware, conscious, cultured and compliant.
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One of the bedrock of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is eradication of poverty and hunger. In an attempt to actualize this goal, the role of public libraries in information provision to agricultural extension agents in Nigeria becomes paramount. This paper discusses provision of information to agricultural extension agents in a developing country. It starts with the concept of extension agents and the essence of information provision to them. It further discusses types, sources and challenges of public libraries in information provision to agricultural extension workers in a developing country. Some of the challenges are as follows: poor funding of public libraries, demotivated staff, and so on. Based on these discussions, the paper recommended adequate training and retraining of staff, adequate funding of public libraries by the federal, state and local government, the revitalization of the abandoned mobile library services among others. The paper therefore concludes that information provision to agricultural extension agents by public library is very crucial for national development. The current state of poverty, hunger and lack in Nigeria and some other African countries could be reduced to a great extent if current, relevant and up-to-date information are provided by libraries to the concerned agencies.
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Can the smart city provide a new perspective for public and academic libraries? How does the smart city impact the libraries as cultural and scientific assets? And how can libraries contribute to the development of the smart city? An overview of recent library models, like the learning center or the green library, reveals affinities with the concept of the smart city, especially regarding the central role of information and the integration of technology, people, and institutions. From this observation, the paper develops the outline of a new concept of the smart library, which can be described in four dimensions, i.e., smart services, smart people, smart place, and smart governance. However, the smart library concept does not constitute a unique model or project, but a process, a way of how to get things done, that is less linear, less structured, and more creative and innovative. Also, smartness may not be a solution for all library problems.
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Background: Improvement initiatives offer a valuable mechanism for delivering and testing innovations in healthcare settings. Many of these initiatives deliver meaningful and necessary changes to patient care and outcomes. However, many improvement initiatives fail to sustain to a point where their full benefits can be realised. This has led many researchers and healthcare practitioners to develop frameworks, models and tools to support and monitor sustainability. This work aimed to identify what approaches are available to assess and influence sustainability in healthcare and to describe the different perspectives, applications and constructs within these approaches to guide their future use. Methods: A systematic review was carried out following PRISMA guidelines to identify publications that reported approaches to support or influence sustainability in healthcare. Eligibility criteria were defined through an iterative process in which two reviewers independently assessed 20% of articles to test the objectivity of the selection criteria. Data were extracted from the identified articles, and a template analysis was undertaken to identify and assess the sustainability constructs within each reported approach. Results: The search strategy identified 1748 publications with 227 articles retrieved in full text for full documentary analysis. In total, 62 publications identifying a sustainability approach were included in this review (32 frameworks, 16 models, 8 tools, 4 strategies, 1 checklist and 1 process). Constructs across approaches were compared and 40 individual constructs for sustainability were found. Comparison across approaches demonstrated consistent constructs were seen regardless of proposed interventions, setting or level of application with 6 constructs included in 75% of the approaches. Although similarities were found, no approaches contained the same combination of the constructs nor did any single approach capture all identified constructs. From these results, a consolidated framework for sustainability constructs in healthcare was developed. Conclusions: Choosing a sustainability method can pose a challenge because of the diverse approaches reported in the literature. This review provides a valuable resource to researchers, healthcare professionals and improvement practitioners by providing a summary of available sustainability approaches and their characteristics. Trial registration: This review was registered on the PROSPERO database: CRD42016040081 in June 2016.
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Many colleges and universities across the United States have adopted sustainability in their curriculum and operations. Academic libraries need to support the mission of their university and therefore must also play their part in sustainability education and operations. The library and information science literature makes it appear that the hallmark of a "green library" is an environmentally friendly building. There are very few academic libraries in the United States that are LEED certified. The author argues that a green library is something more than just the architecture. By using example initiatives and providing recommendations for green library operations, it can be determined that a green library does not necessarily entail a green building, but it does involve a green mission.
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Systematic reviews should build on a protocol that describes the rationale, hypothesis, and planned methods of the review; few reviews report whether a protocol exists. Detailed, well-described protocols can facilitate the understanding and appraisal of the review methods, as well as the detection of modifications to methods and selective reporting in completed reviews. We describe the development of a reporting guideline, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols 2015 (PRISMA-P 2015). PRISMA-P consists of a 17-item checklist intended to facilitate the preparation and reporting of a robust protocol for the systematic review. Funders and those commissioning reviews might consider mandating the use of the checklist to facilitate the submission of relevant protocol information in funding applications. Similarly, peer reviewers and editors can use the guidance to gauge the completeness and transparency of a systematic review protocol submitted for publication in a journal or other medium.
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There is growing concern that a variety of factors threaten the sustainability of academic libraries: developing and preserving print and digital collections, supplying and supporting rapidly changing technological and networking infrastructure, providing free services, maintaining growing costs of library buildings, and lowering libraries'ecological footprint. This paper discusses the multidimensional issues of sustainability in academic libraries and identifies needs for designing an integrated framework for sustainable strategies in academic libraries. Additionally, the paper presents a synthesis of existing literature on the increasingly popular topic of "green libraries" and prepares a background toward developing a framework for sustainable strategies in academic libraries.
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Given that the synthesis of cumulated knowledge is an essential condition for any field to grow and develop, we believe that the enhanced role of IS reviews requires that this expository form be given careful scrutiny. Over the past decade, several senior scholars have made calls for more review papers in our field. While the number of IS review papers has substantially increased in recent years, no prior research has attempted to develop a general framework to conduct and evaluate the rigor of standalone reviews. In this paper, we fill this gap. More precisely, we present a set of guidelines for guiding and evaluating IS literature reviews and specify to which review types they apply. To do so, we first distinguish between four broad categories of review papers and then propose a set of guidelines that are grouped according to the generic phases and steps of the review process. We hope our work will serve as a valuable source for those conducting, evaluating, and/or interpreting reviews in our field.
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Protocols of systematic reviews and meta-analyses allow for planning and documentation of review methods, act as a guard against arbitrary decision making during review conduct, enable readers to assess for the presence of selective reporting against completed reviews, and, when made publicly available, reduce duplication of efforts and potentially prompt collaboration. Evidence documenting the existence of selective reporting and excessive duplication of reviews on the same or similar topics is accumulating and many calls have been made in support of the documentation and public availability of review protocols. Several efforts have emerged in recent years to rectify these problems, including development of an international register for prospective reviews (PROSPERO) and launch of the first open access journal dedicated to the exclusive publication of systematic review products, including protocols (BioMed Central's Systematic Reviews). Furthering these efforts and building on the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guidelines, an international group of experts has created a guideline to improve the transparency, accuracy, completeness, and frequency of documented systematic review and meta-analysis protocols-PRISMA-P (for protocols) 2015. The PRISMA-P checklist contains 17 items considered to be essential and minimum components of a systematic review or meta-analysis protocol.This PRISMA-P 2015 Explanation and Elaboration paper provides readers with a full understanding of and evidence about the necessity of each item as well as a model example from an existing published protocol. This paper should be read together with the PRISMA-P 2015 statement. Systematic review authors and assessors are strongly encouraged to make use of PRISMA-P when drafting and appraising review protocols. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd 2014.
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Systematic reviews should build on a protocol that describes the rationale, hypothesis, and planned methods of the review; few reviews report whether a protocol exists. Detailed, well-described protocols can facilitate the understanding and appraisal of the review methods, as well as the detection of modifications to methods and selective reporting in completed reviews. We describe the development of a reporting guideline, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols 2015 (PRISMA-P 2015). PRISMA-P consists of a 17-item checklist intended to facilitate the preparation and reporting of a robust protocol for the systematic review. Funders and those commissioning reviews might consider mandating the use of the checklist to facilitate the submission of relevant protocol information in funding applications. Similarly, peer reviewers and editors can use the guidance to gauge the completeness and transparency of a systematic review protocol submitted for publication in a journal or other medium.
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Sustainability is a fast evolving movement in higher education demonstrated by a proliferation of aca-demic programs, co-curricular initiatives, and campus projects. Sustainability is now viewed as vital to the mission of many institutions of higher education, creating a paradigm shift that librarians can help advance with their collective interdisciplinary expertise. A review of LibGuides (online resource guides) showed that academic librarians are involved with sustainability efforts on many campuses and have a role in shaping curriculum-related activities. The author administered a survey to creators of sustainabil-ity LibGuides during the spring of 2011, posting the survey on library listservs as well. Librarians re-turned 112 survey responses that illustrated their engagement in sustainability activities through the forg-ing of campus partnerships with administrators, faculty, staff from the Office of Sustainability, and li-brary colleagues. Telephone interviews conducted with 24 of the respondents showed librarians' wide-ranging professional interest in sustainability, and their initiatives to promote its cause, including creat-ing resources, collections, exhibits, and events; library instruction; co-teaching with faculty; serving on sustainability committees; and collaborating with sustainability faculty and staff. However, both the sur-vey and the interviews suggest that librarians would benefit from increased collaboration and knowledge of work undertaken elsewhere. Moreover, as the needs of students and faculty studying sustainability increase, libraries need to appoint librarians with special responsibilities in this field. Included is the au-thor's experience as the Sustainability Studies Librarian at the University of Massachusetts Amherst and her engagement in professional development activities related to sustainability. Best practices for librari-ans to advance sustainability efforts are offered.
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This article provides an historical account of how fee -charging Victorian schools have marketed themselves over the past 150 years( via the use of advertisements, brochures, and prospectuses) in order to promote those aspects of schooling believed to be of most importance to potential customers (parents). While some of the features - most notably the success of pupils at examinations held at the completion of schooling - have always been emphasized in promotional material, others deemed worthy of attention in the nineteenth century, have now been replaced by quite features in contemporary advertisements.
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Environmental degradation has become a serious source of concern for contemporary society, giving rise to efforts in the way of advocacies, conferences and awareness campaigns at different levels. While information professionals in developing economies are positioned to contribute to environmental sustainability; they need to apply creativity and innovation to overcome issues like low literacy levels, poor infrastructures, political apathy of environmental information to achieve the intended goal of environmental literacy. New roles are evolving beyond mere provision of information; these include information professionals as change agents, educators, electronic experts and partners to other change agents. The paper argues that information professionals could be more relevant to the needs of sustainable environment by repositioning themselves in terms of their roles in their various communities. Some recommendations made in the paper include revitalizing public libraries, training in Information and Communication Technology skills and collaboration with interest groups.
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: The article looks at changes in information provision and their significant impact on the development of the design of academic library spaces over the years. The history of the academic library as a building type is examined, and the move from the collection-dominated library buildings of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to the service-rich, user-focused ones of the twenty-first century is explored. Recent trends are identified, drawing on a number of mainly UK and other European examples. The effect of increasing availability of e-resources, new technology, and changing methods of teaching, learning, and research on design is also considered. Other issues covered in the paper include the importance of the design brief or program, interior space, fittings and fixtures, and finally the need to reflect on the success or failure of building projects through post-occupancy evaluation.
Article
There is an increasing interest in the role of actors in the pursuit of sustainability transitions. In this paper, we adopt a life course perspective to explore active sustainability actors. To this end, we interviewed 16 professionals across private, public, and third sectors in Finland. The paper's main implication is in introducing a life course perspective to the study of active sustainability actors. Second, we propose a grounded model of active actors' sustainability engagement. The model details sustainability agency formation and maintenance dynamics. Going forward, our findings are a call for further research on sustainability agency, be it in its engagement, via life courses, or via the study of different actor types.
Article
Purpose Awareness on and importance of sustainability in all aspects of our lives is becoming more and more important. The question arises, how – not if – scientists can contribute to a sustainable development. As information plays an important role for development, information scientists should be included in this debate. However, is there a sustainable information science or an information science of sustainability? The purpose of this paper is to perform a mapping of publications in library and information science (LIS) directly dealing with sustainability and sustainable development. Design/methodology/approach A structured literature review was conducted, enhanced by bibliometric analyses. For this purpose, 102 LIS journals and conferences were considered. The authors identified 81 publications dealing with sustainability and sustainable development and analyzed the concrete contents and methodological approaches of these. Findings A large proportion of articles could be found dealing with sustainable development and libraries. Other publications focus on information and communication technology or information systems. Only few articles deal with further topics like government, urban development or scientific output. Research limitations/implications Sustainability and sustainable development are complex topics. This work only considers literature whose title or keywords contain the string sustainab*. Originality/value The presented work helps to get an overview on sustainability research and activities in the LIS field and additionally, potential research gaps may be identified. The authors call for more research in this area and concrete ideas to help develop a sustainable future.
Article
The National Library of Aruba has become a leader and advocate for sustainable education since 2012. There was a gap for sustainable education for the secondary schools and higher education in Aruba, and the Green Education Symposium, which has become Sustainable Education Symposium since 2018, is nowadays a national and an international model for other educational institutions to follow across the world.
Article
In recent years, green libraries are springing up in many Chinese universities. The green library is an energy-efficient type of library that provides an excellent reading environment. The library’s energy efficiency relies on the careful design of natural and artificial lighting, illumination uniformity as well as heating efficiency. Therefore, this paper attempts to laid down an energy-efficient design to make the Hebei Agricultural University Library a green library. Specifically, the comprehensive energy consumption of the reading space was evaluated through dynamic and static simulations of illumination variation, illumination uniformity, daylighting factor and supplementary lighting under different windowing conditions. The evaluation results were coupled with the enclosure energy consumption to determine the optimal energy consumption plan. From this case study, it is found that the window area in the south-facing reading space is beneficial to the energy efficiency of the whole library. Thus, the south-facing window area should be increased as much as possible. © 2018 International Information and Engineering Technology Association. All Rights Reserved.
Article
This article shares the results of the investigation on environmental sustainability practices within public libraries in Portugal for the Master Course in Library and Information Science at Lisbon University. The work intends to be a line of thought that meets the goals for sustainable development outlined by the United Nations and the International Federation of Libraries Association – a proposal for the inclusion of libraries and information in the post-2015 agenda. The research of green libraries around the world demonstrated a growing number that applies environmental sustainability criteria in their strategic and management action. Emerging academic research, conferences and seminars devoted to the theme proposed revision of the academic curriculum in Library Information Science. Library professional associations worldwide are creating working groups and encourage debate on environmental sustainability and the concept of “global library”. To understand the Portuguese situation in this matter, questionnaires were sent to all municipal libraries in each district, resulting in a sample of 84 public libraries.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the sustainable learning environment at UC Merced Library. Design/methodology/approach Case study. Findings The Library is built to support active and constructive learning through its sustainable design as an open, collaborative, and welcoming learning environment and it has become a sustainable environment that supports sustainable learning for the future. Originality/value As the first new research university campus of the twenty-first Century in America, University of California, Merced (UC Merced), from its very beginning, has embraced principles of a green campus from ground up – sustainable economic, social, and environmental systems that preserve the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Conference Paper
Systematic reviews have become an important source of information and very popular in knowledge areas as health and allied sciences, but nevertheless, despite its indisputable benefits, they are yet infrequently used in Library and Information Science research (LIS). Systematic reviews are a type of scientific research that aims to integrate in an objective and systematic manner the results of empirical studies on a particular research problem in order to determine the state of the question in its field of study. In this paper, we provide a brief survey on the literature reviews in the social science area and we propose the adoption of the systematic review as a methodology for recovering, analyzing, evaluating and critical appraising the relevant literature in library and information science (LIS).
Article
Purpose The slogan “Go Green” has been embraced by a range of organizations including businesses and universities in recent decades. Within higher education academic libraries, as a key service unit in their parent institution, have an important role to play in supporting this mission. The authors have seen many academic libraries strive to “Go green” by designing a green library, whether a new build or renovation. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This paper discusses how the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) Library formulates, develops and implements its green strategy and how the strategy has gradually reshaped its services. First, the authors consider how the concept of sustainability has affected services provided by academic libraries, and why green strategies are a practical and feasible approach. The authors then use CUHK Library as a case study, siting the development of its green strategies in the context of, the University’s approach to sustainability and the wider CUHK community, and ultimately the Library’s overall strategic plan. The third section describes how the library implements its green strategies in different areas, from the daily operation of library offices and services offered to users, to the planning of a library extension and broader sustainability initiatives. Issues of evaluation are discussed and the authors conclude the paper with future plans. Findings There are very few academic libraries in the USA that are Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design certified. Originality/value The authors argue that pursuing a green building may not be the strategic focus for many academic libraries. In taking a more holistic approach to sustainability through practical measures, academic libraries need to formulate and develop wider green strategies beyond a green building. “Go Green” impacts not only the attitudes towards the environment but also changes the way academic libraries serve their users and community.
Article
As a follow-up to their 2001/2002 study on printing services in academic libraries, the authors explore how the provision of printing services has changed over the last twelve years. This article explores how libraries are choosing to fund printing services as well as how technology, such as scanning and mobile devices, has changed the way printing services are provided. The results of the 2013 survey find a greater percentage of libraries are using a fee-based system for printing, and, while some technology is providing greater data and control for printing services, other technological advances are having unintended consequences for libraries’ printing infrastructure.
Article
The creation of green libraries is approaching a tipping point, generating a Green Library Movement, which is comprised of librarians, libraries, cities, towns, college and university campuses committed to greening libraries and reducing their environmental impact. Constructing a green library building using a performance standard like LEED is a way some libraries are choosing to become green and sustainable. Environmental challenges like energy depletion and climate change will influence the type of information resources and programs libraries will provide to their communities.
Article
Although the systematic review method has, in the past, been applied infrequently in library and information science (LIS) research, its use appears to be increasing. However, the relatively low quantity and poor quality of systematic reviews demonstrate the need for further research in this area. A critical appraisal framework is presented that can be used to guide the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews, at the same time increasing researchers and practitioners' awareness of the importance of such reviews in LIS research. Methods and tools used by scholars who have applied this method are reviewed, and criteria that are essential to achieving high quality systematic review are discussed in depth.
Book
Such diverse thinkers as Lao-Tze, Confucius, and U.S. Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld have all pointed out that we need to be able to tell the difference between real and assumed knowledge. The systematic review is a scientific tool that can help with this difficult task. It can help, for example, with appraising, summarising, and communicating the results and implications of otherwise unmanageable quantities of data. This book, written by two highly-respected social scientists, provides an overview of systematic literature review methods: Outlining the rationale and methods of systematic reviews; Giving worked examples from social science and other fields; Applying the practice to all social science disciplines; It requires no previous knowledge, but takes the reader through the process stage by stage; Drawing on examples from such diverse fields as psychology, criminology, education, transport, social welfare, public health, and housing and urban policy, among others. Including detailed sections on assessing the quality of both quantitative, and qualitative research; searching for evidence in the social sciences; meta-analytic and other methods of evidence synthesis; publication bias; heterogeneity; and approaches to dissemination.
Article
This article provides recommendations that can be used by public library services and associated organisations when considering building or refurbishing library buildings. Recommendations range from simple and easy-to-implement practices and procedures, to large-scale building development. It also provides a framework for libraries to follow when designing a new building, refurbishing existing buildings and raising community awareness of the benefits of designing and running sustainable libraries. The article looks at sustainability and its importance within a library, refurbishment of library buildings, greener work practices and public education initiatives. Three key areas of sustainability are highlighted: building/refurbishing, sustainable practices and education. The recommendations and concepts noted in the article are demonstrated through a case study of the Melton Library and Learning Hub in Victoria. In the relative absence of relevant Victorian publications, Tomorrow's Green Public Library also serves as a resource guide to direct public libraries to further information and publications available.
Article
This article explores a number of current issues and challenges in sustainability, both of and in academic libraries of the future, using as a case study the new library opened at Macquarie University, Sydney in 2011. Issues covered include sustainable design and operation of library buildings, sustainability in relation to library collections, and the reframing of library organisational design and service provision for the future.
Article
Support for the modular system of building construction, touted in the second half of the 20th century as the best basis for academic library building design, appears to be waning. A study of "green" libraries in 2008 revealed that not only has energy conservation become important, but that spaces designed for users rather than books have become paramount. The modular system worked particularly well for housing ever-expanding book collections, but collection growth is no longer a practical goal. Users want and need a greater variety of spaces, which purpose-built rooms are better at meeting.
Article
This article reviews definitions and frameworks for sustainability in higher education by examining a set of major national and international declarations and institutional policies related to environmental sustainability in universities. It identifies emerging themes and priorities, and discusses how these declarations and policies are affecting various institutions in how they frame the central task of becoming sustainable and how they perceive their own commitment to sustainability. © 2002 International Association of Universities. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
Purpose – When confronted with a problem where the solution is not clear or obvious, a first step would be to search for more information, trying to make sense of the problem. The intention of this contribution is to make sense of the call for “libraries to go green”, while at the same time to show the potential of explicitly considering information behaviour and the need to draw on the full spectrum of information literacy skills (e.g. recognising and expressing an information need, seeking, using, and disseminating information) to stimulate librarians' interest and confidence in taking on the challenge of going green and making a difference. Design/methodology/approach – The column will be written against the background of research from information literacy, information behaviour, and research on sustainable and environmental friendly library and information (LIS) services. Findings – Although rather a limited number, publications on “going green” and the “paperless” library/society address a variety of issues ranging from planning “green” library buildings, to assessing the experiences of LIS professionals in developing sustainable “green libraries”, to information behaviour in using e‐books in academic contexts. Considering the finding and use of information on “going green”, from an information behaviour perspective, helps to bring many issues to consider in furthering research on “going green” to the front. Originality/value – Although much has been published about information behaviour and information literacy, and although attempts of publishing on various issues of “green” libraries are noted, the author is not aware of other work aligning these issues.
Article
In 2010, the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education released, “Sustainability curriculum in higher education: A call to action,” encouraging infusion of sustainability topics into universities' teaching and research. Since then, academic programs and research related to social, economic, and environmental sustainability have enriched university curricula. An exploratory study was conducted to determine the position and engagements of academic libraries and information science schools in their contributions to scholarly sustainability activities and curricular initiatives. This article presents the results of the study which reveals a number of engagements by library professionals in the areas of sustainability, such as increasing open access to research, building sustainability-related collections and research guides, and incorporating sustainability content into information literacy. While academic libraries and information science schools are engaged in a broad spectrum of initiatives that support their institutions' sustainability research and curricular functions, this study indicates that such activities require a more targeted approach.
Article
Nowadays we use information retrieval systems and services as part of our many day-to-day activities ranging from a web and database search to searching for various digital libraries, audio and video collections/services, and so on. However, IR systems and services make extensive use of ICT (information and communication technologies) and increasing use of ICT can significantly increase greenhouse gas (GHG, a term used to denote emission of harmful gases in the atmosphere) emissions. Sustainable development, and more importantly environmental sustainability, has become a major area of concern of various national and international bodies and as a result various initiatives and measures are being proposed for reducing the environmental impact of industries, businesses, governments and institutions. Research also shows that appropriate use of ICT can reduce the overall GHG emissions of a business, product or service. Green IT and cloud computing can play a key role in reducing the environmental impact of ICT. This paper proposes the concept of Green IR systems and services that can play a key role in reducing the overall environmental impact of various ICT-based services in education and research, business, government, etc., that are increasingly being reliant on access and use of digital information. However, to date there has not been any systematic research towards building Green IR systems and services. This paper points out the major challenges in building Green IR systems and services, and two different methods are proposed for estimating the energy consumption, and the corresponding GHG emissions, of an IR system or service. This paper also proposes the four key enablers of a Green IR viz. Standardize, Share, Reuse and Green behavior. Further research required to achieve these for building Green IR systems and services are also mentioned.
Article
This article stresses the importance of building design above technology as a relatively inexpensive way to reduce energy costs for a library. Emphasis is placed on passive solar design for heat and daylighting, but also examines passive ventilation and cooling, green roofs, and building materials. Passive design is weighed against technologies that actively capture renewable energy. Best practice examples include new construction and retrofits. Active technologies for capturing renewable energies, such as photovoltaic panels, can be employed when passive solutions are not realistic due to limitations resulting from site selection. Building or remodeling an environmentally sustainable building is more costly than a conventional equivalent, but long-term savings in energy and maintenance can more than compensate for the initial investment. Passive solar heat is particularly compatible with library functionality because it invites natural light into living spaces and eliminates noise that would otherwise exist with forced-air HVAC systems. Practical suggestions for subtle improvements to existing buildings are offered in addition to more ambitious construction projects.
Article
Purpose To begin making the library sustainable requires a vision of what will be created and a description of the outcome of the process. This paper aims to address the issue Design/methodology/approach The paper provides a viewpoint on developing the sustainable library. Findings Libraries have important roles to play in the unfolding internet saga, from preserving and organizing knowledge to accelerating and designing learning environments. Achieving sustainability is the new imperative, but the process is difficult, not easy. New mindsets, new strategies of collaboration and networking, widespread professional and staff engagement, and measuring and managing progress are all challenges to be met. Practical implications In these troubled times clear vision and purpose are needed to maintain stakeholder support. Sustainability provides a model for designing appropriate vision, facilities, and services toward that end. Originality/value The complexities of designing sustainable libraries requires ongoing discussion and exploration. This paper adds insight to the debate.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce the planning and architectural design features, and the post‐occupancy evaluation (POE) of the Beitou Branch Library in the Taipei Public Library System. This paper also proposes possible solutions in response to the public's suggestions for improvements. Design/methodology/approach – A library‐user survey was employed to appraise the functioning of the Beitou Branch Library by the general public. The questionnaire for this survey was divided into three parts: background information of patrons; patrons' use of the Beitou Branch Library; and patrons' opinions on the facilities of the Beitou Branch Library. The 511 valid returned patron questionnaires were numbered and processed by means of Microsoft Excel statistical analysis. Chi‐square testing, ANOVA and Pearson T‐test were then used to analyze the relevant data and statistics. Findings – The findings from the Beitou Branch Library survey are as follows: its innovative design and unique architecture and furniture has created a trend for new design concepts in Taiwan; it increases the number of library visits; it increases the visibility of the library and changes the stereotype of the library in the public's mind; it embodies the principles of ecological education and has become a multi‐faceted learning center; it has gained the support of local residents and professional experts; it has generated corporate sponsorship of green library buildings; and the average numbers and distribution of frequency indicate that, other than “convenient parking” and “number of computers in the computer area”, patrons were generally satisfied with the library's facilities, with all other categories receiving an average rating of 3.5 or greater. Originality/value – This paper provides details of the experience of Taipei Public Library in planning and designing a diamond class green library and may increase public libraries' concerns about the issues of environmental protection and energy conservation.
Article
Purpose – Libraries have a variety of computer printers, faxes, network printers and photocopiers. All these machines have an environmental impact using paper, ink and electricity. This paper aims to discuss strategies for lessening the impact of these devices. Design/methodology/approach – The paper provides a “how‐to” approach for librarians to achieve greener printing and copying. Findings – Modification in library procedures can result in greener printing and copying. Originality/value – The paper reviews the research on greener printing and provides practical suggestions for achieving greener printing and copying.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of a print management system to control costs and reduce waste associated with printing practices. Design/methodology/approach A paper collection study found that 8 percent of pages printed in the library were never claimed. A print management system was implemented requiring print jobs to be manually released by users. Statistics on toner lifespan and number of pages printed before and after the system was implemented were compared. Findings The print management system reduced the total number of pages printed in a semester by 32 percent from Fall 2009 to Fall 2011 and increased the lifespan of toner cartridges so they would perform more efficiently. Practical implications Implementing a print management system without charging students a printing fee reduces the amount of wasted paper and the costs associated with purchasing paper and toner for printing services. Originality/value The paper describes the implementation of a print management system in a library that has substantially reduced the number of pages printed from library computers and the amount of toner used. The authors believe they have made a significant impact on reducing a primary area of waste.
Article
The sustainability of archival institutions will be greatly affected by attempts to mitigate their carbon footprint to meet the challenges of global climate change. This paper explores how recordkeeping practices may enhance or undermine the sustainability of archives. To enhance sustainability, it is a common practice to increase the efficiency of recordkeeping practices. However, increases to efficiency may lead to a phenomenon known as Jevons’ Paradox. Jevons’ Paradox occurs when improvements in efficiency to a system or process result in an increase in use (instead of a decrease) of a resource. The failure of the paperless office demonstrates Jevons’ Paradox, and it has wide implications for the future sustainability of repositories. This paper advances the notion that “green” technologies alone are not enough to ensure sustainability. They must be deployed in concert with a systematic use of archival practices and theories for environmental sustainability to be ensured.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to produce figures showing the carbon footprint of the knowledge industry – from creation to distribution and use of knowledge, and to provide comparative figures for digital distribution and access. Design/methodology/approach An extensive literature search and environmental scan was conducted to produce data relating to the CO2 emissions from various industries and activities such as book and journal production, photocopying activities, information technology and the internet. Other sources such as the International Energy Agency (IEA), Carbon Monitoring for Action (CARMA ), Copyright Licensing Agency, UK (CLA), Copyright Agency Limited, Australia (CAL), etc., have been used to generate emission figures for production and distribution of print knowledge products versus digital distribution and access. Findings The current practices for production and distribution of printed knowledge products generate an enormous amount of CO2. It is estimated that the book industry in the UK and USA alone produces about 1.8 million tonnes and about 11.27 million tonnes of CO2 respectively. CO2 emission for the worldwide journal publishing industry is estimated to be about 12 million tonnes. It is shown that the production and distribution costs of digital knowledge products are negligible compared to the environmental costs of production and distribution of printed knowledge products. Practical implications Given the astounding emission figures for production and distribution of printed knowledge products, and the associated activities for access and distribution of these products, for example, emissions from photocopying activities permitted within the provisions of statutory licenses provided by agencies like CLA, CAL, etc., it is proposed that a digital distribution and access model is the way forward, and that such a system will be environmentally sustainable. Originality/value It is expected that the findings of this study will pave the way for further research and this paper will be extremely helpful for design and development of the future knowledge distribution and access systems.
Article
This article defines sustainability to include community, economy, and the buildings made in service to those considerations. As gateways for knowledge, libraries are particularly well-suited as demonstration vehicles. Beneficiaries are determined so that potential sources of funding can be identified. The case study (Oak Park Library, Ventura, California) integrates state-of-the-art energy-conserving design into a new joint-use public and high school library. Client review, public presentations, computer modeling, and environmental specifications research led to a design that was awarded nearly $250,000 in construction funding and “buydowns”. Computer-modeled analyses of the energy-conserving elements of the Oak Park Library showed reductions in heating, cooling, and electricity consumption when those strategies were implemented. The strategies illustrated include techniques in lighting design, cooling/heating, and construction that can be replicated in new and existing projects to maximize efficiency in high-visibility community demonstration projects. A listing of additional resources is also included.