ChapterPDF Available

Reintroduction of the eastern quoll to Mulligans Flat Woodland Sanctuary, Australia, using trials, tactics, and adaptive management



This case study details the reintroduction of the eastern quoll to Mulligans Flat Woodland Sanctuary, Australia, using trials, tactics, and adaptive management. Ideal for use by reintroduction practitioners, the sections include background, goals, success indicators, project feasibility, implementation, post-release monitoring, major difficulties faced, major lessons learned, and outcomes of the project.
IUCN SSC Conservation Translocation Specialist Group
Global conservation
translocation perspectives: 2021
Global conservation translocation perspectives: 2021
The designation of geographical entities in this book, and the presentation of the material,
do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of IUCN or any of the
funding organizations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, or area, or of its
authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of IUCN.
IUCN is pleased to acknowledge the support of its Framework Partners who provide core
funding: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark; Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland;
Government of France and the French Development Agency (AFD); the Ministry of
Environment, Republic of Korea; the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation
(Norad); the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida); the Swiss
Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and the United States Department of
Published by: IUCN SSC Conservation Translocation Specialist Group,
Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi & Calgary Zoo, Canada.
Copyright: © 2021 IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and
Natural Resources
Reproduction of this publication for educational or other non-
commercial purposes is authorized without prior written permission
from the copyright holder provided the source is fully acknowledged.
Reproduction of this publication for resale or other commercial
purposes is prohibited without prior written permission of the copyright
Citation: Soorae, P. S. (ed.) (2021). Global conservation translocation
perspectives: 2021. Case studies from around the globe. Gland,
Switzerland: IUCN SSC Conservation Translocation Specialist Group,
Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi and Calgary Zoo, Canada. xiv +
Edition: 7
th Edition
Cover photo: Clockwise starting from top-left:
I. Darwin’s rhea (Rhea pennata pennata) © Cristián Saucedo
II. Orinoco turtle (Podocnemis expansa)
III. Leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) © Mei-Ting Chen
IV. White saxaul (Haloxylon persicum) © EAD
V. Southern pygmy perch (Nannoperca australis) © Michael Hammer
Cover design
& layout by: Pritpal S. Soorae, IUCN SSC Conservation Translocation Specialist
Printed by: Arafah Printing Press LLC, Abu Dhabi, UAE
Download at:
Reintroduction of the eastern quoll to
Mulligans Flat Woodland Sanctuary, Australia
using trials, tactics and adaptive management
Belinda A. Wilson1*, Maldwyn J. Evans1, William G. Batson2, Sam C. Banks3, Iain J. Gordon1,4,
Donald B. Fletcher1, Claire Wimpenny2, Jenny Newport1, Emily Belton5, Annette Rypalski6,
Tim Portas7 & Adrian D. Manning1
1 - Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University,
Canberra ACT 0200 Australia * -
2 - National Parks and Wildlife Service, Blue Mountains Branch, Blackheath, NSW 2785
3 - Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0810 Australia
4 - Central Queensland University, Townsville, QLD 4810 Australia
5 - The Woodlands and Wetlands Trust, Forde Community Centre, Forde, ACT 2914 Australia
6 - Mt Rothwell Biodiversity Interpretation Centre, Little River, VIC 3211 Australia
7 - Zoo and Wildlife Veterinary Consultancy, Maleny, QLD 4552 Australia
The Eastern quoll (Dasyurus viverrinus) is a small-to-medium marsupial that
previously inhabited south-eastern Australia. Last seen on the mainland in 1967,
its extinction has been attributed to predation by introduced predators, habitat
loss and disease. It is now restricted to Tasmania and listed as Endangered by
the IUCN Red List and the EPBC Act 1999. It is a nocturnal predator and
scavenger with a diet of invertebrates, birds, small mammals, reptiles, fruit, and
carrion. The species is sexually dimorphic with a mean adult body mass of 1,250
g for males and 850 g for females. Males have larger home ranges (mean 44 ha)
than females (mean 35
ha). Females can carry a
single litter of up to six
young per year. Annual
mortality in the wild is
high, with 20 - 58% of
juveniles surviving to their
first breeding season with
a life expectancy of three
to four years (Godsell,
1983). The reintroduction
site is Mulligans Flat
Woodland Sanctuary
(MFWS), a 485 ha area
containing critically
endangered Box-gum
grassy woodland situated
Eastern quoll © Adam McGrath & Woodlands and
Wetlands Trust
in north-east Canberra, Australian Capital Territory (ACT), Australia. MFWS is
enclosed by predator-proof fencing to exclude introduced Red foxes, cats,
European rabbits and hares, all of which were eradicated within the exclosure
prior to reintroductions.
 To establish a population of Eastern quolls at MFWS.
 To demonstrate how the use of trials, tactics and adaptive management
can improve reintroduction success.
Success indicators
 Survival: At least 67% of founders surviving after 42 days post-release for
each trial reintroduction. This will indicate that the environment is suitable,
and founders have settled into the landscape (achieved in Trials 2 and 3).
 Note that Eastern quolls that escaped the MFWS fence but were
retrieved alive, or were transferred to another facility, were considered
survivors, so we report here on ‘true’ survival (henceforth survival).
 Condition: At least 67% of founders maintaining body condition weight
within 10% of their release weight after 42 days post-release (achieved in
Trials 2 and 3).
 Reproduction: At least 67% of females successfully produce young by 42
days post-release for each trial reintroduction. This will indicate that the
environment offers sufficient denning sites and can support lactating
mothers (achieved in Trials 2 and 3).
 Additional success criteria include population growth, population
persistence, genetic diversity and behavior, which will be monitored over
the long-term.
Project Summary
Feasibility: The Eastern quoll reintroduction is a partnership project between The
Australian National University (ANU), ACT Government, Mt. Rothwell Biodiversity
Interpretation Centre, Woodlands and Wetlands Trust and James Cook
University, and is part of the long-term Mulligans Flat-Goorooyarroo Woodland
Experiment ( This major collaborative
partnership combined funding for conservation on public lands, drew on the
strengths of each organization, and built on the success of previous
reintroductions such as for the Eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi).
A translocation proposal was prepared including the success criteria outlined
above as well as a risk assessment (Manning, 2015). The predator-proof fence
surrounding MFWS removed the threat posed by introduced Red foxes and cats,
which are a major barrier to mainland reintroductions. Based on these, the
reintroduction was approved by the Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries,
Parks, Water and Environment (DPIPWE), Victorian Department of Environment,
Land, Water and Planning, ACT Territory and Municipal Services and the ANU
Animal Experimentation
Ethics Committee.
Implementation: The
reintroduction was
undertaken as a series of
three trials over three
consecutive years (Trial 1
in 2016, Trial 2 in 2017,
and Trial 3 in 2018). An
additional translocation
was conducted in 2019 to
maximize the genetic
diversity of the founding
population (not reported
here). We used the
Translocation Tactics Classification System (TTCS, Batson et al., 2015) as a
framework to adapt our tactics between trials to achieve our strategies of
maximizing survival and minimizing post-release dispersal. We also adopted an
adaptive management approach, using monitoring to facilitate rapid learning and
to implement interventions to improve reintroduction success (Wilson et al.,
In Trial 1, we translocated fourteen Eastern quolls (6 females & 8 males) to
MFWS in austral autumn. No females were carrying pouch young because the
mating period was yet to occur. Founders were selected from both captive (6) and
wild (8) populations. Captive founders were sourced from Mt. Rothwell, and wild
founders from free-ranging populations across 14 geographic regions in
Tasmania which were separated by at least 15 km or a significant geographical
barrier to eastern quoll dispersal (informed by a study of the genetics of these wild
populations in Tasmania (Cardoso, 2014)). We took no more than two animals
from each region to minimize impacts on the source population and maximize
genetic diversity. Releases were carried out as soon as possible (i.e. animals
were transported to the ACT, underwent health assessments, and released on
the same day) and at night to minimize stress and to provide maximum time to
explore MFWS and find a den before first light. No supplementary food was
Despite significant modifications to our predator-proof fence prior to the first
release, within days of the Trial 1 release, seven founders escaped over the
MFWS fence. Of these, two were found deceased (assumed to be preyed upon
by the red fox), three died from injuries whilst under observation in a care facility,
and two were retrieved alive and released back into MFWS. Of the remaining
seven founders, two were found deceased within MFWS, one was transferred to
Mt. Rothwell due to its poor condition, and four (3 females & 1 male) survived
without issue. In Trial 1, 43.8% of founders survived the establishment period,
37.5% maintained body condition, and 62.5% of females produced young.
Mulligans Flat release site © Mark Jekabsons
In Trial 2, we translocated thirteen female-only founders, preferring those that
were carrying pouch young that were fused to the teat (>60 days of age, ~25mm
crown rump length, Bryant, 1988). Releases in Trials 2 (and also in Trial 3) were
conducted from one of four central locations (separated by 50 m). This tactic
aimed to maximize the distance over which a founder would travel before
encountering the fence, while also allowing them to encounter food resources,
den sites, conspecifics, or other features of interest before the fence. In Trial 2,
92.3% of founders survived the establishment period, 92.3% maintained body
condition, and 84.6% produced young.
In Trial 3, we translocated 8 female-only founders, also preferring those carrying
fused pouch young. No significant differences in survival or dispersal were found
between captive and wild founders in Trials 1 and 2, so only the more genetically-
diverse wild founders were selected in Trial 3. No significant weight loss was
observed, so no supplementary feeding was provided. In Trial 3, 87.5% of
founders survived the establishment period, 100% maintained body condition,
and 87.5% produced young.
Post-release monitoring: Daily survival and den location were monitored using
VHF or GPS collars for 42 days post-release because survival plateaued after this
period in Trial 1. We conducted post-release health checks measuring weight,
condition, and pouch occupancy every two weeks, though timing and frequency
varied due to reproductive stage, weight fluctuations (influencing collar fit),
logistical constraints, and ability to re-trap the targeted animal.
Major difficulties faced
 Escapes: Within days of the Trial 1 release, several founders escaped over
the MFWS fence into the surrounding landscape and were preyed upon by
Red foxes. This translocation was also complicated by issues with collar fit
due to expanding neck sizes induced by breeding hormones (especially in
 Weight loss: By 14 days post-release in Trial 2, four captive-bred founders
had lost >10% of their initial release weight. As an adaptive management
intervention, supplementary food was deposited into their dens, in declining
amounts as weights stabilized.
Major lessons learned
 Males were poor founders: In Trial 1 many founders, especially males,
escaped over the MFWS fence within the first few nights of release.
 Releases should occur in winter: We hypothesized that the greater number
of male escapes was exacerbated by the timing of release. Eastern quolls
experience elevated breeding hormones in autumn, and this stimulates
mobility and aggression in males, aiding them to acquire den sites and food
(Godsell, 1983). We suspect that females may have also struggled to settle
because they were being pursued by males and were likely to have
elevated hormones. We adapted our tactics in Trials 2 and 3 by conducting
releases in winter, after
the mating period. This
had the added benefit of
reducing stress and collar
fit issues associated with
breeding hormones.
 Females should be
translocated with pouch
young: Conducting
releases in winter allowed
us to translocate females
with fused pouch young.
This tactic meant we
could translocate new
male and female
juveniles sired by either
captive or wild males,
and avoided the elevated
male mortality and dispersal observed in Trial 1. We hypothesized that
females with pouch young would invest in finding and maintaining a natal
den, thereby reducing dispersal and potential escape from MFWS.
 Dispersal affects the survival: Founders that moved between dens on
consecutive nights were more likely to escape and less likely to survive,
and this den movement was lower for females and when den sharing with
another founder.
 Stress needs to be managed: Founders in Trial 1 were released from bags
by researchers, which may have increased stress. We adapted our tactics
in Trials 2 and 3 and placed founders in situ in a den box (wooden box with
a sliding door) with the door closed for one to two hours (delayed release).
After last light, the door was opened from behind the den box and the
founder could leave of its own accord. We hypothesized this would
minimize stress and provide maximum time for founders to explore MFWS
and find a den before first light.
Success of project
Reason(s) for success:
 We released healthy eastern quolls into a fenced predator-free
 We closely monitored the population post-release and adjusted our
reintroduction tactics to reduce factors driving dispersal over the fence and
mortality. Once we identified a way to establish founders inside MFWS we
were able to reduce our effort and focus on translocating more genetically-
diverse founders.
 We used the TTCS as a framework to improve our ability to identify, select
Highly Successful Successful Partially Successful Failure
Research team © Swimming Wombat
Photographics & Woodlands and Wetlands Trust
and design tactics to achieve our strategies of maximizing survival and
minimizing post-release dispersal.
 We used trials in an adaptive management framework to make informed
choices that improved reintroduction success. This approach is particularly
important for threatened species reintroductions, where rapid decisions are
often required despite the absence of complete knowledge.
 The passion, dedication, innovative thinking and collaborative effort of the
partners and volunteers which made the planning, operations and research
conducted in this project possible.
Batson, W.G., Gordon, I.J., Fletcher, D.B. & Manning, A.D. (2015) Translocation
tactics: a framework to support the IUCN Guidelines for wildlife translocations and
improve the quality of applied methods. In: Journal of Applied Ecology 52(6):
Bryant, S.L. (1988) Seasonal breeding in the eastern quoll Dasyurus viverrinus
(Marsupialia: Dasyuredae). In: Thesis presented for the Degree of Doctor of
Philosophy, Department of Zoology, University of Tasmania, Australia.
Cardoso, M.J., Mooney, N., Eldridge, M.D.B., Firestone, K.B. & Sherwin, W.B.
(2014) Genetic monitoring reveals significant population structure in eastern
quolls: implications for the conservation of a threatened carnivorous marsupial. In:
Australian Mammology 36(2): 169-177.
Godsell, J. (1983) Ecology of the eastern quoll Dasyurus viverrinus (Dasyuridae:
Marsupialia). Thesis written for The Australian National University.
Manning, A.D. (2015) A proposal for a research translocation of wild eastern
quolls (Dasyurus viverrinus) to the Mulligans Flat Woodland Sanctuary, Australian
Capital Territory, to establish a genetically and behaviourally diverse founder
population, and to undertake experiments to maximise future reintroduction
Wilson, B.A., Evans, M.J., Batson, W.G., Banks, S.C., Gordon, I.J., Fletcher,
D.B., Wimpenny, C., Newport, J., Belton, E., Rypalski, A., Portas, T. & Manning,
A.D. (2020) Adapting reintroduction tactics in successive trials increases the
likelihood of establishment for an endangered carnivore in a fenced sanctuary. In:
PLOS ONE 15(6): e0234455.
IUCN SSC Conservation Translocation Specialist Group
Global conservation
translocation perspectives: 2021
Global conservation translocation perspectives: 2021
... This study took place in a fenced sanctuary, to remove the ongoing threat posed by the introduced predators that contributed to their extirpation from the mainland (i.e. red fox, Vulpes vulpes, and feral cat, Felis catus), and to allow us to trial novel tactics in a low-risk 'outdoor laboratory' (Wilson et al., , 2021. ...
... While survival is known to have consequences for short-term establishment through to longer-term genetic effects (Swaisgood, 2010), hyperdispersal can also influence these processes by exposing founders to threats beyond the release site (where these threats are not typically managed), leading to higher mortality rates (Clarke & Schedvin, 1997;Pierre, 1999;Swaisgood, 2010). This is particularly relevant in the context of sanctuaries in Australia, where dispersal over the fence leaves founders vulnerable to predation by introduced predators (Moseby et al., 2014;Wilson et al., 2020Wilson et al., , 2021. Owing to proactivity being associated with increased risk taking (Coppens et al., 2010) and plasticity with higher capacity for learning (Snell-Rood & Steck, 2019) and therefore identifying critical resources with less exploration, we hypothesized that proactive personalities and rigid (unresponsive) founders would disperse further and, therefore, have lower survival rates than reactive personalities and plastic (responsive) founders. ...
... In 2015 the Eastern Quoll Mainland Recovery Team recommended reintroducing eastern quolls to predator-proof sanctuaries on mainland Australia to safeguard the species should threatening processes drive Tasmanian populations to extinction. After a trial release in February 2016 revealed high mortality in male founders associated with hyperdispersal , we adapted within a translocation tactics framework (sensu Batson et al., 2015) and selected maternal founders for subsequent trials to maximize survival and minimize dispersal (Wilson et al., , 2021. ...
Reintroductions involve the relocation of animals into their historical range following extinction or extirpation. In this context, individuals with certain personalities may be more successful than others. For example, proactive individuals may dominate by being bolder, exploratory and more willing to take risks in familiar, stable environments (i.e. the source environment). Reactive personalities, in contrast, may thrive in novel, unstable environments (i.e. the release site) by being vigilant and risk averse. In addition, an individual's ability to adjust its behaviours over time (plasticity, or responsiveness) can play a pivotal role in determining postrelease performance. There is uncertainty, however, surrounding which behavioural measures translate to reintroduction success. We conducted behavioural assays and postrelease monitoring for eastern quolls, Dasyurus viverrinus, to determine whether behavioural measures (e.g. latency to emerge, time spent vigilant) could predict postrelease survival and dispersal in a fenced sanctuary. Using the ‘behavioural reaction norm’ approach, we found that personality derived from time spent exposed or vigilant during the assays had significant associations with postrelease den sharing and home range, while plasticity derived from latency (i.e. time delay) to reach food had a significant association with mean distance between consecutive dens. We recommend that proactive and rigid founders be preferred for initial trial reintroductions, and that reactive and plastic founders be used to supplement the population in later translocations. Our study demonstrates that, by including novelty, innovative behavioural assays offer significant value as a conservation tool to provide the fastest pathway to reintroduction success.
... To reintroduce eastern quolls to Mulligans Flat, we adopted an adaptive translocation tactics approach (sensu Batson et al. 2015); involving a series of iterative trials where learnings were used to refine tactics for the following trial. When the first trial in 2016 revealed high male mortality associated with increased conspecific aggression and overdispersal (87.5% mortality, Wilson et al. 2020;Wilson et al. 2021), we selected only female founders for subsequent trials to maximise survival (12.5-23.1% mortality). By translocating maternal females (henceforth mothers) in winter, several were either pregnant or carrying pouch young, allowing us to reintroduce juvenile males and females 'via the pouch'. ...
Full-text available
Reintroductions are powerful tools for tackling biodiversity loss, but the resulting populations can be intrinsically small and vulnerable. It is therefore critical to maximise the number of individuals that are available to contribute to recovery efforts. To address this, we investigated how demographic parameters from a reintroduced population can reveal threats to long-term persistence, inform thresholds for management interventions, and create targets for removing an endangered species from the IUCN Red List. We calculated capture-mark-recapture population estimates for eastern quolls ( Dasyurus viverrinus ) which had been reintroduced to a fenced reserve in the Australian Capital Territory. We then incorporated the resulting demographic parameters into population viability analyses (PVAs) to estimate probabilities of persistence under several scenarios, including supplementations and harvests (removal of individuals for translocation to other locations). After determining sustainable harvest rates, we then ‘back-cast’ the population size and occupancy area required to remove the species from the IUCN Red List within 10 years. Our demographic results indicated high mean apparent survival (90% ± 5), and PVAs revealed the probability of persistence over a 50-year time horizon was 50.5% with no interventions, 0% when the population was harvested of > 6 individuals, and 100% if harvests ≤ 54 juveniles were combined with an annual supplementation of ten maternal females (with ≤ 6 young each). Based on this model, a total harvest area of 413 km ² and an occupancy area of 437 km ² would be needed to recover the species within 10 years (i.e., 90 similar fenced reserves, not accounting for edge effects). Due to the inherent difficulty in securing large areas for species recovery, we see these ambitious targets as a call to create coordinated and collaborative sanctuary networks where species can be managed as a metapopulation across multiple sites. By taking advantage of a rapid life history and harvesting the ‘doomed surplus’, managers can achieve their stretch goals for species recovery in the long term.
... A fence that permanently excludes exotic predators and herbivores, and livestock, was built in 2009 (Shorthouse et al. 2012). Reintroduced populations of eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi, 'ngaluda'), New Holland mouse, eastern quoll (Dasyurus viverrinus, 'murunguny') and bush stone-curlew (Burhinus grallarius, 'warabin' and 'mulyara') were subsequently established (Batson et al. 2016;Manning et al. 2019;Abicair et al. 2020;Rapley 2020;Wilson et al. 2020Wilson et al. , 2021 as part of the goal to rebuild trophic links (MFWS 2020). ...
Full-text available
Unlabelled: In response to the ongoing decline of fauna worldwide, there has been growing interest in the rewilding of whole ecosystems outside of fenced sanctuaries or offshore islands. This interest will inevitably result in attempts to restore species where eliminating threats from predators and competitors is extremely challenging or impossible, or reintroductions of predators that will increase predation risk for extant prey (i.e., coexistence conservation). We propose 'Mini Safe Havens' (MSHs) as a potential tool for managing these threats. Mini Safe Havens are refuges that are permanently permeable to the focal species; allowing the emigration of individuals while maintaining gene flow through the boundary. Crucial to the effectiveness of the approach is the ongoing maintenance and monitoring required to preserve a low-to-zero risk of key threats within the MSH; facilitating in-situ learning and adaptation by focal species to these threats, at a rate and intensity of exposure determined by the animals themselves. We trialled the MSH approach for a pilot reintroduction of the Australian native New Holland mouse (Pseudomys novaehollandiae), in the context of a trophic rewilding project to address potential naïveté to a reintroduced native mammalian predator. We found that mice released into a MSH maintained their weight and continued to use the release site beyond 17 months (525 days) post-release. In contrast, individuals in temporary soft-release enclosures tended to lose weight and became undetectable approximately 1-month post-release. We discuss the broad applicability of MSHs for population recovery and reintroductions 'beyond-the-fence' and recommend avenues for further refinement of the approach. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10531-022-02495-6.
Full-text available
Threatened species recovery programs are increasingly turning to reintroductions to reverse biodiversity loss. Here we present a real-world example where tactics (techniques which influence post-release performance and persistence) and an adaptive management framework (which incorporates feedback between monitoring and future actions) improved reintroduction success. Across three successive trials we investigated the influence of tactics on the effective survival and post-release dispersal of endangered eastern quolls (Dasyurus viverrinus) reintroduced into Mulligans Flat Woodland Sanctuary, Australian Capital Territory. Founders were monitored for 42 days post-release, and probability of survival and post-release dispersal were tested against trial, origin, sex, den sharing and presence of pouch young. We adopted an adaptive management framework, using monitoring to facilitate rapid learning and to implement interventions that improved reintroduction success. Founders released in the first trial were less likely to survive (28.6%, n = 14) than those founders released the second (76.9%, n = 13) and third trials (87.5%, n = 8). We adapted several tactics in the second and third trials, including the selection of female-only founders to avoid elevated male mortality, and post-mating releases to reduce stress. Founders that moved dens between consecutive nights were less likely to survive, suggesting that minimising post-release dispersal can increase the probability of survival. The probability of moving dens was lower in the second and third trials, for females, and when den sharing with another founder. This study demonstrates that, through iterative trials of tactics involving monitoring and learning, adaptive management can be used to significantly improve the success of reintroduction programs.
Full-text available
Summary 1. Translocation is a popular conservation tool, but the outcomes are variable. Many tactics can be used to improve the probability of success, but a comprehensive summary of these does not exist. This increases the risk that valuable tactics will be overlooked, and inhibits effective communication. 2. We assess the diversity of ‘translocation tactics’ used in mammal and bird translocations, by reviewing the IUCN/SSC Guidelines for Re-introduction and other Conservation Translocations (2013), 195 peerreviewed articles, and 73 case-studies from the IUCN/SSC Global Re-introduction Perspectives Series (Soorae 2008, 2010, 2011). 3. We recorded descriptions of every technique used to influence the post-release performance of translocated wildlife. We developed the Translocation Tactics Classification System (TTCS) which defines a collection of 30 tactics and organize them into an ecologically-relevant framework. We also assess the occurrence of tactics within the Guidelines, the primary literature, and the case-studies to evaluate how tactics are communicated within these mediums. 4. Our results indicate that the Guidelines are a valuable resource, but do not exhaustively cover tactics, and that detailed methodological accounts are rarely made publically accessible. This highlights the need to develop context-specific resources to support the Guidelines, and to develop and exploit mediums that facilitate recording of methodological detail, the tactical rationale behind the design, and evaluations of effectiveness. Although some forms of grey-literature address this issue, the general lack of information limits the ability to investigate the relationship between tactics and translocation success. 5. Synthesis and applications. The Translocation Tactics Classification System (TTCS) provides a checklist which ensures that the full diversity of tactics are considered when developing translocation processes. Standardizing the communication of tactics, and encouraging detailed accounts of applied methodologies to be recorded, along with the tactical reasoning behind the design, will provide operational models and the data required to conduct broad-scale meta-analyses.
Full-text available
The eastern quoll (Dasyurus viverrinus), while still relatively abundant in Tasmania, is now threatened by the recently introduced European red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Due to a lack of demographic information on eastern quolls, molecular data become a crucial surrogate to inform the management of the species. The aim of this study was to acquire baseline genetic data for use in current and future conservation strategies. Genetic variation, at seven microsatellite loci, was lower in Tasmanian eastern quolls than in quoll species from the Australian mainland. Within Tasmania, genetic variation was greater in central than peripheral populations, with the lowest levels detected on Bruny Island. Significant genetic population structure, consistent with regional differentiation, appears related to geographic distance among populations. Levels of gene flow appeared moderate, with genetic admixture greatest among central populations. Therefore, eastern quolls from genetically diverse central Tasmanian populations will become an important source for conservation initiatives if widespread declines begin to occur. Ongoing genetic monitoring of existing populations will allow conservation strategies to be adaptive. However, in order for translocations to be successful, managers must not only consider the genetic composition of founding individuals, but also habitat-specific adaptations, disease and threatening processes at translocation sites.
Ecology of the eastern quoll Dasyurus viverrinus (Dasyuridae: Marsupialia). Thesis written for The Australian National University
  • J Godsell
Godsell, J. (1983) Ecology of the eastern quoll Dasyurus viverrinus (Dasyuridae: Marsupialia). Thesis written for The Australian National University.
A proposal for a research translocation of wild eastern quolls (Dasyurus viverrinus) to the Mulligans Flat Woodland Sanctuary, Australian Capital Territory, to establish a genetically and behaviourally diverse founder population, and to undertake experiments to maximise future reintroduction success
  • A D Manning
Manning, A.D. (2015) A proposal for a research translocation of wild eastern quolls (Dasyurus viverrinus) to the Mulligans Flat Woodland Sanctuary, Australian Capital Territory, to establish a genetically and behaviourally diverse founder population, and to undertake experiments to maximise future reintroduction success.