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The Effect of Gamma Radiation on the FTIR Spectrum of Crystal Violet Doped Polystyrene Films

  • Mustansiriyah University- College of Science
  • Mustansiriyah University
Caspian Journal of Applied Sciences Research
2(7), pp. 11-17, 2013
Journal Homepage:
ISSN: 2251-9114
The Effect of Gamma Radiation on the FTIR Spectrum of Crystal Violet Doped
Polystyrene Films
Mahasin Fadhel Hadi Al-Kadhemy*, Wafaa Hameed Abaas, Israa Fakher
Al –Mustansiriya Univ., College of Science, Physics Department, Baghdad, Iraq
We synthesis in this work the FTIR spectra for Crystal Violet dye doped polystyrene films with different doping
ratio of CV solution. All samples are prepared by casting method. We noted that the doping ratio of CV do not affect
on the FTIR spectrum of PS. While, the irradiation these samples with Gamma radiation in different doses (50, 100,
150, and 200) rad will affect on the spectra. At 50 and 100 rad, FTIR spectrum of CV-PS films will not affected.
Nevertheless, increasing doses of gamma radiation to 150 and 200 rad will clear the role of CV dye on FTIR spectrum
by appearing peaks refers to crystal violet dye.
© 2013 Caspian Journal of Applied Sciences Research. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Crystal Violet; Polystyrene; FTIR Spectrum; Gamma Radiation; Dye Doped Polymer Film
1. Introduction
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is
one of the powerful tools for identifying and
investigating the presence of various functional
groups in polymers (Silverstein and Webster, 2004).
In infrared spectroscopy, IR radiation is passed
through a sample. Some of the radiation is absorbed
by the sample and some of it is passed through it
(transmitted). The resulting spectrum represents the
molecular absorption and transmission creating
molecular fingerprint of the sample. Each molecule
distinguishes by certain FTIR spectrum refers to it. No
two unique molecular structures produce the same
infrared. This makes the infrared spectroscopy useful
for several types of analysis (Thermo Nicolet, 2001).
Crystal violet or Gentian violet is a triarylmethane
dye, it has antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic
properties and was formally important as a topical
antiseptic (Thetne, 2000; Al-Kadhemy and Abaas,
2012). Polymers are very interesting media for solid -
state dye laser, nonlinear optical devices, optical
communications (Mansour et al., 2002; Kumar
Dubey, 2008). Because of special characteristics of
polymer such as low cost, high process ability, light
transparency, chemical and thermal stabilities, it
used as host material that the laser dye was
* Corresponding address: Al–Mustansiriya Univ., College of Science, Physics Department, Baghdad, Iraq
E-mail address: (Mahasin Fadhel Hadi)
© 2013 Caspian Journal of Applied Sciences Research; All rights reserved.
embedded in it. So that the spectroscopic properties
of dye doped polymer films must be studied (Abd
Elmongy, 2009; Crompton, 2009; AL-Kadhemy and
Alwaan, 2012)
The effect of radiation on polymer structure and
consequently on its physical characteristics are well
known in the plastics industry (Wündrich, 1985).
Radiation can affect the molecular weight of polymer
in two ways. It can increase by linking molecules
together (cross – linking) or it can decrease, by
inducing main-chain degradation. A third process is
possible in principle: scission might occur in the main
chain of the polymer and at least one of the fragments
might link to the main chain of the polymer (Ayman,
1997; Abd Aullah, 2006).
Recent advances in technology have about an
increasingly important role for gamma rays, so many
researchers were studied this effect on different
polymers such as (Abdullah, 2006; Bhat et al., 2007;
AL-ghamdi and Mahrous, 2011; ALwaan, 2012).
Our aim of this work is to study the effect of
gamma radiation with different dose on the FTIR
spectrum of crystal violet doped polystyrene films in
different doping ratio of crystal violet solution.
Mahasin Fadhel Hadi Al-Kadhemy; Wafaa Hameed Abaas; Israa Fakher / The Effect of Gamma Radiation on the FTIR Spectrum of Crystal Violet Doped
Polystyrene Films 2(7), pp. 11-17, 2013
Crystal violet laser dye has been supplied from
Lambda physics and used without further
purification. The chemical formula of this dye is
C24H27N3HCL with molecular weight 339.95 gm/mol.
This dye dissolved in many solvents (water,
chloroform, ethanol, methanol, etc.) (Beckerman,
1992; Alsharuee, 2012). The chemical structure of CV
dye is shown in Fig 1.
Fig 1: Chemical structure of crystal violet (Al-Kadhemy
and Abaas, 2012).
Polystyrene (PS) is a type of polymer with
thermoplastic properties, colourless and rigid plastic.
It is used to produced many products for industrial
(Al-Ghamdi and Mahrous, 2011; Alwaan, 2012). The
chemical formula is –[-CH(C6H5)-CH2]n-. The chemical
structure of PS shown in Fig2.
Fig 2: Chemical structure of PS (Mitchell, 2004).
Certain amount of PS granules (1 gm) was
dissolved in constant volume (10 ml) of the solvent
chloroform. The concentration of dye solution was
0.5  10
mol/litre and prepared according to the
methanol mentioned by (Al-Kadhemy et al., 2011).
Different doping ratio of CV solution (5, 10, 15, 25, 35
and 40) ml was added to PS solution. The mixture
shake very well and poured into glass petri dish with
diameter 10 cm and leave to evaporate for 24 hr at
room temperature to get homogeneous films. This
irradiation was done with gamma radiation by 60CO
source with dose (50, 100, 150, and 200) rad. The FTIR
spectrum was measured by (Shimadzu-8400 S) over
range (400-4000) cm-1 in transmission mode.
3.1. Before irradiation
The most importance of FTIR spectroscopy is to
identify the main characteristics peaks of crystal
violet dye, pure polystyrene polymer film, CV-PS in
different doping ratio of CV solution. All FTIR spectra
are taken in transmission mode. Fig 3 demonstrates
the FTIR spectrum of crystal violet dye and compared
with chemical structure of this dye; Fig 1. There have
more than one peak obtained in region of the C–H
bending vibrations (900–600 cm−1) can support the
presence of an aromatic structure. In region (1200-
1000 cm-1), there is a peak at 1062 cm−1 refers to C–H
bending vibrations, and a peak at 1168.90
corresponds to the C-N stretching vibrations. The
benzene rings very clear which is supportive to the
peak at 1583.61
cm-1 that acts the C= C stretching of
the benzene ring, and a peak at 2917.14 cm−1 for C–H
stretching with asymmetric CH3 group. FTIR spectra of
this dye shows the presences of two bands (3219.3
and 3093.92 cm−1) allot to N–H stretching vibrations
of primary amines. This is identical with the results
obtained by (Cheriaa et. al. 2012).
Fig 4 gives the characteristics of FTIR spectrum of
pure polystyrene polymer and compared with the
chemical structure of this polymer; Fig 2. Many bands
refers to the ring deformation vibration is observed at
705 cm-1. In addition, the C-H deformation vibration
band of benzene ring hydrogen’s is appeared at 758
cm -1. The two peaks at 1492.95 cm -1 and 1600.97 cm
-1 are assigned to aromatic C = C stretching. While, the
two bands at 2849.96 cm -1 and 3032 cm -1 are
corresponding to aromatic and aliphatic C-H
stretching, respectively. The C-H stretching vibration
of ring hydrogens is assigned to 3101 cm -1. As
illustrated by (Wu 2001).
Mahasin Fadhel Hadi Al-Kadhemy; Wafaa Hameed Abaas; Israa Fakher / The Effect of Gamma Radiation on the FTIR Spectrum of Crystal Violet Doped
Polystyrene Films 2(7), pp. 11-17, 2013
Fig 3: FTIR spectrum of CV dye.
Fig 4: FTIR spectrum of pure PS film
When we add certain ratio of CV solution to PS
polymer (5, 15, 25, and 40) ml, there is no clear affect
FTIR spectrum as shown in Figs 5 and 6 for 5 ml and
40 ml CV-PS films, respectively.
Fig 5: FTIR spectrum of 5ml CV-PS film
Mahasin Fadhel Hadi Al-Kadhemy; Wafaa Hameed Abaas; Israa Fakher / The Effect of Gamma Radiation on the FTIR Spectrum of Crystal Violet Doped
Polystyrene Films 2(7), pp. 11-17, 2013
Fig 6: FTIR spectrum of 40ml CV-PS film.
3.2. After irradiation with gamma radiation
All samples irradiated with doses (50, 100, 150,
and 200) rad and FTIR spectra were taken for all these
samples. We concluded that FTIR spectra did not
change after irradiated with doses (50 and 100) rad
for all samples (pure PS, and CV-PS with all doping
ratio) as shown in Figs7 and 8. When the dose of
Gamma radiation increased to 150 rad, the FTIR
spectrum of pure PS did not affected as illustrated in
Fig 9. Whereas the changeable in FTIR spectrum was
clear in CV-PS with doping ratio 25 ml, as shown in
Fig 10, and the role of CV dye clear affected. The band
(C-H) refers to the ring deformation vibration in
region (621-705) cm-1. The tow peaks at (748- 765)
cm-1 due to (C-H) deformation vibration band of
benzene ring hydrogen’s and the peak (1006.8) cm-1
appear due to CV dye that refer to (C-H) bending
vibration. In addition, the peak at (1583) cm-1 refer to
the benzene ring especially for (C=C) stretching which
is to CV dye too.
Fig 7: FTIR spectrum for pure PS after irradiated with 100 rad Gamma radiation.
Mahasin Fadhel Hadi Al-Kadhemy; Wafaa Hameed Abaas; Israa Fakher / The Effect of Gamma Radiation on the FTIR Spectrum of Crystal Violet Doped
Polystyrene Films 2(7), pp. 11-17, 2013
Fig 8: FTIR spectrum for CV- PS with 25 CV after irradiated with 100 rad Gamma radiation.
Fig 9: FTIR spectrum for pure PS after irradiated with 150 rad Gamma radiation.
Fig 10: FTIR spectrum for CV- PS with 25 CV after irradiated with 150 rad Gamma radiation
Increased dosing irradiated to (200) rad led to
change FTIR spectra for all samples as demonstrated
in Figs 11 and 12 for pure PS and 25CV-PS films,
The C-H bending become at 407 cm-1 is out of plan
bending and the peak at 1263.42 cm-1 disappeared
from structure. The peak 3101 cm-1 that refers to C-H
stretching vibration of hydrogen ring was still
Mahasin Fadhel Hadi Al-Kadhemy; Wafaa Hameed Abaas; Israa Fakher / The Effect of Gamma Radiation on the FTIR Spectrum of Crystal Violet Doped
Polystyrene Films 2(7), pp. 11-17, 2013
unchanged. The two bands 3298.38 and 3815.32 cm-1
became clearer. These changes occurred for all
samples after irradiated with 200 rad Gamma
Fig 11: FTIR spectrum for pure PS after irradiated with 200 rad Gamma radiation.
Fig 12: FTIR spectrum for CV- PS with 25 CV after irradiated with 200 rad Gamma radiation.
From this study, we concluded that if we doped
crystal violet in different doping ratio with
polystyrene polymer films by casting method, the
FTIR spectra of these samples remain as it for pure PS.
This means the crystal violet did not affect the
chemical composition of PS polymer. Irradiated all
samples with Gamma radiation with doses (50, and
100) rad did not affect FTIR spectrum until reach the
dose (150, and 200) rad. There was some change in
the structure of pure PS and CV-PS films.
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Polystyrene Films 2(7), pp. 11-17, 2013
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