ChapterPDF Available

Monitoring and evaluation system and framework

Authors:
  • Bolgatanga Technical University
  • University of South Africa (UNISA)
This book will provide readers with an in-depth theoretical awareness and prac-
tical guidance on the implementation of an effective monitoring and evaluation
(M&E) system to ensure construction projects meet approved quality, cost, time
and social sustainability objectives.
The authors discuss the drivers, challenges, determinants and benets of effec-
tive M&E implementation together with the theories and models underpinning
construction project M&E practices. Further, a comparative overview of M&E
practices in developed and developing countries is presented to elucidate the best
practices. The book rst conceptualizes M&E as a ve-factor model comprising
stakeholder involvement, budgetary allocation and logistics, technical capacity
and training, leadership, and communication. It then presents an M&E case
study on the Ghanaian construction industry before expanding on the idea of
M&E systems as an effective tool for project performance and in optimizing a
project’s contribution to society and the environment.
The book further provides guidance on M&E practice for construction pro-
ject managers, investors, professionals, researchers and other stakeholders and is
therefore of interest to those in architecture, construction engineering, planning,
project management and development studies.
Dr. Callistus Tengan is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Building Tech-
nology at Bolgatanga Technical University, Ghana and a Professional member of
the Ghana Institution of Surveyors (GhIS). He is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow
in the Department of Construction Management and Quantity Surveying of the
University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
Professor Clinton Aigbavboa is the Director of the CIDB Centre of Excellence
& Sustainable Human Settlement and Construction Research Centre, Faculty of
Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
Professor Wellington Didibhuku Thwala is the Director of the South Africa
Research Chair in Sustainable Construction Management and Leadership in the
Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, Univer-
sity of Johannesburg, South Africa.
Construction Project Monitoring
and Evaluation
Callistus Tengan, Clinton Aigbavboa,
andWellington Didibhuku Thwala
Construction Project
Monitoring and Evaluation
An Integrated Approach
First published 2021
by Routledge
2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN
and by Routledge
52 Vanderbilt Avenue, New York, NY 10017
Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business
© 2021 Callistus Tengan, Clinton Aigbavboa and Wellington
Didibhuku Thwala
The right of Callistus Tengan, Clinton Aigbavboa and Wellington
Didibhuku Thwala to be identified as authors of this work has been
asserted by them in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright,
Designs and Patents Act, 1988.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced
or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means,
now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording,
or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in
writing from the publishers.
Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or
registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation
without intent to infringe.
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Tengan, Callistus, author. | Aigbavboa, Clinton, author. |
Thwala, Wellington, author.
Title: Construction project monitoring and evaluation : an integrated
approach / Callistus Tengan, Clinton Aigbavboa, Wellington Thwala.
Subjects: LCSH: Building--Superintendence. | Project management.
Classification: LCC TH438 .T46 2021 (print) | LCC TH438 (ebook) |
DDC 624.068/4–dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2020050908
LC ebook record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2020050909
ISBN: 978-0-367-68529-4 (hbk)
ISBN: 978-0-367-68532-4 (pbk)
ISBN: 978-1-003-13797-9 (ebk)
Typeset in Goudy Oldstyle Std
by KnowledgeWorks Global Ltd.
List of figures xii
List of tables xiii
List of maps xiv
Preface xv
PART I
Performance management and measurement 1
1 Project management 3
1.1 Abstract 3
1.2 Introduction 3
1.3 Project performance management 4
1.4 Monitoring and evaluation as a performance management tool 4
1.5 Emerging trends in project monitoring and evaluation 5
1.5.1 Drone and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 6
1.5.2 Building information modelling (BIM) 6
1.5.3 Geographic information system (GIS) 7
1.6 Professional ethics in the construction industry 7
1.7 Aim of the book 8
Summary 9
References 9
2 Overview of project monitoring and evaluation research 12
2.1 Abstract 12
2.2 Introduction 12
2.2.1 Monitoring 12
2.2.1.1 Types of monitoring 13
2.3 Evaluation 14
2.3.1 Types of evaluation 17
2.3.2 Need for evaluation 18
2.4 Monitoring and evaluation 18
Contents
vi Contents
2.5 Approach, methods, tools and techniques of M&E 20
2.6 Monitoring and evaluation indicators 23
2.7 Types of monitoring and evaluation indicators 24
2.8 Benets of effective monitoring and evaluation 25
2.9 Challenges to monitoring and evaluation 26
2.9.1 Organizational-level challenges 26
2.9.2 Project-based challenges 27
2.9.3 Technical-based challenges 27
Summary 29
References 29
3 Monitoring and evaluation system and framework 33
3.1 Abstract 33
3.2 Introduction 33
3.3 Logical framework 34
3.4 Results framework 36
3.5 Conceptual or narrative framework 37
3.6 Steps in developing a monitoring and evaluation framework 38
3.7 A monitoring and evaluation system 39
3.8 Types of a monitoring and evaluation system 41
3.8.1 Implementation-focused M&E system 41
3.8.2 Results-based M&E system 41
3.9 Criteria for assessing the quality of a monitoring
and evaluation system 42
3.10 Steps in developing a monitoring and evaluation system 43
3.11 Components of a monitoring and evaluation system 45
3.11.1 Category one 45
3.11.2 Category two 47
3.11.3 Category three 47
3.12 A monitoring and evaluation plan 47
Summary 48
References 48
PART II
Theories, models and concepts in monitoring
and evaluation research 51
4 Theories of monitoring and evaluation 53
4.1 Abstract 53
4.2 Introduction 53
4.3 Monitoring and evaluation theory dened 54
Contents vii
4.4 A review of monitoring and evaluation theories 54
4.4.1 The evaluation theory 55
4.4.1.1 The evaluation theory tree 55
4.4.1.2 Method perspective 57
4.4.1.3 Value perspective 58
4.4.1.4 Use perspective 58
4.5 Theory of change 59
4.6 Program theory 60
Summary 61
References 62
5 Monitoring and evaluation models 64
5.1 Abstract 64
5.2 Introduction 64
5.3 Classication of evaluation models 64
5.3.1 Evert Vedung’s classication 64
5.3.2 Stufebeam’s classication 65
5.3.3 Evaluation approaches for the 21st Century 65
5.3.4 Stufebeam’s context, input, process and
product (CIPP) model 65
5.3.5 Scriven’s goal-free evaluation model 66
5.3.6 Stake’s responsive evaluation model 67
5.3.7 Patton’s utilization-focused evaluation model 67
5.3.8 Guba’s ethnographic evaluation model 67
Summary 68
References 68
6 Conceptual IME model for construction project delivery 69
6.1 Abstract 69
6.2 Introduction 69
6.3 Key determinants of effective monitoring and evaluation 71
6.3.1 Stakeholder involvement 73
6.3.2 Budgetary allocation 74
6.3.3 Technical capacity and training 75
6.4 Proposed IME conceptual model 76
6.5 Theoretical underpinning of the conceptual model 77
6.6 Structural components and specication
of the conceptual IME model 77
6.7 IME model justication 78
Summary 80
References 81
viii Contents
PART III
Communication and leadership in monitoring and evaluation 85
7 Aspects of communication in monitoring and evaluation 87
7.1 Abstract 87
7.2 Introduction 87
7.3 Understanding monitoring and evaluation communication 88
7.3.1 Types of communication 89
7.3.1.1 Intrapersonal communication 90
7.3.1.2 Interpersonal communication 90
7.3.1.3 Mass communication 91
7.3.1.4 Group communication 91
7.3.2 Communication models 91
7.3.2.1 Shannon and Weaver’s model of
communication, 1948 92
7.3.2.2 Lasswell’s model of communication, 1948 92
7.3.2.3 Osgood-Schramm’s model of communication 93
7.3.2.4 Aristotle’s model of communication 94
7.3.2.5 David Berlo’s S-M-C-R model
of communication 94
7.4 Functions of communication in monitoring and evaluation 95
7.4.1 Information sharing and awareness creation 96
7.4.2 Education and training 96
7.4.3 Persuasion 97
7.5 The use of information communication technology (ICT)
in construction project monitoring and evaluation 97
7.6 Benets of monitoring and evaluation communication 98
7.7 Barriers to monitoring and evaluation communication 99
7.8 Achieving effective monitoring and
evaluation communication 100
Summary 102
References 102
8 Perspectives in monitoring and evaluation leadership 106
8.1 Abstract 106
8.2 Introduction 106
8.3 Types of leadership styles 108
8.3.1 Transformational leadership style 108
8.3.2 Transactional leadership style 109
8.3.3 Autocratic/authoritative leadership style 109
8.3.4 Democratic or participatory leadership style 109
8.3.5 Laissez-faire leadership style 110
8.3.6 Bureaucratic leadership style 110
8.3.7 Charismatic leadership style 111
Contents ix
8.4 Leadership theories: An evolution tree approach 111
8.4.1 Personality era 111
8.4.2 Inuence era 113
8.4.3 Behavior era 113
8.4.4 Situation era 114
8.4.5 Contingency era 114
8.4.6 Transactional era 115
8.4.7 Anti-leadership era 115
8.4.8 Culture era 115
8.4.9 Transformational era 116
8.5 Barriers to effective monitoring and evaluation leadership 116
8.6 Achieving effective monitoring and evaluation leadership 118
Summary 119
References 119
PART IV
Country perspective on monitoring and evaluation practices 125
9 Monitoring and evaluation in developed countries: A global view 127
9.1 Abstract 127
9.2 Introduction 127
9.3 Overview of the United Kingdom construction industry 129
9.4 Overview of the Australian construction industry 129
9.5 Philosophical basis and policy for monitoring
and evaluation in the United Kingdom and Australia 130
9.6 Monitoring and evaluation in the public sector 132
9.7 Monitoring and evaluation policy challenges in
developed countries 133
9.8 Findings and lessons learnt 134
Summary 134
References 134
10 Monitoring and evaluation in developing countries:
An African experience 136
10.1 Abstract 136
10.2 Introduction 136
10.3 Monitoring and evaluation in Africa 136
10.4 Kenya 137
10.4.1 Construction industry outlook of Kenya 137
10.4.2 Monitoring and evaluation regulatory policy in Kenya 139
10.4.3 Construction project monitoring and evaluation
in Kenya 140
x Contents
10.4.4 Challenges in construction project monitoring
and evaluation in Kenya 140
10.4.5 Findings and lessons learnt from Kenya 141
10.5 South Africa 141
10.5.1 Construction industry outlook of South Africa 142
10.5.2 Monitoring and evaluation regulatory policy
in South Africa 143
10.5.3 Municipal infrastructure project implementation
and M&E in South Africa 145
10.5.4 The South African Construction Industry
Development Board 145
10.5.5 Challenges in construction project monitoring and
evaluation in South Africa 147
10.5.6 Findings and lessons learnt from South Africa 148
Summary 149
References 149
11 A review of the Ghanaian construction industry and
the practice of monitoring and evaluation 152
11.1 Abstract 152
11.2 Introduction 152
11.3 Overview of the Ghanaian construction industry 153
11.3.1 Signicance of the Ghanaian construction industry 154
11.3.2 Challenges of the Ghanaian construction industry 156
11.3.2.1 Industry challenges 156
11.3.2.2 Economic challenges 157
11.3.2.3 Project management and implementation
challenges 157
11.4 Construction project monitoring and evaluation
practice in Ghana 159
11.4.1 Project management consultants 160
11.4.2 Ministry of water resources works and housing
(MWRWH) 161
11.4.3 Ghana Education Trust Fund (GETFund) 161
11.4.4 Metropolitan, municipal and district assemblies
(MMDAs) 162
11.5 Monitoring and evaluation regulatory policy in Ghana 163
11.6 Implementation of monitoring and evaluation systems
in the Ghanaian construction industry 165
11.6.1 Site visit and inspection (supervision) 165
11.6.2 Site meeting 166
11.6.3 Progress reporting 166
11.7 Stakeholders involved in M&E in the Ghanaian
construction industry 167
Contents xi
11.8 Barriers to effective construction project monitoring
and evaluation implementation in Ghana 168
11.9 Knowledge management in the monitoring and evaluation
of projects 169
Summary 169
References 170
PART V
Insight from Delphi research study: A case of Ghanaian experts 175
12 Case study 177
12.1 Abstract 177
12.2 Introduction 177
12.3 Demographic characteristics of experts 179
12.4 Delphi-specic objectives 179
12.4.1 The need for and relevance of M&E in the Ghanaian
construction industry 180
12.4.2 The main factors and sub-attributes that determine
effective M&E in the Ghanaian construction
industry and its relationship with M&E determinants
in other countries 182
12.4.3 Critical challenging factors that inuence M&E in
the Ghanaian construction industry 188
12.4.4 Impact of effective M&E determinants on the
success of project delivery in the GCI 189
Summary 190
References 190
Index 193
Figures
3.1 The “if–then” relationship that underpins the vertical
logic of the log frame. 35
3.2 Results chain depicting how inputs are translated to achieve
project outcomes. 37
3.3 A monitoring and evaluation system. 39
3.4 Flow chart of the M&E system. 42
3.5 Steps in designing, building and sustaining a results-based
M&E system. 43
3.6 The M&E process and how it links to the project strategy
and operations. 44
3.7 Components of the M&E system. 46
4.1 Modified evaluation theory tree. 56
4.2 Schematic depiction of a theory of change. 60
6.1 Integrated M&E conceptual model for construction
project delivery. 78
7.1 Shannon and Weaver’s model of communication. 92
7.2 Lasswell’s model of communication. 93
7.3 Osgood–Schramm’s model of communication. 93
7.4 Aristotle’s model of communication. 94
7.5 Berlo’s S-M-C-R model of communication. 95
8.1 Evolution tree of leadership theory. 112
9.1 Composition of the UK construction sector. 130
9.2 Australian construction industry output, size and
share of GDP. 131
10.1 A comprehensive infrastructure delivery
implementation framework. 146
11.1 Relative share of the construction sector to GDP. 155
11.2 Trend outlook of cement production in Ghana. 156
Tables
2.1 Common types of monitoring 15
2.2 Complementary roles of M&E 20
2.3 Differences between M&E 21
2.4 Categories of M&E challenges 28
4.1 Summarized evaluation approaches in LMIC 57
6.1 Determinants of effective M&E 72
6.2 Latent variables and measuring constructs of the
conceptual IME model 79
8.1 Catalogue of leadership definitions 107
12.1 Availability, need for and relevance of M&E 181
12.2 Effective M&E factors 182
12.3 Stakeholders’ involvement attributes 183
12.4 Budgetary allocation and logistics attributes 183
12.5 Political influence attributes 184
12.6 Technical capacity and training attributes 185
12.7 Approach to M&E attributes 185
12.8 Leadership attributes 186
12.9 Effective communication attributes 186
12.10 Challenges to effective M&E attributes 189
12.11 Project success indicators 190
Maps
10.1 Map of the Republic of Kenya. 138
10.2 Map of the Republic of South Africa. 142
11.1 Map of Ghana. 153
Preface
Undertaking an effective monitoring and evaluation to achieve success and
ensure sustainability of construction projects has been a universal worry to pro-
ject implementers such as donors, funders, development partners and profession-
als in the construction industry. While it is considered inevitable to ensure that
projects meet the approved quality standards, cost, time while observing the best
construction practices and meeting the social sustainability objectives, the inu-
ence of a robust and an effective monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system in
project implementation would best complement team efforts in achieving success
and sustainability in project delivery. The current book will therefore provide
readers with an in-depth theoretical awareness on the implementation of M&E.
Also discussed in the book are the drivers, implementation challenges, determi-
nants and benets of effective M&E implementation together with the theories
and models underpinning construction project M&E practices. Further, a com-
parative overview of M&E practice in both developed and developing country
context is presented to elucidate the best practices. The book investigates and
conceptualizes M&E as a ve-factor model comprising stakeholder involvement,
budgetary allocation and logistics, technical capacity and training, monitoring
and evaluation leadership, and monitoring and evaluation communication from
an extant literature review. Likewise, an M&E Delphi case study on the Ghanaian
construction industry is presented. The book expands the idea of M&E as an
effective tool for project performance and to optimize the implemented projects
to societal good and contribute positively to the environment.
The book further provides guidance on M&E practice for construction project
donors, funders, professionals, researchers and other stakeholders alike. The book
is therefore of interest to researchers and policy-makers in architecture, planning
and management of projects, donors and development studies.
Callistus Tengan Ph.D.
Clinton Aigbavboa, Ph.D.
Wellington Didibhuku Thwala, Ph.D.
Part I
Performance management
and measurement
Project management1
1.1 Abstr act
Project management is a broad function that entails project performance
measurement and assessment. Therefore, project activities, resources and processes
in the construction industry require to be assessed and measured effectively to
ensure that success factors are achieved. However, little attention has been given
to monitoring and evaluation (M&E) as a performance management and meas-
urement tool. The rst chapter of this book is dedicated to contextualize M&E in
the project management literature as a performance management and measure-
ment tool. Technologies such as drones and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs),
building information modelling (BIM) and geographical information systems
(GIS) have been discussed and the advantage of adapting them by the construc-
tion industry to effectively and efciently monitor and evaluate the construction
process and activities presented.
1.2 Intro duction
The construction industry in many economies serves a critical role in its devel-
opment trajectory. It is an industry that brings together several other industries,
i.e. automobile, manufacturing, etc., under its umbrella, hence very pivotal in the
development of other sub-sectors and industries in the economy. The employment
generation and creation of the industry are great since it is more labor-intensive as
compared to other industry (Kim, Kim, Shin, & Kim, 2015, p. 1534). Its ultimate
role in the contribution to the gross domestic product (GDP) has gained recog-
nition in most budget readings of most countries across the globe. According
to Mazhar & Arain (2015, p. 434), the construction industry’s contribution to
the global share of the GDP is estimated around 15%. Considering the potential
contribution of the industry to economic development, it is imperative to ensure
that the inputs (resources), activities and processes are managed efciently and
effectively. This can be achieved via the effective implementation of monitor-
ing and evaluation (M&E) which seeks to manage and measure performance of
the project throughout the lifecycle of the project (Tengan & Aigbavboa, 2016;
Tengan & Aigbavboa, 2018). This chapter therefore, seeks to elevate M&E in the
4 Performance management and measurement
project management discourse while presenting innovative and emerging tech-
nologies in assessing and measuring project performance.
1.3 Project performance management
In construction, project management has been dened by Fewings (2005, p. 11)
as the “…planning, monitoring and control of all aspects of a project and the
motivation of all those involved to achieve the project objectives on time and
to cost, quality and performance”. Further, the Project Management Institute
(PMI, 2013) describes project management as the art of directing and coordi-
nating human and material resources through the life of a project using con-
temporary management techniques in order to achieve set goals such as scope,
cost, time, quality and participant satisfaction. The impact of PM practice on the
outcome of projects has made the discipline seen as a key competence and the
most sought-after career choice for many organizations in the world today both in
the private and public sectors. PM skills and competencies are therefore necessary
for project actors in the construction process to effectively deal with all conceived
challenges and project risk ensuring that projects are initiated and closed rightly.
PM has also been dened by many scholars and researchers in literature providing
characteristics as they may apply to the specic elds and industry. PM practices
employ performance measurement and assessment techniques such as M&E, to
ensure project cost, quality and time are achieved.
In the literature, project performance management encompasses performance
assessment and measurement which most often have been used to mean the same.
It should, however, be noted that there exist some apparent differences between
the two terminologies. According to Amaratunga et al. (2002) and Hwang &
Lim (2013) performance measurement provides a set of indicators for measuring
the outcome/output of daily operations, whereas performance assessment is the
process of evaluating the actual performance against the set standard (Myeda &
Pitt, 2012). In assessing and measuring project performance, a number of tools or
models are employed in the construction industry to ensure effective M&E. This
includes the Total Quality Management (TQM), the Balance Scorecard (BSC),
the Key Performance Indicators (KPI), the Just-in-Time (JIT) model and the Six-
Sigma. The purpose of each model, tool or system is to improve on the current
performance in project activities. Similarly, the M&E tool or system ensures that
set targets (KPI) are achieved, hence improving performance. M&E integrates
various aspects of the project life cycle such as inputs, activities, output and out-
comes to achieve success.
1.4 Monitoring and evaluation as a performance
management tool
A successful project is expected to meet three key performance indicators. The
three key indicators, also referred to as the triple constraints of projects, are
described as project cost, quality and schedule (Rahschulte & Milhauser, 2010).
Project management 5
Several performance indicators have evolved over the years. Pinto and Slevin
(1988) identied project schedule, budget, performance and client satisfaction as
the parameters with which to measure the success of a project. Several other
studies have mentioned project success factors to include environmental factors,
health and safety, effective project management and governance practices (Mirza,
Pourzolfaghar & Shahnazari, 2013; Akanni, Oke & Akpomiemie, 2015; Das &
Ngacho, 2017). However, to ensure success of project, thus meeting the agreed
performance measures for the project, monitoring, evaluation and controlling of
the project have been topical in the eld of project management (Ile et al., 2012;
Zhao, Mbachu & Domingo, 2017). Igbokwe-Ibeto (2012) adds that due to the
tedious nature of construction projects, it is imperative to monitor and evalu-
ate projects in order to achieve success. Unfortunately, M&E as a performance
measurement and assessment tool is missing in the literature. The role played by
M&E in contributing to the broader spectrum of successful construction project
delivery is essential and, as such, should be recognized across sectors of devel-
oping economies (Tengan & Aigbavboa, 2018), particularly in the construction
industry. In the current economic constraint, particularly in developing nations,
project M&E has become topical in demonstrating accountability and project
impact (Barasa, 2014). M&E prompts the conditions under which projects are
likely to succeed or falter and can serve as an early warning tool for potential
problems. It can also lead to ideas for potential remedial action. The combined
effect of M&E on a Construction Project (CP) will result in rich knowledge gen-
eration, construction programme improvement, accountability, transparency,
resource allocation, advocacy and impact assessment. The above is brought to
bear through the diversities of stakeholders that are usually involved in the mon-
itoring and evaluation of every CP. The lack of integration of M&E models and
practice in the Construction Industry (CI), particularly in Ghana, into main-
stream CP management has accounted for many CP failures in project delivered
according to time, cost, quality and meeting set health and safety (H&S) stand-
ards. This book attempts to ll this gap.
1.5 Emerging trends in project monitoring and evaluation
Monitoring and evaluation generally has been largely recognized as a human-
centered activity. In the construction industry, project teams (consultants) con-
sisting of professionals such as engineers, architects and quantity surveyors are
contracted and tasked with the responsibility of ensuring that designs and other
development objectives are implemented within the framework to achieve the
objectives of the project. Personal site visits are undertaken by stakeholders to
ascertain progress and sometimes the quality of projects. Projects also require the
submission of photographs as an evidence of the progress made. Other traditional
approaches have been employed off site to verify and validate other key perfor-
mance indicators such as cost and laboratory testing to validate quality.
With the emergence of technology, stakeholders on a project are able to work
remotely and still ensure the right things are done and are also able to access
6 Performance management and measurement
any relevant information required for the purpose of evaluation and decision
making. Emerging/emerged technologies that are facilitating M&E in complex
project environments are the use of drones or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs),
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Building Information Modelling
(BIM). As conrmed in the literature, the construction industry has been slow
in embracing new technologies as compared to others such as manufacturing,
even though the long-term advantages are well known. PwC asserts that the use
of drones or UAVs in a construction project offers an unparalleled record of all
activities, cuts planning and survey costs, increases efciency and accuracy and
eliminates disputes over the status of a project at any given point in time in the
life cycle of the project.
1.5.1 Drone and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)
A drone, also referred to as an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), is a ying robot
controlled from a remote unit and due to its intelligent software programming, it
can manage all things in air. The high inefciencies, poor safety, project delays
and cost overruns reported in the project management literature can potentially
be improved with the deployment of drones in the monitoring and evaluation pro-
cess. Drones have the potential to increase impact of the M&E process through
data acquisition, processing and management for projects. Managing a construc-
tion project is no small task. From tracking site progress and monitoring safety and
security to overseeing subcontractors and keeping stakeholders informed, there is
almost no end to the amount of coordination you face on any given day, hence
the need for project managers and M&E teams on projects to include drones
to their toolkit. On a construction site, drones can assist with pre-construction
site review, aerial surveying and mapping, measurement of excavation depths and
material stockpiles, monitoring and documenting job site progress, productivity
and inspecting work that is difcult or dangerous for human inspectors to reach.
Not only can drones ensure efcient utilization of project resources, but they can
also give your team a rich set of data for more informed communication and
decision making, i.e. data taken by drones can be used to assist a design team in
understanding the project site orienting structures and locating utilities.
1.5.2 Building information modelling (BIM)
Building Information Modelling (BIM) is an innovative technology, a repository
of digital information, a modeling technology and a global digital technology
which enhances the management of project information and the construction
process. It helps in the creation and maintenance of an integrated collabora-
tive database of multi-dimensional data concerning the design, construction and
operations of projects, with the aim of improving collaboration between stake-
holders and reduce the time needed for documentation of the project and pro-
ducing more predictable project outcomes (Abanda et al., 2015; Fazli et al., 2014;
Olawumi & Chan, 2019; Sampaio, 2015). The impact of BIM on the construction
Project management 7
process is enormous, ensuring that BIM provides “single, non-redundant, inter-
operable information repository” capable of supporting every stage, process and
functional units in a construction project (Olatunji, Olawumi & Ogunsemi, 2016;
Olawumi & Ayegun, 2016; Olawumi, Akinrata & Arijeloye, 2016). An integrated
M&E approach will be enhanced with the introduction and adoption of BIM in
the construction process. The call for relevant competencies in BIM application
on projects needs immediate attention.
1.5.3 Geographic information system (GIS)
A GIS is a set of tools comprising hardware, software, data and users. This set of
tools allows for capturing, storing, managing and analyzing digital information
or data and also making graphs and maps and representing alphanumeric data
(López Trigal, 2015). In the simplest terms, GIS merges cartography, statistical
analysis and database technology. In M&E, data or information on project pro-
gress, quality and cost are collected, analyzed and decisions are taken based on
these data. In recent times, project delivery objectives are more aligned to ensur-
ing sustainability indicators such as health and environment. This requires the
adoption of an approach or system and technologies that will facilitate the collec-
tion of such information for decisions to be taken. Towards achieving that, a GIS
readily comes to mind. GISs’ application in the construction industry is limited,
compared to its application in addressing land and natural resource management
problems and environmental issues. In the construction industry, GIS has been
applied in construction safety planning to understand the execution sequence
in safety planning (Bansal, 2011). While the merging of M&E and GIS into a
single assessment tool to display useful information to support successful project
outcomes is acknowledged as a challenge, the complement of the two activities
can be seen in their distinct applications. M&E focuses on measuring the changes
and the outcomes occurring over the project duration, while GIS is concerned
with identifying where these outcomes occurred.
1.6 Professional ethics in the construction industry
The construction industry’s activities and processes inuence and affect human
lives. It is also an industry that brings professionals such as clients, engineers,
architects and quantity surveyors, as well as industry stakeholders together to
relate. This relationship must be professional and guided by ethics (Martin &
Schinzinger, 1996). Professionalism has been dened to mean the exercise of
a body of unique and expert knowledge (Fellows, 2003). The need, therefore,
for professionals in the construction industry to acquire relevant knowledge
set is imperative for professional practice. The knowledge set for professionals
goes beyond academic laurels to continuous professional development (CPD)
to inculcate contemporary issues in practice. Similarly, Rosenthal and Rosnow
(1991: 231) inform, “…ethics refers to the system of moral values by which the
rights and wrongs of behavior… are judged”. Ethics are usually personal and
8 Performance management and measurement
reciprocal in application; thus, you treat others the way you want others to
treat you.
Ethics and professionalism are critical for the sustenance of the construction
industry. Adherence of ethics and professional practice has a direct impact on
the success of the industry performance. Abdul-Rahman et al. (2010) posits that
professional ethics are a pre-requisite to reaching sustained and acceptable quality
in construction. However, Johnson (1991) argued that professionals tend to place
premium on their obligation towards their clients more than their responsibil-
ity towards others, while Coleman, as early as 1998, had caused to lament on
the non-adherence to ethical standards in the late 1960s. The practice of M&E
must be undertaken within a framework of ethics and professionalism to ensure
information generated is reliable and sufcient for decision making. Professionals
operating within the construction business environment such as the quantity
surveyors, engineers and architects, are guided by approved codes of ethics and
professional practice. Nonetheless, Vee and Skitmore (2003) aver the need to
complement the efforts of codes of ethics with ethics ofcer who will ensure sanc-
tions for breach are enforced.
1.7 Aim of the book
Undertaking an effective monitoring and evaluation to ensure success and
sustainability of construction projects has been a universal worry to project
implementers such as donors, funders, development partners and professionals,
in the construction industry. While it is considered inevitable to ensure that
projects meet the approved quality standards, cost, time and, at the same time,
observing the best construction practices and meeting the social, economic and
environmental sustainability objectives, the inuence of a robust, effective and
integrated M&E system during project implementation would best complement
team efforts in achieving the desired success and sustainability during project
delivery. The current book aims to provide readers with an in-depth theoretical
awareness on the integrated approach to the implementation of M&E. Also
discussed in the book are the drivers, implementation challenges, determinants
and benets of effective M&E together with the theoretical and conceptual
underpinnings of construction project M&E practice. Further, a comparative
overview of M&E practice in the context of the developed and developing
countries is presented to elucidate the best practices. The book investigates
and conceptualizes M&E as a ve-factors-integrated model comprising stake-
holder involvement, budgetary allocation and logistics, technical capacity and
training, monitoring and evaluation leadership and monitoring and evaluation
communication from an extant literature review and the Delphi study ndings.
The book expands the idea of M&E as an effective performance measurement
and assessment tool for project management practice and to ensure optimiza-
tion of the implemented projects to societal good and contributes positively to
the environment. The book serves as a resource guide for construction pro-
fessionals, researchers and other stakeholders alike. The book should interest
Project management 9
researchers and policy-makers in architecture, planning and management of
projects, donors and development studies.
Summary
The rst chapter of this book briey contextualizes M&E in the project manage-
ment literature as a performance management and measurement tool. Technologies
such as drones and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), building information mod-
elling (BIM) and geographical information systems (GIS), were discussed as inno-
vative and emerging technologies, upon their adoption and integration in the
construction industry, will enhance the effective M&E of the construction pro-
cess. The need for stakeholders to be guided by professionalism and ethics during
the M&E of the construction process and activities in the industry is critical. The
next chapter provides an overview of monitoring and evaluation research.
References
Abanda, F. H., Vidalakis, C., Oti, A. H. & Tah, J. H. M. (2015). A critical analysis of
Building Information Modelling systems used in construction projects. Advances in
Engineering Software, 90, 183–201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advengsoft.2015.08.009
Abdul-Rahman, H., Wang, C. & Yap, X. W. (2010). How professional ethics impact
construction quality: Perception and evidence in a fast developing economy. Scientic
Research and Essays, 5(23), 3742–3749.
Akanni, P. O., Oke, A. E. & Akpomiemie, O. A. (2015). Impact of environmental factors
on building project performance in Delta State, Nigeria. HBRC Journal, (11)1. 91–97,
ISSN 1687-4048, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hbrcj.2014.02.010.
Amaratunga, D., Baldry, D., Sarshar, M. & Newton, R. (2002). Quantitative and qual-
itative research in the built environment: Application of ‘mixed’ research approach.
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 51(1), 17–31.
Bansal, V. K. (2011). Application of geographic information systems in construction
safety planning. International Journal of Project Management, 29(1), 66–77. https://doi.
org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2010.01.007
Barasa, R. M. (2014). Inuence of monitoring and evaluation tools on project completion in
Kenya: A case of Constituency Development Fund projects in Kakamega County, Kenya.
Kenya: University of Nairobi.
Coleman, J. W. (1998). The criminal elite, understanding white-collar crime. New York:
St. Martin’s Press.
Das, D. & Ngacho, C. (2017). Critical success factors inuencing the performance of
development projects: An empirical study of Constituency Development Fund projects
in Kenya. IIMB Management Review, (29)4, 276–293, ISSN 0970-3896, https://doi.
org/10.1016/j.iimb.2017.11.005.
Fazli, A., Fathi, S., Enferadi, M. H., Fazli, M. & Fathi, B. (2014). Appraising effectiveness
of Building Information Management (BIM) in project management. CENTERIS 2014 –
Conference on ENTERprise Information Systems/ProjMAN 2014 – International
Conference on Project MANagement/HCIST 2014 – International Conference on
Health and Social Care Information Systems and Technologies. Procedia Technology
16, 1116–1125.
10 Performance management and measurement
Fellows, R. (2003). Professionalism in construction: Culture and ethics. CIB TG 23
International Conference, October 2003, Hong Kong.
Fewings, P. (2005). Construction project management: An integrated approach. USA and
Canada: Taylor & Francis.
Hwang, B. G. & Lim, E. S. J. (2013). Critical success factors for key project players and
objectives: Case study of Singapore. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management,
139(2), 204–215.
Igbokwe-Ibeto, C. J. (2012). Issues and challenges in local government project monitoring
and evaluation in Nigeria: The way forward. European Scientic Journal, 8(18).
Ile, I. U., Eresia-Eke, C. & Allen-Ile, C. (2012). Monitoring and evaluation of policies,
programmes and projects. Hateld, Pretoria: Van Schaik.
Johnson, D. G. (1991). Ethical issues in engineering. New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall.
Kim, S., Kim, J. D., Shin, Y. & Kim, G. H. (2015). Cultural differences in motivation
factors inuencing the management of foreign laborers in the Korean construction
industry. International Journal of Project Management, 33(7), 1534–1547. doi:10.1016/j.
ijproman.2015.05.002
López Trigal, L. (2015). Dictionary of applied and professional Geography. Territory analysis,
planning and management terminology. Leon, Spain: University of Leon.
Martin, M. W. & Schinzinger, R. (1996). Ethics in engineering (3rd edn.). New York:
McGraw-Hill.
Mazhar, N. & Arain, F (2015). Leveraging on work integrated learning to enhance
sustainable design practices in the construction industry. International Conference on
Sustainable Design, Engineering and Construction, Procedia Engineering, 118, 434–441.
Mirza, M. N., Pourzolfaghar, Z. & Shahnazari, M. (2013). Signicance of scope in project
success. Procedia Technology, 9, 722–729. doi:10.1016/j.protcy.2013.12.080
Myeda, N.E. and Pitt, M. (2012). Understanding the performance measurement system
(PMS) for facilities management (FM) industry in Malaysia. PMA 2012 Conference,
Cambridge.
Olawumi, T. O. & Chan D. W. M. (2019). Building information modelling and project
information management framework for construction projects. Journal of Civil
Engineering and Management, ISSN 1392-3730/eISSN 1822-3605, 25(1), 53–75. https://
doi.org/10.3846/jcem.2019.7841
Olatunji, S. O., Olawumi, T. O., & Ogunsemi, D. R. (2016). Demystifying Issues Regarding
Public Private Partnerships (PPP). Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development -
The International Institute for Science, Technology, and Education (IISTE), 7(11),
1–22
Olawumi, T. O., & Ayegun, O. A. (2016). Are quantity surveyors competent to value for
civil engineering works? Evaluating QSs’ competencies and militating factors. Journal of
Education and Practice, 7(16), 1–16.
Olawumi, T.O., Akinrata, E.B., & Arijeloye, B.T. (2016). Value Management- Creating
Functional Value for Construction Projects: An Exploratory Study. World Scientic
News, WSN, 54, 40–59.
Pinto, J. K. & Slevin, D. P. (1988). Project success: Denitions and measurement
techniques. Project Management Journal, 19(1), 67–73.
Project Management Institute (PMI) (2013). Managing change in organizations: A practice
guide. UK: PMI.
Rahschulte, T. J. & Milhauser, K. (2010). Beyond triple constraints – Nine elements
dening project success. In: Project Management Institute. North America, Washington,
DC. Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute.
Project management 11
Rosenthal, R., Rosnow, R. L. (1991). Essentials of behavioral research: Methods and data
analysis (2nd edn.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
Sampaio, A. Z. (2015). The introduction of the BIM concept in civil engineering
curriculum. International Journal of Engineering Education, 31(1B), 302–315.
Tengan, C. & Aigbavboa, C. (2016). Evaluating barriers to effective implementation of
project monitoring and evaluation in the Ghanaian construction industry. Creative
Construction Conference 2016 (CCC 2016), 25–28 June 2016, Procedia Engineering, 164
(2016), 389–394, Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
Tengan, C. & Aigbavboa, C. (2018). The role of monitoring and evaluation in construction
project management. In: W. Karwowski and T. Ahram (eds.). Intelligent Human Systems
Integration, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 722, 571–582. California,
USA: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73888-8_89
Vee, C. & Skitmore, M. (2003). Professional ethics in the construction industry.
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 10(2), 117–127. doi:10.
1108/09699980310466596
Zhao, L., Mbachu, J. & Domingo, N. (2017). Exploratory factors inuencing building develop-
ment costs in New Zealand using SEM. doi: 10.20944/preprints201704.0187.v1.
Project management
Abanda, F. H. , Vidalakis, C. , Oti, A. H. & Tah, J. H. M. (2015). A critical analysis of Building
Information Modelling systems used in construction projects. Advances in Engineering
Software, 90, 183201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advengsoft.2015.08.009
Abdul-Rahman, H. , Wang, C. & Yap, X. W. (2010). How professional ethics impact construction
quality: Perception and evidence in a fast developing economy. Scientific Research and
Essays, 5(23), 37423749.
Akanni, P. O. , Oke, A. E. & Akpomiemie, O. A. (2015). Impact of environmental factors on
building project performance in Delta State, Nigeria. HBRC Journal, (11)1. 9197, ISSN 1687-
4048, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hbrcj.2014.02.010.
Amaratunga, D. , Baldry, D. , Sarshar, M. & Newton, R. (2002). Quantitative and qualitative
research in the built environment: Application of mixed research approach. Emerald Group
Publishing Limited, 51(1), 1731.
Bansal, V. K. (2011). Application of geographic information systems in construction safety
planning. International Journal of Project Management, 29(1), 6677.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2010.01.007
Barasa, R. M. (2014). Influence of monitoring and evaluation tools on project completion in
Kenya: A case of Constituency Development Fund projects in Kakamega County, Kenya.
Kenya: University of Nairobi.
Coleman, J. W. (1998). The criminal elite, understanding white-collar crime. New York: St.
Martin's Press.
Das, D. & Ngacho, C. (2017). Critical success factors influencing the performance of
development projects: An empirical study of Constituency Development Fund projects in Kenya.
IIMB Management Review, (29)4, 276293, ISSN 0970-3896,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iimb.2017.11.005.
Fazli, A. , Fathi, S. , Enferadi, M. H. , Fazli, M. & Fathi, B. (2014). Appraising effectiveness of
Building Information Management (BIM) in project management. CENTERIS 2014  Conference
on ENTERprise Information Systems/ProjMAN 2014  International Conference on Project
MANagement/HCIST 2014  International Conference on Health and Social Care Information
Systems and Technologies. Procedia Technology 16, 11161125.
10 Fellows, R. (2003). Professionalism in construction: Culture and ethics. CIB TG 23
International Conference, October 2003, Hong Kong.
Fewings, P. (2005). Construction project management: An integrated approach. USA and
Canada: Taylor & Francis.
Hwang, B. G. & Lim, E. S. J. (2013). Critical success factors for key project players and
objectives: Case study of Singapore. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management,
139(2), 204215.
Igbokwe-Ibeto, C. J. (2012). Issues and challenges in local government project monitoring and
evaluation in Nigeria: The way forward. European Scientific Journal, 8(18).
Ile, I. U. , Eresia-Eke, C. & Allen-Ile, C. (2012). Monitoring and evaluation of policies,
programmes and projects. Hatfield, Pretoria: Van Schaik.
Johnson, D. G. (1991). Ethical issues in engineering. New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall.
Kim, S. , Kim, J. D. , Shin, Y. & Kim, G. H. (2015). Cultural differences in motivation factors
influencing the management of foreign laborers in the Korean construction industry.
International Journal of Project Management, 33(7), 15341547.
doi:10.1016/j.ijproman.2015.05.002
Lpez Trigal, L. (2015). Dictionary of applied and professional Geography. Territory analysis,
planning and management terminology. Leon, Spain: University of Leon.
Martin, M. W. & Schinzinger, R. (1996). Ethics in engineering (3rd edn.). New York: McGraw-
Hill.
Mazhar, N. & Arain, F. (2015). Leveraging on work integrated learning to enhance sustainable
design practices in the construction industry. International Conference on Sustainable Design,
Engineering and Construction, Procedia Engineering, 118, 434441.
Mirza, M. N. , Pourzolfaghar, Z. & Shahnazari, M. (2013). Significance of scope in project
success. Procedia Technology, 9, 722729. doi:10.1016/j.protcy.2013.12.080
Myeda, N.E. and Pitt, M. (2012). Understanding the performance measurement system (PMS)
for facilities management (FM) industry in Malaysia. PMA 2012 Conference, Cambridge.
Olawumi, T. O. & Chan D. W. M. (2019). Building information modelling and project information
management framework for construction projects. Journal of Civil Engineering and
Management, ISSN 1392-3730/eISSN 1822-3605, 25(1), 5375.
https://doi.org/10.3846/jcem.2019.7841
Olatunji, S. O. , Olawumi, T. O. , & Ogunsemi, D. R. (2016). Demystifying Issues Regarding
Public Private Partnerships (PPP). Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development - The
International Institute for Science, Technology, and Education (IISTE), 7(11), 122
Olawumi, T. O. , & Ayegun, O. A. (2016). Are quantity surveyors competent to value for civil
engineering works? Evaluating QSs' competencies and militating factors. Journal of Education
and Practice, 7(16), 116.
Olawumi, T.O. , Akinrata, E.B. , & Arijeloye, B.T. (2016). Value Management- Creating
Functional Value for Construction Projects: An Exploratory Study. World Scientific News, WSN,
54, 4059.
Pinto, J. K. & Slevin, D. P. (1988). Project success: Definitions and measurement techniques.
Project Management Journal, 19(1), 6773.
Project Management Institute (PMI) (2013). Managing change in organizations: A practice
guide. UK: PMI.
Rahschulte, T. J. & Milhauser, K. (2010). Beyond triple constraints  Nine elements defining
project success. In: Project Management Institute. North America, Washington, DC. Newtown
Square, PA: Project Management Institute.
11 Rosenthal, R. , Rosnow, R. L. (1991). Essentials of behavioral research: Methods and data
analysis (2nd edn.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
Sampaio, A. Z. (2015). The introduction of the BIM concept in civil engineering curriculum.
International Journal of Engineering Education, 31(1B), 302315.
Tengan, C. & Aigbavboa, C. (2016). Evaluating barriers to effective implementation of project
monitoring and evaluation in the Ghanaian construction industry. Creative Construction
Conference 2016 (CCC 2016) , 2528 June 2016, Procedia Engineering, 164 (2016), 389394,
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
Tengan, C. & Aigbavboa, C. (2018). The role of monitoring and evaluation in construction
project management. In: W. Karwowski and T. Ahram (eds.). Intelligent Human Systems
Integration, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 722, 571582. California, USA:
Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73888-8_89
Vee, C. & Skitmore, M. (2003). Professional ethics in the construction industry. Engineering,
Construction and Architectural Management, 10(2), 117127. doi:10.1108/09699980310466596
Zhao, L. , Mbachu, J. & Domingo, N. (2017). Exploratory factors influencing building
development costs in New Zealand using SEM. doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0187.v1.
Overview of project monitoring and evaluation research
Al-Jibouri, S. H. (2003). Monitoring systems and their effectiveness for project cost control in
construction. International Journal of Project Management, 21(2), pp. 145154.
Auriacombe, C. (2013). In search of an analytical valuation framework to meet the needs of
government. Journal of Public Administration, 48(4.1), pp. 715729.
Badom, L. N. (2016). Project monitoring and evaluation: A critical factor in budget
implementation, infrastucture development and sustainability. In: Nigerian Institute of Quantity
Surveyors' National Workshop with the Theme: Budgeting and Capital Project Monitoring and
Evaluation in an Era of Change at Precious Conference Centre, Benue Hotels, Makurdi, Benue
State, Nigeria on 27th - 28th July, 2016
Bamberger, M. , Rao, V. & Woolcock, M. (2010). Using mixed methods in monitoring and
evaluation: experiences from international development. The University of Manchester: Brooks
world poverty Institute, BWPI Working Paper 107
Bamberger, M. & Hewitt, E. (1986). Monitoring and evaluating urban development programs: A
handbook for program managers and researchers. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Barasa, R. M. (2014). Influence of monitoring and evaluation tools on project completion in
Kenya: A case of Constituency Development Fund projects in Kakamega County, Kenya.
Kenya: University of Nairobi.
Barraza, G. A. , Back, W. E. & Mata, F. (2000). Probabilistic monitoring of project performance
using SS-Surve. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 126(2), pp. 142148.
Basheka, B. C. & Byamugisha, A. (2015). The state of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) as a
discipline in Africa. African Journal of Public Affairs, 8(3), pp. 7595.
Calder, J. (2013). Programme evaluation and quality: A comprehensive guide to setting up an
evaluation system. London: Routledge.
Cameron, J. (1993). The challenges for monitoring and evaluation in the 1990s. Project
Appraisal, 8(2), pp. 9196, doi:10.1080/02688867.1993.9726893.
Chaplowe, S. G. (2008). Monitoring and evaluation planning: Guidelines and tools. Washington,
DC and Baltimore, MD: Catholic Relief Services.
Cheng, M.-Y. & Chen, J.-C. (2002). Integrating barcode and GIS for monitoring construction
progress. Automation in Construction, 11(1), pp. 2333.
Chin, C. M. M. (2012). Development of a project management methodology for use in a
university-industry collaborative research environment. Nottingham: University of Nottingham.
Chipato, N. (2016). Organisational learning and monitoring and evaluation in project-based
organisations. Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University.
30 Dale, R. (2003). The logical framework: An easy escape, a straitjacket, or a useful planning
tool? Development in Practice, 13(1), pp. 5770, doi:10.1080/0961452022000037982.
Diallo, A. & Thuillier, D. (2005). The success of international development projects, trust and
communication: an African perspective. International Journal of Project Management, 23(3), pp.
237252, doi:10.1016/j.ijproman.2004.10.002.
Elazouni, A. & Salem, O. A. (2011). Progress monitoring of construction projects using pattern
recognition techniques. Construction Management and Economics, 29(4), pp. 355370,
doi:10.1080/01446193.2011.554846.
Frankel, N. & Gage, A. (2007). M&E fundamentals: A self-guided minicourse. Washington D.C.:
U.S. Agency for International Development, MEASURE Evaluation, Inter-agency Gender
Working Group.
Funnell, S. C. & Rogers, P. J. (2011). Purposeful program theory: Effective use of theories of
change and logic models. John Wiley & Sons.
Gage, A. & Dunn, M. (2009). Monitoring and evaluating gender-based violence prevention and
mitigation programs. Washington DC. Galtung, J: US Agency for International Development,
MEASURE Evaluation, Interagency Gender Working Group.
Gudda, P. (2011). A guide to project monitoring & evaluation. United States of America:
AuthorHouse.
Hammond, A. , Adriaanse, A. , Rodenburg, E. , Bryant, D. & Woodward, R. (1995).
Environmental indicators: A systematic approach to measuring and reporting on environmental
policy performance in the context of sustainable development. Washington, DC: World
Resources Institute.
Harris, F. , McCaffer, R. & Edum-Fotwe, F. (2013). Modern Construction Management. Wiley.
ISSBN 9781118510186
Igbokwe-Ibeto, C. J. (2012). Issues and challenges in local government project monitoring and
evaluation in Nigeria: The way forward. European Scientific Journal, 8(18).
Ika, L. A. , Diallo, A. & Thuillier, D. (2012). Critical success factors for World Bank projects: An
empirical investigation. International Journal of Project Management, 30(1), pp. 105116,
doi:10.1016/j.ijproman.2011.03.005.
Ile, I. U. , Eresia-Eke, C. & Allen-Ile, C. (2012). Monitoring and evaluation of policies,
programmes and projects. Hatfield, Pretoria: Van Schaik.
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) . (2011).
Project/programme monitoring and evaluation guide. No. 1000400 E 3,000 08/2011. Geneva:
IFRC.
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) (2009). 12 components monitoring
and evaluation system strengthening tool. Geneva: UNAIDS.
Kamau, C. G. & Mohamed, H. B. (2015). Efficacy of monitoring and evaluation function in
achieving project success in Kenya: A conceptual framework. Science Journal of Business and
Management, 3(3), p. 82, doi:10.11648/j.sjbm.20150303.14
Khamidi, M. F. , Khan, W. A. & Idrus, A. (2011). The cost monitoring of construction projects
through earned value analysis. Presented at the IPEDR International Conference on Economics
and Finance Research, Singapore: IACSIT Press, pp. 124128.
Kim, K. P. & Park, B. L. (2013). BIM feasibility study for housing refurbishment projects in the
UK. Organization, Technology & Management in Construction: An International Journal, 6(2),
pp. 765774, doi:10.5592/otmcj.2013.2.1.
Kumaraswamy, M. M. (1991). Evaluating the management of construction projects.
Kusek, J. Z. & Rist, R. C. (2004). Ten steps to a results-based monitoring and evaluation
system: A handbook for development practitioners. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Larson, S. & Williams, L. J. (2009). Monitoring the success of stakeholder engagement:
Literature review. People, communities and economies of the Lake Eyre Basin, pp. 251298.
31 Li, H. , Chen, Z. , Yong, L. & Kong, S. C. W. (2005). Application of integrated GPS and GIS
technology for reducing construction waste and improving construction efficiency. Automation in
Construction, 14(3), pp. 323331, doi:10.1016/j.autcon.2004.08.007.
Mosse, R. & Sontheimer, L. E. (1996). Performance monitoring indicators handbook.
Washington, DC.
Mulandi, N. M. (2013). Factors influencing performance of monitoring and evaluation systems of
Non-governmental organizations in governance: A case of Nairobi, Kenya. University of Nairobi.
Muriithi, N. & Crawford, L. (2003). Approaches to project management in Africa: Implications for
international development projects. International Journal of Project Management, 21(5), pp.
309319, doi:10.1016/S0263-7863(02)00048-0.
Mwangu, A. W. & Iravo, M. A. (2015). How monitoring and evaluation affects the outcome of
Constituency Development Fund projects in Kenya: A case study of projects in Gatanga
Constituency. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences,
5(3), doi:10.6007/IJARBSS/v5-i3/1491.
Nassar, K. M. , Gunnarsson, H. G. & Hegab, M. Y. (2005). Using Weibull analysis for evaluation
of cost and schedule performance. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management,
131(12), pp. 12571262.
Njama, A. W. (2015). Determinants of effectiveness of a monitoring and evaluation system for
projects: A case of Amref Kenya WASH programme. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.
Otieno, F. A. O. (2000). The roles of monitoring and evaluation in projects. In: 2nd International
Conference on Construction in Developing Countries: Challenges Facing the Construction
Industry in Developing Countries , pp. 1517.
Omonyo, A. B. (2015). Lectures in project monitoring & evaluation for professional practitioners.
Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing.
Papke-Shields, K. E. , Beise, C. & Quan, J. (2010). Do project managers practice what they
preach, and does it matter to project success? International Journal of Project Management,
28(7), pp. 650662, doi:10.1016/j.ijproman.2009.11.002
Patton, M. Q. (2003). Inquiry into appreciative evaluation. New Directions for Evaluation,
2003(100), pp. 8598.
Poku, S. E. & Arditi, D. (2006). Construction scheduling and progress control using
geographical information systems. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 20(5), pp.
351360.
Pramod, M. , Phaniraj, K. & Srinivasan, V. (2014). Monitoring system for project cost control in
construction industry. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, 3(7), pp.
14871491.
Prennushi, G. , Rubio, G. & Subbarao, K. (2001). Monitoring and evaluation. World Bank PRSP
Sourcebook, pp. 105130.
Project Management Institute (PMI) . (2013). Managing change in organizations: A practice
guide. UK: PMI.
Roche, C. (1999). Impact assessment for development agencies: Learning to value change.
Oxfam GB.
Rugg, D. (2010). An introduction to indicators. UNAIDS Monitoring and Evaluation
Fundamentals.
Sacks, R. , Navon, R. & Goldschmidt, E. (2003). Building project model support for automated
labor monitoring. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 17(1), pp. 1927.
Sacks, R. , Navon, R. , Brodetskaia, I. & Shapira, A. (2005). Feasibility of automated monitoring
of lifting equipment in support of project control. Journal of Construction Engineering and
Management, 131(5), pp. 604614.
32 Seasons, M. (2003). Monitoring and evaluation in municipal planning: Considering the
Realities. Journal of the American Planning Association, 69(4).
Schiavo-Campo, S. (1999). Strengthening performance in public expenditure management.
Asian Review of Public Administration, 11(2), pp. 2344.
Spaulding, D. T. (2014). Program evaluation in practice: Core concepts and examples for
discussion and analysis, 2nd edition. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass.
Stufflebeam, D. L. (2003). The CIPP model for evaluation. In: International handbook of
educational evaluation. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 3162.
Stufflebeam, D. L. & Coryn, C. L. S. (2014). Evaluation theory, models & applications 2nd
edition. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Stufflebeam, D. L. , Madaus, G. F. & Kellaghan, T. (Eds). (2000). Evaluation models:
Viewpoints on educational and human services evaluation 2nd edition. Springer Netherlands.
Stufflebeam, D. L. & Shinkfield, A. J. (2007). Evaluation theory, models, and applications. San
Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass.
Tache, F. (2011). Developing an integrated monitoring and evaluation flow for sustainable
investment projects. Economia. Seria Management, 14(2), pp. 380391.
Tengan, C. & Aigbavboa, C. (2016). Evaluating barriers to effective implementation of project
monitoring and evaluation in the Ghanaian construction industry. Procedia Engineering, 164,
pp. 389394, doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2016.11.635.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) . (2009). Handbook on planning, monitoring
and evaluation for development results. New York, USA:.UNDP.
Yadhukrishnan, A.V. & Shetty, A. (2015). A review on GIS-based construction project
management. International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and
Technology, 2(6), pp. 137141.
Yeh, A. G. & Li, X. (1997). An integrated remote sensing and GIS approach in the monitoring
and evaluation of rapid urban growth for sustainable development in the Pearl River Delta,
China. International Planning Studies, 2(2), pp. 193210, doi:10.1080/13563479708721678.
Monitoring and evaluation system and framework
Al-Otaibi, M. (2011). Evaluation of contractor performance for pre-selection in the Kingdom of
Saudi Arabia. PhD Thesis. UK: Loughborough University.
Barasa, R. M. (2014). Influence of monitoring and evaluation tools on project completion in
Kenya: A case of Constituency Development Fund projects in Kakamega County, Kenya.
University of Nairobi, Kenya.
Briceo, G. (2010). Defining the type of M&E system: Client, intended users, and actual
utilisation. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications.
Chaplowe, S. G. (2008). Monitoring and evaluation planning: Guidelines and tools. Washington,
DC and Baltimore, MD: Catholic Relief Services.
Crawford, P. & Bryce, P. (2003). Project monitoring and evaluation: A method for enhancing the
efficiency and effectiveness of aid project implementation. International Journal of Project
Management, 21(5), pp. 363373, doi:10.1016/S0263-7863(02)00060-1
Frankel, N. & Gage, A. (2007). M&E fundamentals: A self-guided minicourse. MEASURE
evaluation, Interagency Gender Working Group, Washington D.C.: U.S Agency for International
Development.
Gage, A. & Dunn, M. (2009). Monitoring and evaluating gender-based violence prevention and
mitigation programs. MEASURE Evaluation, Inter-agency Gender Working Group. Washington
DC: US Agency for International Development.
Grgens, M. & Kusek, J. Z. (2009). Making monitoring and evaluation systems work  A capacity
development toolkit. Washington: World Bank.
Gudda, P. (2011). A guide to project monitoring & evaluation. United States of America:
AuthorHouse.
Guijt, I. & Woodhill, J. (2002). Managing for impact in rural development: A guide for project
M&E. IFAD: Office of Evaluation and Studies (OE).
Hardlife, Z. & Zhou, G. (2013). Utilisation of monitoring and evaluation systems by development
agencies: The case of the UNDP in Zimbabwe. American International Journal of Contemporary
Research, 3(3), pp. 7083.
49 Ile, I. U. , Eresia-Eke, C. & Allen-Ile, C. (2012). Monitoring and evaluation of policies,
programmes and projects. Hatfield, Pretoria: Van Schaik.
Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) . (2012). Designing a result framework for achieving
results: A how-to guide. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) . (2013). Assessing the country office monitoring and
evaluation system. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Kerzner, H. (2017). Project management: A systems approach to planning, scheduling, and
controlling. John Wiley & Sons Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey
Kusek, J. Z. & Rist, R. C. (2004). Ten steps to a results-based monitoring and evaluation
system: A handbook for development practitioners. Washington, DC: World Bank.
McDonald, K. M. , Sundaram, V. , Bravata, D. M. , Lewis, R. , Lin, N. , Kraft, S. A. , McKinnon,
M. , Paguntalan, H. & Owens, D. K. (2007). Conceptual frameworks and their application to
evaluating care coordination interventions. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and
Quality (US). No. 9.
Motingoe, R. S. (2012). Monitoring and evaluation system utilization for municipal support. PhD
Thesis, NorthWest University, South Africa.
Mtshali, Z. (2015). A review of the monitoring and evaluation systems to monitor the
implementation of early childhood development within Gauteng Department of Health. Master's
dissertation. Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University.
Njama, A. W. (2015). Determinants of effectiveness of a monitoring and evaluation system for
projects: A case of Amref Kenya WASH programme. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.
Omonyo, A. B. (2015). Lectures in project monitoring & evaluation for professional practitioners.
Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing.
Routledge (2015). Routledge handbook of higher education for sustainable development. New
York: Routledge.
Sharma, R. (2010). Challenges in monitoring and evaluation: An opportunity to consolidate the
M&E systems. In: Challenges in Monitoring and Evaluation: An Opportunity to Institutionalize
M&E Systems. Presented at the Fifth Conference of the Latin America and the Caribbean
Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Network. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
Stem, C. , Margoluis, R. , Salafsky, N. & Brown, M. (2005). Monitoring and evaluation in
conservation: A review of trends and approaches. Conservation Biology, 19(2), pp. 295309.
Taplin, D. H. & Clark, H. (2012). Theory of change basics. A primer on theory of change. New
York: ActKnowledge.
Taplin, D. H. , Clark, H. , Collins, E. & Colby, D. C. (2013). Theory of change. New York: Center
for Human Environments.
Tengan, C. , Aigbavboa, C. O. & Oke, A. E. (2018). Evaluation of UFPA quality assessment
criteria for monitoring and evaluation system in the Ghanaian construction industry. African
Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, pp. 15,
doi:10.1080/20421338.2017.1423008
Umhlaba Development Services (2017). Introduction to monitoring and evaluation using the
logical framework approach. Johannesburg, South Africa: Umhlaba Development Services.
UNAIDS (2009). 12 Components monitoring and evaluation system assessment. Joint United
Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva
United Nations (UN) (2013). Ending Violence against Women and Girls Programing Essentials.
United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women.
50 United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2009). Handbook on planning, monitoring
and evaluation for development results. New York, USA: UNDP.
United States Agency International Development (USAID) (2013). Developing Results
Framework. Version 1. Technical Report. Bureau for Policy, Planning and Learning
World Bank (2004). Monitoring & evaluation: Some tools, methods and approaches.
Washington, D.C.: Operations Evaluation Department (OED).
World Bank (2013). Results framework and M&E guidance note. Washington, DC: World Bank
Theories of monitoring and evaluation
62 Alkin, M. C. & Christie, C. A. (2004). An evaluation theory tree. In: Evaluation roots: Tracing
theorists' views and influences. SAGE Publications, pp. 1265.
Berssaneti, F. T. & Carvalho, M. M. (2015). Identification of variables that impact project
success in Brazilian companies. International Journal of Project Management, 33(3), pp.
638649, doi:10.1016/j.ijproman.2014.07.002
Cameron, J. (1993). The challenges for monitoring and evaluation in the 1990s. Project
Appraisal, 8(2), pp. 9196, doi:10.1080/02688867.1993.9726893
Carden, F. & Alkin, M. C. (2012). Evaluation roots: An international perspective. Journal of
MultiDisciplinary Evaluation, 8(17), pp. 102118.
Christie, C. A. & Alkin, M. C. (2013). An evaluation theory tree. In: Alkin, C. M. (ed.). Evaluation
roots: A wider perspective of theorists' views and influences. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE
Publications.
Donaldson, L. (2001). Reflections on knowledge and knowledge-intensive firms. Human
Relations, 54(7), pp. 955963, doi:10.1177/0018726701547008.Donaldson, 2012
Ika, L. A. , Diallo, A. & Thuillier, D. (2012). Critical success factors for World Bank projects: An
empirical investigation. International Journal of Project Management, 30(1), pp. 105116,
doi:10.1016/j.ijproman.2011.03.005
James, C. (2011). Theory of change review. a report commissioned by Comic Relief;
http://mande.co.uk/2012/uncategorized/comic-relief-theory-of-change-review/.
Jones, N. et al. (2009). Improving Impact Evaluation Coordination and Use. A scoping study
commissioned by the DFID Evaluation Department on behalf of NONIE
(www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/3177.pdf). Retrieved 25th June 2018.
Kamau, C. G. & Mohamed, H. B. (2015). Efficacy of monitoring and evaluation function in
achieving project success in Kenya: A conceptual framework. Science Journal of Business and
Management, 3(3), p. 82, doi:10.11648/j.sjbm.20150303.14
Katz, I. , Newton, B. J. , Shona, B. & Raven, M. (2016). Evaluation theories and approaches;
relevance for Aboriginal contexts.
Kibebe, L. W. & Mwirigi, P. W. (2014). Selected factors influencing effective implementation of
Constituency Development Fund (CDF) projects in Kimilili Constituency, Bungoma County,
Kenya. International Journal of Science and Research, 3(1), pp. 4448.
McClintock, C. (1990). Administrators as applied theorists. New Directions for Program
Evaluation, 1990(47), pp. 1933, doi:10.1002/ev.1552
McCoy, K. L. Ngari, P. N. & Krumpe, E. E. (2005). Building monitoring, evaluation and reporting
systems for HIV/AIDS programs. Washington, D.C.: Pact.
Mertens, D. M. & Wilson, A. T. (2012). Program evaluation theory and practice. A
comprehensive guide. New York: Guildford Press.
Musomba, K. S. , Kerongo, F. M. , Mutua, N. M. & Kilika, S. (2013). Factors affecting the
effectiveness of monitoring and evaluation of constituency development fund projects in
Changamwe Constituency, Kenya. Journal of International Academic Research for
Multidisciplinary, 1(8), pp. 175216.
Omonyo, A. B. (2015). Lectures in project monitoring & evaluation for professional practitioners.
Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing.
Papke-Shields, K. E. , Beise, C. & Quan, J. (2010). Do project managers practice what they
preach, and does it matter to project success? International Journal of Project Management,
28(7), pp. 650662, doi:10.1016/j.ijproman.2009.11.002
Passia , (2006). Civil Society Empowerment: Monitoring and Evaluation. Retrieved on 4thJune
2017 from: www.passia.org/seminars/2002/monitoring.htm.
63 Patton, M. Q. (2008). Utilization-focused evaluation, 4th edition. New York: Sage.
Prabhakar, G. P. (2008). Projects and their management: A literature review. International
Journal of Business and Management, 3(8), pp. 39.
Rogers, P. (2008). Using programme theory to evaluate complicated and complex aspects of
interventions. Evaluation, 14(1), pp. 2948, doi:10.1177/1356389007084674
Rogers, P. (2014). Theory of change: Methodological briefs. Florence: UNICEF Office of
Research.
Rossi, P. H. , Lipsey, M. W. & Freeman, H. E. (2003). Evaluation: A systematic approach, 7th
edition. Thousand Oaks. CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Shadish, W. R. (1998). Presidential address: Evaluation theory is who we are. American Journal
of Evaluation, 19, pp. 119.
Shadish, W. , Cook, T. & Leviton, L. (1991). Foundations of program evaluation: Theories of
Practice. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Shapiro, J. (2004). Monitoring and Evaluation. Johannesburg: CIVICUS.
Smith, N. L. (1993). Improving evaluation theory through the empirical study of evaluation
practice. Evaluation Practice, 14(3), pp. 237242.
Stein, D. & Valters, C. (2012). Understanding theory of change in international development.
JSRP Paper No. 1.
Stufflebeam, D. L. & Coryn, C. L. S. (2014). Evaluation theory, models & applications, 2nd
edition. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Taplin, D. H. & Clark, H. (2012). Theory of change basics. A Primer on Theory of Change . New
York: ActKnowledge.
Taplin, D. H. , Clark, H. , Collins, E. & Colby, D. C. (2013). Theory of change. New York: Center
for Human Environments.
Tengan, C. & Aigbavboa, C. (2016). Evaluating barriers to effective implementation of project
monitoring and evaluation in the Ghanaian construction industry. Procedia Engineering, 164,
pp. 389394, doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2016.11.635
Uitto, J. (2004). Multi-country cooperation around shared waters: Role of monitoring and
evaluation. Global Environmental Change, 14, pp. 514.
Waithera, L. & Wanyoike, D. M. (2015). Influence of project monitoring and evaluation on
performance of youth funded agribusiness projects in Bahati Sub-County, Nakuru, Kenya.
International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 3(11), pp. 375394.
Weiss, A. (1995). Human capital vs. signalling explanations of wages. The Journal of Economic
Perspectives, 9(4), pp. 133154.
Weiss, C. H. (2004). On theory-based evaluation: Winning friends and influencing people. The
Evaluation Exchange, 9(4), 23.
Monitoring and evaluation models
Gabriel, K. (2013). A conceptual model for a programme monitoring and evaluation information
system. Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University.
Hogan, R. L. (2010). The historical development of program evaluation: Exploring past and
present. Online Journal for Workforce Education and Development, 2(4), p. 5.
Mathews, J. M. & Hudson, A. M. (2001). Guidelines for evaluating parent training programs.
Family Relations, 50(1), 7787.
Omonyo, A. B. (2015). Lectures in project monitoring & evaluation for professional practitioners.
Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing.
Stufflebeam, D. L. (2003). The CIPP model for evaluation. In: International handbook of
educational evaluation, pp. 3162. Dordrecht: Springer.
Stufflebeam, D. L. & Shinkfield, A. J. (2007). Evaluation theory, models, and applications. San
Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Stufflebeam, D. L. , Madaus, G. F. & Kellaghan, T. (eds.). (2000). Evaluation models:
Viewpoints on educational and human services evaluation (2nd edn.). Netherlands: Springer
Netherlands.
Vedung, Evert , 1997, Public Policy and Program Evaluation, 209245, Piscataway, NJ and
London: Transaction.
Worthen, B.R. , Sanders, J. R. & Fitzpatrick, J. L. (2004). Educational evaluation: Alternative
approaches and practical guidelines (3rd edn.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Zhang, G. , Zeller, N. , Griffith, R. , Metcalf, D. , Williams, J. , Shea, C. & Misulis, K. (2011).
Using the context, input, process, and product evaluation model (CIPP) as a comprehensive
framework to guide the planning, implementation, and assessment of service-learning
programs. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 15(4), pp. 5784.
Conceptual IME model for construction project delivery
Bissio, R. (2007). Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness: Application of the Criteria for Periodic
Evaluation of Global Development partnerships  As Defined in Millennium Development Goal 8 
From the Right to Development Perspective: the Paris Declaration on Aid
Effectiveness(Geneva: Human Rights Council).
Bourne, L. (2010). Why is stakeholder management so difficult? In: Congresso International.
Colombia: Universidad Ean Bogota.
Crawford, P. & Bryce, P. (2003). Project monitoring and evaluation: A method for enhancing the
efficiency and effectiveness of aid project implementation. International Journal of Project
Management, 21(5), pp. 363373, doi:10.1016/S0263-7863(02)00060-1
Driskell, J. E. (2012). Effectiveness of deception detection training: A meta-analysis.
Psychology, Crime & Law, 18(8), pp. 713731, doi:10.1080/1068316X.2010.535820
Elias, A. A. & Cavana, R. Y. (2000). Stakeholder analysis for systems thinking and modeling. In:
Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand . Conference Paper.
Eyiah-Botwe, E. , Aigbavboa, C. & Thwala, W. D. (2016). Mega construction projects: Using
stakeholder management for enhanced sustainable construction. American Journal of
Engineering Research, 5(5), pp. 8086.
Frankel, N. & Gage, A. (2007). M&E fundamentals: A self-guided minicourse. MEASURE
evaluation, Inter-agency Gender Working Group, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Agency for
International Development.
Freeman, R. E. (2004). The stakeholder approach revisited. Zeitschrift fr Wirtschafts-und
Unternehmensethik, 5(3), pp. 228241.
Freeman, R. E. , Harrison, J. S. , Wicks, A. C. , Parmar, B. L. & De Colle, S. (2010).
Stakeholder theory: The state of the art. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.
Hardlife, Z. & Zhou, G. (2013). Utilisation of Monitoring and Evaluation Systems by
Development Agencies: The Case of the UNDP in Zimbabwe. American International Journal of
Contemporary Research, 3(3), pp. 7083.
Hermans, F. L. P. , Haarmann, W. M. F. & Dagevos, J. F. L. M. M. (2011). Evaluation of
stakeholder participation in monitoring regional sustainable development. Regional
Environmental Change, 11(4), pp. 805815, doi:10.1007/s10113-011-0216-y
Hrisch, J. , Freeman, R. E. & Schaltegger, S. (2014). Applying stakeholder theory in
sustainability management: Links, similarities, dissimilarities, and a conceptual framework.
Organization & Environment, 27(4), pp. 328346.
Hwang, B. G. & Lim, E. S. J. (2013). Critical success factors for key project players and
objectives: Case study of Singapore. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management,
139(2), pp. 204215.
Kamau, C. G. & Mohamed, H. B. (2015). Efficacy of monitoring and evaluation function in
achieving project success in Kenya: A conceptual framework. Science Journal of Business and
Management, 3(3), p. 82, doi:10.11648/j.sjbm.20150303.14
Kimani, R. N. (2014). The effect of budgetary control on effectiveness of non-government
organisations in Kenya. Kenya: School of Business, University of Nairobi.
82 Kimweli, J. M. (2013). The role of monitoring and evaluation practices to the success of
donor funded food security intervention projects: A case study of Kibwezi District. International
Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 3(6), p. 9.
Kontoghiorghes, C. (2001). Factors affecting training effectiveness in the context of the
introduction of new technology  A US case study. International Journal of Training and
Development, 5(4), pp. 248260, doi:10.1111/1468-2419.00137
Magondu, A. (2013). Factors influencing implementation of monitoring and evaluation in HIV
research projects: A case of Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative (KAVI). Thesis. Kenya: University of
Nairobi.
Mugambi, F. & Kanda, E. (2013). Determinants of effective monitoring and evaluation of
strategy implementation of community-based projects. International Journal of Innovative
Research and Development, 2(11) pp 6773
Mugo, P. M. & Oleche, M. O. (2015). Monitoring and evaluation of development projects and
economic growth in Kenya. International Journal of Novel Research in Humanity and Social
Sciences, 2(6), pp. 5263.
Muiga, M. I. J. (2015). Factors influencing the use of monitoring and evaluation systems of
public projects in Nakuru County. Kenya: University of Nairobi.
Mulandi, N. M. (2013). Factors influencing performance of monitoring and evaluation systems of
Non-governmental organizations in governance: A case of Nairobi, Kenya. University of Nairobi.
Musomba, K. S. , Kerongo, F. M. , Mutua, N. M. & Kilika, S. (2013). Factors affecting the
effectiveness of monitoring and evaluation of constituency development fund projects in
Changamwe Constituency, Kenya. Journal of International Academic Research for
Multidisciplinary, 1(8), pp. 175216.
Mwangi, J. K. , Nyang'wara, B. M. & Ole Kulet, J. L. (2015). Factors affecting the effectiveness
of monitoring and evaluation of Constituency Development Fund projects in Kenya: A case of
Laikipia West Constituency. Journal of Economics and Finance, 6(1), pp. 7487.
Mwangu, A. W. & Iravo, M. A. (2015). How monitoring and evaluation affects the outcome of
Constituency Development Fund projects in Kenya: A case study of projects in Gatanga
Constituency. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences,
5(3), doi:10.6007/IJARBSS/v5-i3/1491.
Naidoo, I. A. (2011). Governance in South Africa: A case study of the Department of Social
Development. PhD Thesis. Johannesburg: University of Witwatersrand.
Ogolla, F. & Moronge, M. (2016). Determinants of effective monitoring and evaluation of
government funded water projects in Kenya: A case of Nairobi County. Strategic Journal of
Business & Change Management, 3(1).329358
Oloo, D. O. (2011). Factors affecting the effectiveness of monitoring and evaluation of
constituency development fund projects in Likoni Constituency, Kenya. Kenya: University of
Nairobi.
Otieno Okello, L. (2015). Determinants of effective monitoring and evaluation system of public
health programs: A case study of school-based hand washing program in Kwale County, Kenya.
International Journal of Economics, Finance and Management Sciences, 3(3), p. 235,
doi:10.11648/j.ijefm.20150303.20
Otoo, S. , Agapitova, N. & Behrens, J. (2009). The capacity development results framework: A
strategic and results-oriented approach to learning for capacity development. Washington, D.C.,
U.S.A.: The World Bank Institute.
Patton, M. Q. (2010). Developmental evaluation: Applying complexity concepts to enhance
innovation and use. New York: The Guilford Press.
83 Project Management Institute (PMI) . (2010). A guide on how to select a project
management consultant. UK: PMI.
Punia, B. & Kant, S. (2013). A review of factors affecting training effectiveness vis-a-vis
managerial implications and future research directions. International Journal of Advanced
Research in Management and Social Sciences, 2(1).151164
Ruwa, M. C. (2016). The influence of stakeholder participation on the performance of donor
funded projects: A case of Kinango Integrated Food Security and Livelihood Project (KIFSLP),
Kwale County, Kenya. Master's dissertation. Kenya: University of Nairobi.
Seasons, M. (2003). Monitoring and evaluation in municipal planning: Considering the Realities.
Journal of the American Planning Association, 69(4)430440
Subijanto, T. W. , Ruritan, H. , Raymond Valiant & Hidayat, F. (2013). Key success factors for
capacity development in the Brantas River Basin organisations in Indonesia. Water Policy,
15(S2), p. 183, doi:10.2166/wp.2013.019
Taplin, D. H. , Clark, H. , Collins, E. & Colby, D. C. (2013). Theory of change. New York: Center
for Human Environments. Technical Papers.
Tengan, C. & Aigbavboa, C. (2016). Evaluating barriers to effective implementation of project
monitoring and evaluation in the Ghanaian construction industry. Procedia Engineering, 164,
pp. 389394, doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2016.11.635
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) . (2009). Handbook on planning, monitoring
and evaluation for development results. New York, USA: UNDP.
Waithera, L. & Wanyoike, D. M. (2015). Influence of project monitoring and evaluation on
performance of youth funded agribusiness projects in Bahati Sub-County, Nakuru, Kenya.
International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 3(11), pp. 375394.84
Aspects of communication in monitoring and evaluation
Adler, N. J. (2003). Communicating across cultural barriers. Interkulturelle Kommunikation:
Texteund bungen zum interkulturellen Handeln. Sternenfels: Wissenschaft & Praxis, pp.
247276.
Al-Fedaghi, S. , Alsaqa, A. & Fadel, Z. (2009). Conceptual model for communication.
International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, 6(2), pp. 2941.
Ballan, S. & El-Diraby, T. E. (2011). A value map for communication systems in construction.
Journal of Information Technology in Construction (ITcon), 16, pp. 745760.
Bohn, J. S. & Teizer, J. (2009). Benefits and barriers of construction project monitoring using
high-resolution automated cameras. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management,
136(6), pp. 632640.
Bosche, F. N. & Haas, C. T. (2008). Automated retrieval of project three-dimensional CAD
objects in range point clouds to support automated dimensional QA/QC. ITcon, 13, p. 16.
Bruce, K. (2013). Use of mobile technology for monitoring and evaluation in international health
and development programs. ProQuest LLC. Available online at: http://www.proquest.com/en-
US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.
Corcoran, N. (2007). Theories and models in communicating health messages. Communicating
health: Strategies for health promotion, pp. 531.
Cui, C. , Liu, Y. , Hope, A. & Wang, J. (2018). Review of studies on the publicprivate
partnerships (PPP) for infrastructure projects. International Journal of Project Management,
36(5), pp. 773794.
Dainty, A. , Moore, D. & Murray, M. (2006). Communication in construction-theory and practice.
Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Taylor & Francis.
103 Delisle, C. L. & Olson, D. (2004). Would the real project management language please
stand up? International Journal of Project Management, 22(4), pp. 327337, doi:10.1016/S0263-
7863(03)00072-3
Ean, L. C. (2011). Computer-mediated communication and organisational communication: The
use of new communication technology in the workplace. The Journal of the South-East Asia
Research Centre for Communication and Humanities, 3, pp. 112.
Emmitt, S. & Gorse, C. A. (2007). Communication in construction teams. London: Taylor &
Francis.
Goh, K. , Goh, H. , Toh, S. & Peniel Ang, S. (2014). Enhancing communication in construction
industry through BIM. Presented at the 11th International Conference on Innovation &
Management.
Goulden, N. (1992). Theory and vocabulary for communication assessments. Communication
Education, 41(3), pp. 258269.
Hoezen, M. E. L. , Reymen, I. & Dewulf, G. P. (2006). The problem of communication in
construction The Netherlands: University of Twente.
Hoezen, M. , Rutten, J. V. , Voordijk, H. & Dewulf, G. (2010). Towards better customized
service-led contracts through the competitive dialogue procedure. Construction Management
and Economics, 28(11), pp. 11771186.
Hovland, C. , Janis, I. & Kelley, H. H. (1953). Communication and persuasion: Psychological
studies of opinion change. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Husain, Z. (2013). Effective communication brings successful organizational change. The
Business & Management Review, 3(2), p. 43.
Jablin, F. & Sias, P. (2001). Communication competence. In: Jablin, F. and Putnam, L. (Eds.).
The new handbook of organizational communication. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Jaselskis, E. J. & Gao, Z. (2003). Pilot study on laser-scanning technology for transportation
projects. Presented at the Mid-Continent Transportation Research Symposium. Ames, Iowa:
Iowa State University.
Klynveld Peat Marwick Goerdele (KPMG) (2014). Effective reporting for construction projects:
increasing the likelihood of project success. Project Advisory.
Kwofie, T. E. , Aigbavboa, C. O. & Thwala, W. D. (2019). Communication performance
challenges in PPP projects: Cases of Ghana and South Africa. Built Environment Project and
Asset Management, 9(5), pp. 628641.
Lasswell, H. D. (1948). The structure and function of communication in society. In L.
Bryson(Ed.), The communication of ideas: A series of addresses (pp. 3751). New York, NY:
Institute for Religious and Social Studies.
Liu, Y. (2009). Critical factors for managing project team communication at the construction
stage . Ph.D. Thesis. Submitted to the Polytechnic University of Hong Kong.
Lohiya, G. (2010). Team building in project management practice in the UAE construction
industry.
Lytle, A. M. & Saidi, K. S. (2007). NIST research in autonomous construction. Autonomous
Robots, 22(3), pp. 211221, doi:10.1007/s10514-006-9003-x
Mugambi, F. & Kanda, E. (2013). Determinants of effective monitoring and evaluation of
strategy implementation of community-based projects. International Journal of Innovative
Research and Development, 2(11).
Murray, M. , Tookey, J. , Langford, D. & Hardcastle, C. (2000). Project communication
variables: A comparative study of US and UK industry perceptions.
Navon, R. (2008). Automated productivity control of labor and road construction. Presented at
the 25th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction. Vilnius,
Lithuania: Vilnius Gediminas Technical University Publishing House Technika, pp. 2932.
104 Njama, A. W. (2015). Determinants of effectiveness of a monitoring and evaluation system
for projects: A case of Amref Kenya WASH programme. Kenya: University of Nairobi.
Norouzi, N. , Shabak, M. , Embi, M. R. B. & Khan, T. H. (2015). The architect, the client and
effective communication in architectural design practice. Procedia  Social and Behavioral
Sciences, 172, pp. 635642, doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.413
Otieno, F. A. O. (2000). The roles of monitoring and evaluation in projects. In: 2nd International
Conference on Construction in Developing Countries: Challenges Facing the Construction
Industry in Developing Countries . pp. 1517.
Otter, A. & Emmitt, S. (2008). Design team communication and design task complexity: The
preference for dialogues. Architectural Engineering and Design Management, 4(2), pp. 121129.
Peansupap, V. & Walker, D. H. (2004). Strategic adoption of information and communication
technology (ICT): Case studies of construction contractors. In: Khosrowshahi, F. (Ed.). 20th
Annual Association of Researchers in Construction Management (ARCOM) Conference.
Edinburgh, Scotland: Heriot-Watt University, pp. 12351245.
Perumal, V. R. & Abu Bakar, A. H. (2011). The needs for standardization of documents towards
an efficient communication in the construction industry. World Applied Science Journal, 12(9),
pp. 19881995.
Pietroforte, R. (1997). Communication and governance in the building process. Construction
Management and Economics, 15(1), pp. 7182, doi:10.1080/014461997373123
Poku, S. E. & Arditi, D. (2006). Construction scheduling and progress control using
geographical information systems. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 20(5), pp.
351360.
Popple, G. W. & Towndrow, S. P. (1994). Communication for the construction industry. BT
Technology Journal, 13(3), pp. 4550.
Raftree, L. & Bamberger, M. (2014). Emerging opportunities: Monitoring and evaluation in a
tech-enabled world.
Schramm, W. (1954). How communication works. In: W. Scramm , (Ed.), The Process and
Effects of Mass Communication (pp. 326). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Senior, B. A. & Swanberg-Mee, A. (1997). Activity analysis using computer-processed time
lapse video: Proceedings of the congress, Minneapolis, Minnesota, October 48, 1997. In:
Managing Engineered Construction in Expanding Global Markets. Presented at the
Construction Congress, Reston, Va: ASCE, pp. 462469.
Sepasgozar, S. M. & Bernold, L. E. (2013). Factors influencing construction technology
adoption. In: 19th CIB World Building Congress, Brisbane.
Shannon, C.E. (1948). A mathematical theory of communication. Reprinted with corrections
from The Bell System Technical Journal, 27, 379423, pp. 623656.
Sonnenwald, D. H. (1996). Communication roles that support collaboration during the design
process. Design Studies, 17(3), pp. 277299.
Sunjka, B. P. & Jacob, U. (2013). Significant causes and effects of project delays in the Niger
Delta Region, Nigeria. In: SAIIE25 Proceedings. Stellenbosch, South Africa: SAIIE, pp. 641655.
Teizer, J. , Kim, C. , Haas, C. , Liapi, K. & Caldas, C. (2005). Framework for real-time three-
dimensional modeling of infrastructure. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the
Transportation Research Board, 1913, pp. 177186, doi:10.3141/1913-17
Tengan, C. & Aigbavboa, C. (2016). Evaluating barriers to effective implementation of project
monitoring and evaluation in the Ghanaian construction industry. Procedia Engineering, 164,
pp. 389394, doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2016.11.635
105 Tengan, C. & Aigbavboa, C. (2017). Level of stakeholder engagement and participation in
monitoring and evaluation of construction projects in Ghana. Procedia Engineering, 196, pp.
630637, doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2017.08.051
Thomas, S. R. , Tucker, R. & Kelly, W. (1998). Critical communications variables. Journal of
Construction Engineering Management, 129(1), pp. 5866.
Thomas, S. R. , Tucker, R. & Kelly, W. (1999). Compass: An assessment tool for improving
project team performance. Project Management Journal, 30(4), pp. 1523.
Umhlaba Development Services (2017). Introduction to monitoring and evaluation using the
logical framework approach. Noswal Hall, Braamfontein, Johannesburg, South Africa
Windapo, A. , Odediran, S. & Akintona, R. (2015). Establishing the relationship between
construction project managers' skills and project performance. In: ASC Proceedings of the 51st
Annual Conference.
Xie, C. , Wu, D. , Luo, J. & Hu, X. (2010). A case study of multi-team communications in
construction design under supply chain partnering. Supply Chain Management: An International
Journal, 15(5), pp. 363370.
Perspectives in monitoring and evaluation leadership
Adair, J. (1973). Action-centred leadership. London, New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Akor, P. U. (2014). Influence of autocratic leadership style on the job performance of academic
librarians in Benue State. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 4(7), pp. 148152,
doi:10.5901/jesr.2014.v4n7p148
120 Amanchukwu, R. N. , Stanley, G. J. & Ololube, N. P. (2015). A review of leadership
theories, principles and styles and their relevance to educational management. Management,
5(1), pp. 614.
Archer, M. M. , Verster, J. J. & Zulch, B. G. (2010). Leadership in construction project
management: Ignorance and challenges. In: Proceedings 5th Built Environment Conference.
Presented at the Built Environment Conference, Durban, South Africa.
Ayman, R. & Korabik, K. (2010). Leadership: Why gender and culture matter. American
Psychologist, 65(3), pp. 157170, doi:10.1037/a0018806
Bass, B. M. (1981). Stogdill's handbook of leadership: A survey of theory and research.
(Revised and expanded version.). New York: Free Press.
Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass and Stogdill's handbook of leadership. 3rd Edition. New York: The
Free Press.
Bass, B. M. & Avolio, B. J. (1990). Developing transformational leadership: 1992 and beyond.
Journal of European Industrial Training, 14(5), doi:10.1108/03090599010135122
Batool, B. F. (2013). Emotional intelligence and effective leadership. Journal of Business
Studies Quarterly, 4(3), p. 84.
Bennis, W. G. (1989). On becoming a leader. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Bhatti, N. , Maitlo, G. M. , Shaikh, N. , Hashmi, M. A. & Shaikh, F. M. (2012). The impact of
autocratic and democratic leadership style on job satisfaction. International Business Research,
5(2), doi:10.5539/ibr.v5n2p192
Bikitsha, L. , Mamafha, K. & Ngomane, N. (2014). Understanding the use of emotional
intelligence during the project leadership process: A case of project managers. Journal of
Leadership and Management Studies, 1(1), pp. 516.
Bowden, A. O. (1927). A study on the personality of student leadership in the United States.
Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 21, pp. 149160.
Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper and Row.
Chartered Institute of Building (2008). Leadership in the construction industry. Berkshire, UK:
The Chartered Institute of Building.
Chaudhry, A. Q. & Javed, H. (2012). Impact of transactional and laissez faire leadership style
on motivation. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(7). pp 258264.
Chemers, M. M. (1997). An integrative theory of leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Cherry, K. (2016). The major leadership theories: The eight major theories of leadership.
Available online at: https://www.verywell.com/leadership-theories-2795323 [Accessed 25
August 2017 ].
Choi, S. (2007). Democratic leadership: The lessons of exemplary models for democratic
governance. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 2(3), pp. 243262.
Constantin, D. (2011). Leadership Styles. Defense resources management in the 21st century .
6th International Scientific Conference. December 2nd3rd, 2011, Brasov, Romania.
Eden, D. (1984). Self-fulfilling prophecy as a management tool: Harnessing Pygmalion.
Academy of Management Review, 9, pp. 6473.
Field, R. H. G. (1989). The Sell-Fulfilling Prophecy Leader: Achieving the Metharme Effect,
Journal of Management Studies, 26,15175.
Fiedler, F. E. (1967). A theory of leadership effectiveness. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Fielden, S. L. , Davidson, M. J. , Gale, A. W. , & Davey, C. L. (2000). Women in construction:
The untapped resource. Construction management and economics, 18(1), 113121.
https://doi.org/10.1080/014461900371004
Fleishman, E. A. & Harris, E. F. (1962). Patterns of leadership behaviour related to employee
grievances and turn-over. Personnel Psychology, 15, pp. 4356.
121 France, S. H. (2008). Leadership theories: Toward a relational model. Retrospective Exam,
EXD-66909 for the Ad hoc doctoral programme of Administrative Sciences, Universit Laval,
Qubec.
French, J. R. (1956). A formal theory of social power. Psychological Review, 63, pp. 181194.
Gallon, F. (1869). Hereditary genius. New York: Appleton.
Gardner, J. W. (1990). On Leadership, Free Press, New York, NY.
Gastil, J. (1994). A definition and illustration of democratic leadership. Human Relations, 47(8),
pp. 953975.
Goh Yuan Sheng, V. & Soutar, G. N. (2005). The role of ethical behaviours in the relations
between leadership styles and job performance. ANZMAC 2005 Conference: Corporate
Responsibility .
Griffin, R. W. , Skivington, K. D. & Moorhead, G. (1987). Symbolic and international
perspectives on leadership: An integrative framework. Human Relations, 40, pp. 199218.
Hall-Taylor, B. (1997). The construction of women's management skills and the marginalization
of women in senior management. Women in Management Review, 12(7), pp. 255263,
doi:10.1108/09649429710181225
Hook, S. (1943). The hero in history. New York: John Day.
House, R. J. (1971). A path-goal theory of leader effectiveness. Administrative Science
Quarterly, 16, pp. 321338.
Iqbal, N. , Anwar, S. & Haider, N. (2015). Effect of leadership style on employee performance.
Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 5(5). pp 16.
Jennings, E. E. (1960). An anatomy of leadership. New York: Harper.
Judge, T. A. , Fluegge Woolf, E. , Hurst, C. & Livingston, B. (2006). Charismatic and
transformational leadership: A review and an agenda for future research. Zeitschrift fr Arbeits-
und Organisationspsychologie A&O, 50(4), pp. 203214, doi:10.1026/0932-4089.50.4.203
Kerr, S. & Schriesheim, S. (1974). Consideration, initiating structure, and organizational criteria:
An update of Korman's 1966 review. Personnel Psychology, 27, pp. 555568.
Kerr, S. & Jermier, J. M. (1978). Substitutes for leadership  Their meaning and measurement.
Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance, 18, pp. 329345.
Khan, M. S. , Khan, I. , Qureshi, Q. A. , Ismail, H. M. , Rauf, H. , Latif, A. & Tahir, M. (2015). The
styles of leadership: A critical review. Public Policy and Administration Research, 5(3), pp. 8792.
King, A. S. (1990). Evolution of leadership theory. Vikalpa, 15(2), pp. 4356.
Koech, P. M. & Namusonge, G. (2012). The effect of leadership styles on organizational
performance at state corporations in Kenya. International Journal of Business and Commerce,
2(1), pp. 112.
Kolzow, D. R. (2014). Leading from within: Building organizational leadership capacity.
International Economic Development Council, pp. 1314.
Kuhnert, K. W. & Lewis, P. (1997). Transactional and transformational leadership: A
constructive/developmental analysis. Academy of Management Review, 12(2), pp. 648657.
Kumaraswamy, M. M. (1997). Conflicts, claims and disputes in construction.
Engineering,Construction and Architectural Management , 4(2), pp. 95111,
doi:10.1108/eb021042
Loosemore, M. & Lee, P. (2002). Communication problems with ethnic minorities in the
construction industry. International Journal of Project Management, 20(7), pp. 517524.
Luthra, A. & Dahiya, R. (2015). Effective leadership is all about communicating effectively:
Connecting leadership and communication. International Journal of Management & Business
Studies, 5(3), pp. 4348.
Maslanka, A. M. (2004). Evolution of leadership theories. Allendale, Michigan: Grand Valley
State University.
122 McCall, M. W. (1977). Leadership: Where else can we go? Durham: Duke University Press.
McGregor, D. (1966). Leadership and motivation. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Meindl, J. R. , Ehrlich, S. B. & Dukerich, J. M. (1962). The romance of leadership.
Administrative Science Quarterly, 30, pp. 78102.
Meng, X. (2011). The effect of relationship management on project performance in construction.
International Journal of Project Management, 30(2), pp. 188198,
doi:10.1016/j.ijproman.2011.04.002
Miner, J. B. (1975). The uncertain future of the leadership concept: An overview. Leadership
Frontiers. Kent: Kent State University Press.
Mitkus, S. & Mitkus, T. (2014). Causes of conflicts in a construction industry: A communicational
approach. Procedia  Social and Behavioral Sciences, 110, pp. 777786,
doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.12.922
Nanjundeswaraswamy, T. S. & Swamy D. R. (2014) Leadership styles. Advances In
Management. 7(2), pp 5762.
Nasaruddin, N. A. N. & Rahman, I. A. (2017). Exploratory study on Malaysia construction
leadership. In: MATEC Web of Conferences , EDP Sciences, 16.
Ofori, G. & Toor, S. R. (2012). Leadership and construction industry development in developing
countries. Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, Supp. 1, pp. 121.
Omar, O. & Ogenyi, V. (2004). A qualitative evaluation of women as managers in the Nigerian
Civil Service. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 17(4), pp. 360373,
doi:10.1108/09513550410539839
Ouchi, W. G. (1981). Theory Z: How American business can meet the Japanese challenge.
Reading: Addison-Wesley.
Ouchi, W. G. & Jaeger, A. M. (1978). Type Z organization: Stability in the midst of mobility.
Academy of Management Review, 3, pp. 305314.
Panthi, K. , Farooqui, R. U. , & Ahmed, S. M. (2008). An investigation of the leadership style of
construction managers in South Florida. Journal of Construction Management and Economics,
11(4), 455565.
Pascale, R. T. & Athos, A. G. (1981). The art of Japanese management: Application for
American executives. New York: Warner Books.
Peters, T. J. & Waterman, R. H. (1982). In search of excellence: Lessons from America's best-
run companies. New York: Warner Books.
Pfeffer, J. (1977). The ambiguity of leadership. Academy of Management Review, 2, pp.
104112.
Podsakoff, P. M. , MacKenzie, S. B. , Moorman, R. H. & Fetter, R. (1990). Transformational
leader behaviors and their effects on followers' trust in leader, satisfaction, and organizational
citizenship behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 1(2), pp. 107142.
Popa, B. M. (2012). The relationship between leadership effectiveness and organizational
performance. Journal of Defense Resources Management, 3, 1(4), pp. 123126.
Ray, S. & Ray, I. A. (2012). Understanding democratic leadership: Some key issues and
perception with reference to India's freedom movement. Afro-Asian Journal of Social Sciences,
3(3.1), pp. 126.
Robbins, S. P. (1996). Organizational behavior: Concepts, controversies, applications.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Roberts, N. C. (1985). Transforming leadership: A process of collective action. Human
Relations, 38, pp. 10231046.
Rouzbahani, M. T. , Alibakhshi, D. , Ataie, S. , Koulivand, A. & Goudarzi, M. M. (2013). The
relationship between bureaucratic leadership style (task-oriented) and customer relationship
management (CRM). Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 3(2), pp. 12921296.
123 Santrock, J. W. (2007). A topical approach to life-span development. New York, NY:
McGraw-Hill.
Schaefer, R. T. (2005). Sociology . 9th edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Schein, E. H. (1985). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Sharma, M. K. & Jain, S. (2013). Leadership management: Principles, models and theories.
Global Journal of Management and Business Studies, 3(3), pp. 309318.
Stogdill, R. M. (1974). Handbook of leadership. New York: Free Press.
Sultana, U. S. , Darun, M. R. & Yao, L. (2015). Transactional or transformational Leadership:
Which works best for now? International Journal of Industrial Management. pp 18.
Talal Ratyan, A. , Khalaf, B. & Rasli, A. (2013). Overview of path-goal leadership theory. Jurnal
Teknologi, 64(2), doi:10.11113/jt.v64.2235
Thurairajah, N. , Amaratunga, D. & Haigh, R. (2007). Confronting barriers to women in
leadership positions: A study on construction industry. Presented at the 7th International
Postgraduate Conference in the Built and Human Environment, Salford Quays, UK.
Titrek, O. , Bayrakci, M. & Gunes, D. Z. (2014). Barriers to women's leadership in Turkey.
Anthropologist, 18(1), pp. 135144.
Van Seters, D. A. & Field, R. H. G. (1990). The evolution of leadership theory. Journal of
Organizational Change Management, 3(3), pp. 2945, doi:10.1108/09534819010142139.
Val, C. & Kemp, J. (2012). Leadership styles. Pathways: The Ontario Journal of Outdoor
Education, 24(3), pp. 2831.
Vroom, V. H. & Jago, A. G. (2007). The role of the situation in leadership. American
Psychologist, 62(1), pp. 1724, doi:10.1037/0003-066X.62.1.17
World Health Organization (WHO) . (2008). Leadership and management. In: Operations
manual for staff at primary health care centers. Switzerland: WHO Press, pp. 264281.
Yiu, K. T. W. & Cheung, S. O. (2006). A catastrophe model of construction conflict behavior.
Building and Environment, 41(4), pp. 438447, doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.01.007
Yukl, G. (1971). Toward a behavioral theory of leadership. Organizational Behavior and Human
Performance, 6(4), pp. 414440.
Yukl, G. (1989). Leadership in organisations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Zakaria, I. B. , Mohamed, M. R. B. , Ahzahar, N. & Hashim, S. Z. (2015). A study on leadership
skills of project manager for a successful construction project. International Academic Research
Journal of Social Science, 1(2), pp. 8994. 124
Monitoring and evaluation in developed countries
Abdul-Rahman, H. , Wang, C. & Muhammad, N. B. (2011). Project performance monitoring
methods used in Malaysia and perspectives of introducing EVA as a standard approach.
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 17(3), pp. 445455,
doi:10.3846/13923730.2011.598331
AI Group (2015). Australia's construction industry: Profile and outlook. Economics Research.
Cracknell, B. E. (1994). Monitoring and evaluation of public-sector investment in the UK. Project
Appraisal, 9(4), pp. 222230, doi:10.1080/02688867.1994.9726955
Crawford, P. & Bryce, P. (2003). Project monitoring and evaluation: A method for enhancing the
efficiency and effectiveness of aid project implementation. International Journal of Project
Management, 21(5), pp. 363373, doi:10.1016/S0263-7863(02)00060-1
Department for Business Innovation & Skills (2013). UKconstruction: An economic analysis of
the sector. Available online at www.bis.gov.uk. Retrieved on 31st August 2018,
135 Gyorkos, T. W. (2003). Monitoring and evaluation of large scale helminth control
programmes. Acta Tropica, 86(23), pp. 275282, doi:10.1016/S0001-706X(03)00048-2.
Hummelbrunner, R. (2010). Beyond logframe: Critique, variations and alternatives. In: Fujita, N.
(Eed). Beyond Logframe: Using Systems Concepts in Evaluation. Presented at the Issues and
Prospects of Evaluations for International Development, pp. 134. Japan: Foundation for
Advanced Studies on International Development.
Kamau, C. G. & Mohamed, H. B. (2015). Efficacy of monitoring and evaluation function in
achieving project success in Kenya: A conceptual framework. Science Journal of Business and
Management, 3(3), p. 82, doi:10.11648/j.sjbm.20150303.14
Martinez, D. E. (2011). The logical framework approach in non-governmental organizations. CA:
University of Alberta.
Myrick, D. (2013). A logical framework for monitoring and evaluation: A pragmatic approach to
M&E. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, doi:10.5901/mjss.2013.v4n14p423
Rogers, P. (2008). Using programme theory to evaluate complicated and complex aspects of
interventions. Evaluation, 14(1), pp. 2948, doi:10.1177/1356389007084674
World Economic Situation and Prospects (2014). Country classification: Data sources, country
classifications and aggregation methodology.
Monitoring and evaluation in developing countries
Abrahams, M. A. (2015). A review of the growth of monitoring and evaluation in South Africa:
Monitoring and evaluation as a profession, an industry and a governance tool. African
Evaluation Journal, 3(1), pp 18.
Auma, E. (2014). Factors affecting the performance of construction projects in Kenya: A survey
of low-rise buildings in Nairobi Central Business District. The International Journal of Business &
Management, 2(12), p. 115.
Basheka, B. C. & Byamugisha, A. (2015). The state of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) as a
discipline in Africa. African Journal of Public Affairs, 8(3), pp. 7595.
Basson, R. (2013). South Africa: South African Monitoring and Evaluation Association
(SAMEA). Voluntarism, consolidation, collaboration and growth. The case of SAMEA. In: Rugh,
J. and Segone, M. (Eds.). Voluntary Organizations for Professional Evaluation (VOPEs):
Learning from Africa, Americas, Asia, Australasia, Europe and Middle East. UNICEF, pp.
262274.
Bowen, P. , Edwards, P. & Cattell, K. (2012). Corruption in the South African construction
industry: A mixed methods study. In: Smith, S. D. (Ed.). Proceedings of the 28th Annual
Association of Researchers in Construction in Management (ARCOM) Conference, Edinburgh,
UK: ARCOM, pp. 521531.
Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) (2014). Annual Report, 2013/2014.
Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) (2016b). Annual Report, 2015/2016.
Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) (2017a). Construction monitor,
Transformation. Q4, 2016.
Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) (2017b). Compliance monitor, Register of
projects. Q4, 2016.
Dassah, M. & Uken, E. (2006). Monitoring and evaluation in Africa with reference to Ghana and
South Africa. Journal of Public Administration, 41(4), pp. 705720.
Department of Provincial and Local Government (2006). Municipal infrastructure. Roles and
responsibilities of national sector departments, provincial counterparts and municipalities.
Department of Provincial and Local Government.
150 Engela, R. & Ajam, T. (2010). Implementing a government-wide monitoring and evaluation
system in South Africa. Washington, DC: Independent Evaluation Group, World Bank.
Gitahi, K. K. (2015). Determinants influencing monitoring and evaluation processes of road
construction projects in Kenya National Highways Authority (KeNHA), Central Region, Kenya.
Master's dissertation. Kenya: University of Nairobi.
Kamau, C. G. & Mohamed, H. B. (2015). Efficacy of monitoring and evaluation function in
achieving project success in Kenya: A conceptual framework. Science Journal of Business and
Management, 3(3), p. 82, doi:10.11648/j.sjbm.20150303.14
Kenya. Ministry of National Planning and Development and Vision 2030 (MPND) . (2012).
National Monitoring and Evaluation Policy.
Khumalo, J. , Mashiane, J. & Roberts, S. (2014). Harm and overcharge in the South African
precast concrete product cartel. Journal of Competition Law and Economics, 10(3), pp. 621646,
doi:10.1093/joclec/nhu005
Kiarie, A. W. & Wanyoike, D. (2016). Determinants of successful implementation of
government-funded projects in Kenya: A case study of integrated financial management
information system. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development, 5(10), pp.
169175.
Marx, J. H. (2014). Results of the 2014 survey of the CIDB construction industry indicators.
Construction Industry Development Board.
McGuckin, S. (2017). Global construction industry: a new normal? International Construction
Market Survey: Building momentum. Turner & Townsend.
Mertens, D. M. & Russon, C. (2000). A proposal for the International Organization for
Cooperation in Evaluation. American Journal of Evaluation, 21(2), pp. 275283.
Ministry of Devolution and Planning (2016). Guidelines for the development of county integrated
monitoring and evaluation system. Government of the Republic of Kenya.
Mtshali, Z. (2015). A review of the monitoring and evaluation systems to monitor the
implementation of early childhood development within Gauteng department of health. Master's
dissertation, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch.
Mugambi, F. & Kanda, E. (2013). Determinants of effective monitoring and evaluation of
strategy implementation of community-based projects. International Journal of Innovative
Research and Development, 2(11).
Mugo, P. M. & Oleche, M. O. (2015). Monitoring and evaluation of development projects and
economic growth in Kenya. International Journal of Novel Research in Humanity and Social
Sciences, 2(6), pp. 5263.
Mulama, K. , Liguyani, P. & Musiega, D. (2014). Effectiveness of monitoring and evaluation in
enhancing performance of social development projects in Busia County  A survey of
government social development projects. International Journal of Management Research and
Reviews, 4(8), pp. 773796.
Mwangi, J. K. , Nyang'wara, B. M. & Ole Kulet, J. L. (2015). Factors affecting the effectiveness
of monitoring and evaluation of Constituency Development Fund projects in Kenya: A case of
Laikipia West Constituency. Journal of Economics and Finance, 6(1), pp. 7487.
Mwangu, A. W. & Iravo, M. A. (2015). How monitoring and evaluation affects the outcome of
Constituency Development Fund projects in Kenya: A case study of projects in Gatanga
Constituency. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences,
5(3), doi:10.6007/IJARBSS/v5-i3/1491, pp 1331
Nene, N. , (2015). 2015 Budget Speech, South African National Treasury, viewed 10 March
2017, from www.treasury.gov.za/documents/national%20budget/2015/speech/speech.pdf.
151 Njama, A. W. (2015). Determinants of effectiveness of a monitoring and evaluation system
for projects: A case of Amref Kenya WASH programme. University of Nairobi.
Odero, W. , Reeves, W. and Chokerah, J. (2017). African Economic Outlook: Kenya 2017.
AfDB, OECD and UNDP.
Ofori, G. (2000). Challenges of construction industries in developing countries: Lessons from
various countries. In: 2nd International Conference on Construction in Developing Countries:
Challenges Facing the Construction Industry in Developing Countries, Gaborone, November,
pp. 1517.
Ogolla, F. & Moronge, M. (2016). Determinants of effective monitoring and evaluation of
government-funded water projects in Kenya: A case of Nairobi County. Strategic Journal of
Business & Change Management, 3(1). pp 329358
Onjure, C. O. & Wanyoike, D. M. (2016). Influence of monitoring and evaluation practices on
performance of national government-funded construction projects in Uasin Gishu County 
Kenya. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development, 5(12), pp. 7895.
Pillay, P. & Mafini, C. (2017). Supply chain bottlenecks in the South African construction
industry: Qualitative insights. Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management, 11(0),
doi:10.4102/jtscm.v11i0.307. pp 112
Report Buyer (2016). Construction in South Africa  Key trends and opportunities to 2020.
SA Construction (2013). Highlighting trends in the South African construction industry. South
Africa: PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC).
SA Construction (2014). Highlighting trends in the South African construction industry 2nd
edition. South Africa: PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC).
SA Construction (2015). Highlighting trends in the South African construction industry 3rd
edition. South Africa: PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC).
SA Construction (2016). Highlighting trends in the South African construction industry 4th
edition. South Africa: PouseCoopers.
Statistics South Africa , (2016). Manufacturing and construction industries report 2016, viewed
05 April 2017, from http://www.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=624
Tengan, C. & Aigbavboa, C. (2016). Evaluating barriers to effective implementation of project
monitoring and evaluation in the Ghanaian construction industry. Procedia Engineering, 164,
pp. 389394, doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2016.11.635.
The Central Intelligence Agency (2016). The World Fact Book 2016. Retrieved from
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/download/download-2016/index.html
Wachaiyu, V. W. (2016). Monitoring and evaluation factors influencing success of development
projects: A case of Starehe Sub-Country, Kenya. Master's dissertation, University of Nairobi,
Kenya.
Wanjira, J. (2016). Kenya's construction industry and its challenges. Construction Review
Online, Available March 20, 2017 from: https://constructionrevie-wonline.com/2016/09/kenyas-
construction-industry-and-its-challenges/.
Windapo, A. O. & Cattell, K. (2013). The South African construction industry: perceptions of key
challenges facing its performance, development and growth. Journal of Construction in
Developing Countries, 18(2), p. 65.
Windapo, A. O. (2016). Skilled labour supply in the South African construction industry: The
nexus between certification, quality of work output and shortages. SA Journal of Human
Resource Management, 14(1), pp. 18.
World Economic Situation and Prospects (2014). Country classification: Data sources, country
classifications and aggregation methodology.
A review of the Ghanaian construction industry and the practice of
monitoring and evaluation
Agbodjah, L. S. (2009). A human resource management policy development (HRMPD)
framework for large construction companies operating in Ghana. Kumasi, Ghana: Kwame
Nkrumah University of Science and Technology.
Ahadzie, D. K. (2007). A model for predicting the performance of project managers in mass
house building projects in Ghana. PhD Thesis, UK: University of Wolverhampton.
Ahadzie, D. K. , Proverbs, D. G. & Olomolaiye, P. (2004). Meeting housing delivery targets in
developing countries: The project manager's contribution in Ghana. Globalisation and
Construction, pp. 619630.
Ahmed, K. , Hatira, L. & Valva, P. (2014). How can the construction industry in Ghana become
sustainable? Karlskrona, Sweden: Blekinge Institute of Technology.
Ametepey, O. , Aigbavboa, C. & Ansah, K. (2015). Barriers to successful implementation of
sustainable construction in the Ghanaian construction industry. Procedia Manufacturing, 3, pp.
16821689, doi:0.1016/j.promfg.2015.07.988
Ametepey, S. O. , Gyadu-Asiedu, W. & Assah-Kissiedu, M. (2017). Causes-effects relationship
of construction project delays in Ghana: Focusing on local government projects. In:
Charytonowicz, J. (Ed.). Advances in intelligent systems and computing. Presented at the
International Conference on Human Factors, Sustainable Urban Planning and Infrastructure,
California, USA: Springer, pp. 8495.
Ameyaw, C. , Mensah, S. & Osei-Tutu, E. (2012). Public procurement in Ghana: The
implementation challenges to the Public Procurement Law, 2003 (Act 663). International Journal
of Construction Supply Chain Management, 2(2), pp. 5565.
171 Amoah, P. , Ahadzie, D. K. & Dansoh, A. (2011). The factors affecting construction
performance in Ghana: The perspective of small-scale building contractors. The Ghana
Surveyor, 4(1), pp. 4148.
Amos, D. , Gadzekpo, A. & Amankwah, O. (2015). Challenges of real estate development in
Ghana from the developers' perspective. Developing Country Studies, 5(10), pp. 6675.
Anaman, K. A. & Osei-Amponsah, C. (2007). Analysis of the causality links between the growth
of the construction industry and the growth of the macro-economy in Ghana. Construction
Management and Economics, 25(9), pp. 951961, doi:10.1080/01446190701411208
Anvuur, A. , Kumaraswamy, M. & Male, S. (2006). Taking forward public procurement reforms
in Ghana. In: Proceedings of the 2006 CIB W107: Construction in Developing Countries
International Symposium: Construction in Developing Economies: New Issues and Challenges.
CIB.
Asamoah, R. O. & Decardi-Nelson, I. (2014). Promoting trust and confidence in the construction
industry in Ghana through the development and enforcement of ethics. Information and
Knowledge Management, 3(4), pp. 6368.
Baiden, B. K. & Tuuli, B. (2004). Impact of quality control practices in sandcrete blocks
production. Journal of Architectural Engineering, 10(2), pp. 5360.
Bank of Ghana (2007). The housing market in Ghana.
Bourne, L. (2010). Why is stakeholder management so difficult? In: Congresso International,
Columbia: Universidad EAN Bogota.
Carillo, P. M. & Anumba, C. J. (2002). Knowledge management in the AEC sector: An
exploration of the mergers and acquisition context. Knowledge and Process Management, 9(3),
pp. 149161.
Chileshe, N. & Yirenkyi-Fianko, A.B. (2012). An evaluation of risk factors impacting construction
projects in Ghana. Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, 10(3), pp. 306329,
doi:10.1108/17260531211274693
Craig, N. & Sommerville, J. (2006). Information management systems on construction projects:
Case reviews. Records Management Journal, 16(3), pp. 131148, doi:
10.1108/09565690610713192.
Danso, H. (2014). Poor workmanship and lack of plant/equipment problems in the construction
industry in Kumasi, Ghana. International Journal of Management Research, 2(3), pp. 6070.
Darko, E. & Lwe, A. (2016). Ghana's construction sector and youth employment. London:
Overseas Development Institute. Working Paper.
Davenport, T. & Prusak, L. (1998). Working knowledge: How organisations manage what they
know. Boston, MA.: Harvard Business School Press.
Djokoto, S. D. , Dadzie, J. & Ohemeng-Ababio, E. (2014). Barriers to sustainable construction in
the Ghanaian construction industry: Consultants' perspectives. Journal of Sustainable
Development, 7(1), doi:10.5539/jsd.v7n1p134.
Ephson, B. (2017). Overview of the construction industry in Ghana. The Daily Dispatch, 2 May
2017.
Eyiah-Botwe, E. (2015). An evaluation of stakeholder management role in GETFund
polytechnics projects delivery in Ghana. Available online at: www.iiste.org, 7(3), pp. 6673.
Fewings, P. (2005). Construction project management: An integrated approach. USA and
Canada: Taylor & Francis.
172 Fong, P. S. & Chu, L. (2006). Exploratory study of knowledge sharing in contracting
companies: A sociotechnical perspective. Journal of Construction Engineering and
Management, 132(9), pp. 928939.
Freeman, R. E. (2004). The stakeholder approach revisited. Zeitschrift fr Wirtschafts-und
Unternehmensethik, 5(3), pp. 228241.
Fugar, F. D. K. , Ashiboe-Mensah, N. A. & Adinyira, E. (2013). Human capital theory:
Implications for the Ghanaian construction industry development. Journal of Construction
Project Management and Innovation, 3(1), pp. 464481.
Ghana Statistical Service (2012). 2010 Population and housing census, final results. Accra.
Gorse, C. A. & Emmitt, S. (2003). Investigating interpersonal communication during construction
progress meetings: Challenges and opportunities. Engineering, Construction and Architectural
Management, 10(4), pp. 234244, doi:10.1108/09699980310489942
Gorse, C. A. & Emmitt, S. (2009). Informal interaction in construction progress meetings.
Construction Management and Economics, 27(10), pp. 983993,
doi:10.1080/01446190903179710
Guijt, I. , Arevalo, M. & Saladores, K. (1998). Participatory monitoring and evaluation. PLA
Notes, 31, p. 28.
Hashim, E. M. A. B. , Talib, N. A. & Alamen, K. M. (2014). Knowledge management practice in
Malaysian construction companies. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 21(11), pp.
19521957, doi:10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2014.21.11.21727.
Idoro, G. I. (2012). Influence of the monitoring and control strategies of indigenous and
expatriate Nigerian contractors on project outcome. Journal of Construction in Developing
Countries, 17(1), p. 2012.
Laryea, S. (2010). Challenges and opportunities facing contractors in Ghana. In: Laryea, S. ,
Leiringer, R. and Hughes, W. (Eds.). Procs West Africa Built Environment Research (WABER)
Conference, 2728 July, 2010, Accra, Ghana, pp. 215226.
Laryea, S. & Mensah, S. (2010). The evolution of indigenous contractors in Ghana. In: Laryea,
S. , Leiringer, R. and Hughes, W. (Eds.). Presented at the West Africa Built Environment
Research (WABER) Conference. Accra, Ghana: West Africa Built Environment Research, pp.
579588.
Local Government Service (2014). Local government scheme of service (Revised edition).
Love, P. , Davis, P. , Ellis, J. & Cheung, S. O. (2010). Dispute causation: identification of
pathogenic influences in construction. Engineering, Construction and Architectural
Management, 17(4), pp. 404423, doi:10.1108/09699981011056592
Mathur, V. N. , Price, A. D. , Austin, S. A. & Moobela, C. (2007). Defining, identifying and
mapping stakeholders in the assessment of urban sustainability. In: Horner, M. , Hardcastle, C. ,
Price, A. , and Bebbington, J. (Eds). Presented at the International Conference on Whole Life
Urban Sustainability and its Assessment, Glasgow.
Ministry of Water Resources Works and Housing (MWRWH) . (2010). Monitoring and evaluation
plan and budget for 20102013.
Mugula, R. (2015). M&E enhances knowledge management and organizational learning in
public sector. The New Times,.
National Development Planning Commission (NDPC) (1994a). National development planning
commission act, 1994, Act 479.
National Development Planning Commission (NDPC) (1994b). National development planning
(system) act, 1994 Act 480.
National Development Planning Commission (NDPC) (2008). Growth and poverty reduction
strategies (GPRS II). Accra, Ghana.173
Ofori, G. (1980). The construction industries of developing countries: The applicability of
existing theories and strategies for their improvement and lessons for the future; the case of
Ghana. England: University of London.
Ofori, G. (2000). Challenges of construction industries in developing countries: Lessons from
various countries. Conference Papers. In: 2nd International Conference on Construction in
Developing Countries: Challenges Facing the Construction Industry in Developing Countries .
Botswana: Gaborone, November 1517.
Ofori, G. (2012). Developing the construction industry in Ghana: The case for a central agency.
A concept paper prepared for improving the construction industry in Ghana. National University
of Singapore .
Ofori, P. A. , Twumasi-Ampofo, K. , Danquah, J. A. , Osei-Tutu, E. & Osei-Tutu, S. (2017).
Investigating challenges in financing contractors for public sector projects in Ghana. Journal of
Building Construction and Planning Research, 5(2), pp. 5870, doi:10.4236/jbcpr.2017.52005
Ofori-Kuragu, J. K. , Baiden, B. & Badu, E. (2016). Performance measurement tools for
Ghanaian contractors. International Journal of Construction Management, 16(1), pp. 1326,
doi:10.1080/15623599.2015.1115245.
Ofori-Kuragu, J. K. , Owusu-Manu, D. G. & Ayarkwa, J. (2016). The case for a construction
industry council in Ghana. Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, 21(2), pp. 131149,
doi:10.21315/jcdc2016.21.2.7
Oke, A. , Mavimbele, B. & Aigbavboa, C. (2016). Site meeting as a sustainable construction
tool. Socioeconomica, 5(9), pp. 8392, doi:10.12803/SJSECO.590009
Omotayo, F. O. (2015). Knowledge management as an important tool in organisational
management: A review of literature. Library Philosophy and Practice, p. 1.
Osei, V. (2013). The construction industry and its linkages to the Ghanaian economy  policies to
improve the sector's performance. International Journal of Development and Economic
Sustainability, 1(1), pp. 5672.
Osei-Kyei, R. & Chan, A. P. (2016). Implementing publicprivate partnership (PPP) policy for
public construction projects in Ghana: Critical success factors and policy implications.
International Journal of Construction Management, pp. 111,
doi:10.1080/15623599.2016.1207865
Osei-Tutu, E. , Badu, E. & Owusu-Manu, D. (2010). Exploring corruption practices in public
procurement of infrastructural projects in Ghana. International Journal of Managing Projects in
Business, 3(2), pp. 236256, doi:10.1108/17538371011036563
Otieno, F. A. O. (2000). The roles of monitoring and evaluation in projects. In: 2nd International
Conference on Construction in Developing Countries: Challenges Facing the Construction
Industry in Developing Countries , pp.1517.
Project Management Institute (PMI) . (2013). Managing change in organizations: A practice
guide. UK: PMI.
Public Procurement Act , 2003 (Act 663) of the Republic of Ghana.
Robinson, H. S. , Carrillo, P. M. , Anumba, C. J. & Al-Ghassani, A. M. (2005). Knowledge
management practices in large construction organisations. Engineering, Construction and
Architectural Management, 12(5), pp. 431445, doi:10.1108/09699980510627135.
Sarda, A. & Dewalkar, S. (2016). Role of project management consultancy in construction.
International Journal of Technical Research and Applications, 4(2), pp. 317320.
Sena, A. A. (2012). Are contractor classifications in Ghana accurate? The Quantity Surveyor,
5(1), pp. 410.
Sutton, J. and Kpentey, B. (2012). An enterprise map of Ghana, London: International Growth
Centre.
174 Tengan, C. & Aigbavboa, C. (2016). Evaluating barriers to effective implementation of
project monitoring and evaluation in the Ghanaian construction industry. Procedia Engineering,
164, pp. 389394, doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2016.11.635.
Tengan, C. & Aigbavboa, C. (2017). Level of stakeholder engagement and participation in
monitoring and evaluation of construction projects in Ghana. Procedia Engineering, 196, pp.
630637, doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2017.08.051
Tengan, C. , Anzagira, L. F. , Kissi, E. , Balaara, S. & Anzagira, C. A. (2014). Factors affecting
quality performance of construction firms in Ghana: Evidence from small-scale contractors. Civil
and Environmental Research, 6(5), pp. 1823.
The Central Intelligence Agency (2016). The World Fact Book 2016. Retrieved from
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/download/download-2016/index.html
Williams, M. (2015). Project delivery and unfinished infrastructure in Ghana's local
governments. International Growth Center. Policy brief No. 89105.
Wong, K.Y. (2005). Critical success factors for implementing knowledge management in small
and medium enterprises. Journal of Industrial Management and Data Systems, 105(3), pp.
261279.
Case study
Abrahams, M. A. (2015). A review of the growth of monitoring and evaluation in South Africa:
Monitoring and evaluation as a profession, an industry and a governance tool. African
Evaluation Journal, 3(1), pp. 18.
Barasa, R. M. (2014). Influence of monitoring and evaluation tools on project completion in
Kenya: A case of Constituency Development Fund projects in Kakamega County, Kenya.
Kenya: University of Nairobi.
Bikitsha, L. , Mamafha, K. & Ngomane, N. (2014). Understanding the use of emotional
intelligence during the project leadership process: A case of project managers. Journal of
Leadership and Management Studies, 1(1), pp. 516.
Cameron, J. (1993). The challenges for monitoring and evaluation in the 1990s. Project
Appraisal, 8(2), pp. 9196, doi:10.1080/02688867.1993.9726893
Chin, C. M. M. (2012). Development of a project management methodology for use in a
university-industry collaborative research environment. University of Nottingham.
191 Chipato, N. (2016). Organisational learning and monitoring and evaluation in project-based
organisations. Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University.
Diallo, A. & Thuillier, D. (2005). The success of international development projects, trust and
communication: an African perspective. International Journal of Project Management, 23(3), pp.
237252, doi:10.1016/j.ijproman.2004.10.002.
Hardlife, Z. & Zhou, G. (2013). Utilization of monitoring and evaluation systems by development
agencies: The case of the UNDP in Zimbabwe. American International Journal of Contemporary
Research, 3(3), pp. 7083.
Hwang, B. G. & Lim, E. S. J. (2013). Critical success factors for key project players and
objectives: Case study of Singapore. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management,
139(2), pp. 204215.
Ika, L. A. , Diallo, A. & Thuillier, D. (2012). Critical success factors for World Bank projects: An
empirical investigation. International Journal of Project Management, 30(1), pp. 105116,
doi:10.1016/j.ijproman.2011.03.005.
Iqbal, N. , Anwar, S. & Haider, N. (2015). Effect of leadership style on employee performance.
Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 5: 146. pp. 16 doi:10.4172/2223-
5833.1000146
Kamau, C. G. & Mohamed, H. B. (2015). Efficacy of monitoring and evaluation function in
achieving project success in Kenya: A conceptual framework. Science Journal of Business and
Management, 3(3), p. 82, doi:10.11648/j.sjbm.20150303.14
Kimweli, J. M. (2013). The role of monitoring and evaluation practices to the success of donor
funded food security intervention projects: A case study of Kibwezi District. International Journal
of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 3(6), p. 9.
Kolzow, D. R. (2014). Leading from within: Building organizational leadership capacity.
International Economic Development Council, pp. 1314.
Luthra, A. & Dahiya, R. (2015). Effective leadership is all about communicating effectively:
Connecting leadership and communication. International Journal of Management & Business
Studies, 5(3), pp. 4348.
Mugambi, F. & Kanda, E. (2013). Determinants of effective monitoring and evaluation of
strategy implementation of community-based projects. International Journal of Innovative
Research and Development, 2(11). pp 6773.
Mugo, P. M. & Oleche, M. O. (2015). Monitoring and evaluation of development projects and
economic growth in Kenya. International Journal of Novel Research in Humanity and Social
Sciences, 2(6), pp. 5263.
Muiga, M. I. J. (2015). Factors influencing the use of monitoring and evaluation systems of
public projects in Nakuru County. Kenya: University of Nairobi.
Mulandi, N. M. (2013). Factors influencing performance of monitoring and evaluation systems of
non-governmental organizations in governance: A case of Nairobi, Kenya. Kenya: University of
Nairobi.
Muriithi, N. & Crawford, L. (2003). Approaches to project management in Africa: Implications for
international development projects. International Journal of Project Management, 21(5), pp.
309319, doi:10.1016/S0263-7863(02)00048-0
Musomba, K. S. , Kerongo, F. M. , Mutua, N. M. & Kilika, S. (2013). Factors affecting the
effectiveness of monitoring and evaluation of constituency development fund projects in
Changamwe Constituency, Kenya. Journal of International Academic Research for
Multidisciplinary, 1(8), pp. 175216.
Ogolla, F. & Moronge, M. (2016). Determinants of effective monitoring and evaluation of
government funded water projects in Kenya: A case of Nairobi County. Strategic Journal of
Business & Change Management, 3(1), pp 329358.
192 Patton, M. Q. (2003). Inquiry into appreciative evaluation. New Directions for Evaluation,
2003(100), pp. 8598.
Papke-Shields, K. E. , Beise, C. & Quan, J. (2010). Do project managers practice what they
preach, and does it matter to project success? International Journal of Project Management,
28(7), pp. 650662, doi:10.1016/j.ijproman.2009.11.002.
Popa, B. M. (2012). The relationship between leadership effectiveness and organizational
performance. Journal of Defense Resources Management, 3, 1(4), pp. 123126.
Seasons, M. (2003). Monitoring and evaluation in municipal planning: Considering the realities.
Journal of the American Planning Association, 69(4).
Stitt-Gohdes, W. L. & Crews, T. B. (2004). The Delphi technique: A research strategy for career
and technical education. Journal of Career and Technical Education, 20(2), pp. 5567.
Van Mierlo B.C. 2011. Approaches and methods for monitoring and evaluation. Syscope
Magazine. 2011(summer): 3133.
Waithera, L. & Wanyoike, D. M. (2015). Influence of project monitoring and evaluation on
performance of youth funded agribusiness projects in Bahati Sub-County, Nakuru, Kenya.
International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 3(11), pp. 375394.
Windapo, A. , Odediran, S. & Akintona, R. (2015). Establishing the relationship between
construction project managers' skills and project performance. Proceedings of the 51st Annual
Conference of the Associated Schools of Construction, 22-25 April 2015, Texas A& M
University, College Station, Texas.
... Goyal in [5] has proposed a monitoring and evaluation framework that comprises (1) initiation, (2) needs assessment, (3) design and development, (4) implementation and (5) post implementation. However, [17] proposes a M&E framework that incorporates development context of the country in question, the target ICT intervention, local support, implementation, impact and outcomes. ...
Conference Paper
E-governance (e-Gov) is increasingly taking centre stage all over the world. Countries like United States, Japan and Singapore have successfully transformed their governance process through e-Gov. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have become an integral part of the social fabric of many countries. Although, E-Gov has chalked significant gains in the developed world, this is yet to be fully realized in the developing world. One of the major causes of the failure of e-Gov projects in developing world has been due to a lack of monitoring and evaluation and a failure by sponsoring bodies to realize that the projects that worked in the developed world may not necessarily do so in the developing world because of differences in socio-economic realities. This paper proposes a framework for monitoring and evaluating e-Gov projects. The framework is premised by the identification of critical success factors peculiar to the effective and efficient implementation of e-governance projects based on an improved contextual project lifecycle.
Article
Full-text available
Project monitoring and evaluation are important components of local government councils' functions. Given the need to take governance to the grassroots, projects are regularly executed by this level of government. However, empirical evidences show that most local government councils incur huge financial losses and alienation of the citizenry due to poor project monitoring and evaluation to ascertain their level of compliance with laid down procedures of project management. The paper argues that given the catalogue of challenges facing project monitoring and evaluation in Nigerian local governments,unless some urgent and categorical steps are taken such as: adherence to due process in all facets of project planning and management involving the people of the grassroots in project initiation, formulation and execution, insistence on continuity on government projects irrespective of change of government or its personnel, availability of visionary and missionary leadership among other steps, government at the grassroots will continue to struggle to make any useful impact on the people's life.
Preprint
Full-text available
Identification of costs drivers and their influence level on building development costs play a key role in the development of construction models and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of any project. Forty-five indicators influencing building development costs in New Zealand are explored by literature review and pilot interviews. These indicators are grouped into seven categories. The determination and ranking of the cost drivers are carried out by a questionnaire survey distributed to key professionals working in New Zealand’s construction industry. Structural equation modeling (SEM) software was employed for analysis of the collected data. One of the key advantages of this powerful software is to provide the p-value according to the structure of the research model. Findings of this study indicate that the property market and construction industry factor, statutory and regulatory factor, and socio-economic factor are major factors affecting building development costs in New Zealand.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to identify from the literature the effect of human capital development on growth, profitability and competitive success of organisations and to argue that the development of the Ghanaian construction industry, its capacity to remain pivotal to the nation's economic growth and the ability to become globally competitive are directly linked to investment in the development of its human capital. This theoretical paper reviewed the literature to identify empirical evidences of the correlation between human capital development and organisational success and profitability. The findings reveal that investment in education has positive correlation with high performance of other industry categories. The research has also revealed some criticisms of the theory of human capital development and provided insights into the barriers to human capital development within the construction industry in developing countries such as Ghana. The paper presents empirical evidence of the benefits that accrue to organisations that invest in human capital development and provides a training and development model that could serve as a framework for training and developing employees within the Ghanaian construction industry.
Article
Full-text available
Shelter is one of the basic necessities for human beings nonetheless it remains a critical problem for millions of people. As at 2014, Ghana has an estimated population of 27 million, with a growth rate of about 2.2%. Ghana has an inevitable housing problem emanating from this rising population as the housing stock has not improved much over the years. Successive governments over the years have not played as much role as the private sector in housing delivery. Housing requirement by 2020 stands at 5.7 million new rooms. If these are to be successfully supplied, 3.8 new rooms must be completed in every minute of the working day for ten years. This paper sought to examine why the private real estate developing companies are unable to produce enough houses to meet the deficit and offers appropriate recommendations. The mixed method approach involving literature review, questionnaires and interviews were used for the study. Simple random sampling was used for questionnaire administration to 75 real estate developers. 50 representing 66.7% was realized. 15 key stakeholders in the real estate development industry including architects, quantity surveyors, and structural engineers were purposively selected for the questionnaire administration and also interviewed. Result of the outcome from the questionnaire survey and interviews were mapped and coded for the quantitative and qualitative analysis using basic statistical tools. Among the major problems identified were finance, acquisition of disputed land titles and persistent increase in prices of building raw materials. The study recommends an establishment of an extensive land information system to support the land administration project, institution of macroeconomic programs (to combat rising inflation and interest rate and depreciation of the cedi) and financing strategies (forward funding, corporate loans and lease-own arrangement) to boost the demand for houses of real estate developers.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The need to gain theoretical and practical understanding into the communication performance challenges in public private partnership (PPP) projects is considered as a precursor to effective communication strategies, management, planning and improvement in PPP models in both developed and developing countries. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the nature of communication performance challenges in PPP projects. Design/methodology/approach By adopting a deductive research design, a questionnaire survey of participants in the communication network of PPP projects in two countries (Ghana and South Africa) was conducted. The responses were analyzed using mean scores, Kendall’s concordance and Mann–Whitney U test. Findings The results revealed communication performance challenges that are unique to PPP project environment. Additionally, there were other typologies of communication challenges such as untimeliness, distortions and protocols that were frequently experienced in Ghana and not in South Africa. Also the emergence of misunderstanding affirmed that indeed this is a communication problem that is common and not peculiar to any project context or country. Practical implications With communication challenges and information asymmetries as notable challenges in PPP coupled with suggestions that effective communication is central to success of PPP projects and management, the insight into the communication performance challenges given by this study could be very useful to effective planning and strategies towards communication in construction project delivery in PPP and thus underline the importance of deriving mechanisms and protocols that suit PPP project environments. Originality/value These findings can be a precursor for developing bespoke communication systems, tools, protocols and communication behaviours to facilitate information flow aimed at overcoming information asymmetries and ultimately improving the quality of communication actions, tasks and outcomes in PPP project delivery.
Article
Full-text available
The study aims to develop an effective BIM-project information management framework (BIM-PIMF) and associated assessment model for construction projects with a view to enhancing the functional management of project information. An explanatory case study technique and case study evidence from four BIM construction projects form the study’s research design. The study identified and established the three sub-criteria of the BIM-PIMF model which are the BIM process level factors, BIM product level factors, and the key indicators for a successful BIM deployment on construction project sites. These criterias were semantically linked to the development of the BIM-PIMF framework on a five-point metric scale. The deliverables of this study include the development of the BIM-PIMF framework, together with its analytical scoring system. The findings of the study will improve the information channels of and ease the integration of technological innovations in construction processes while improving the technical competencies of project staff. The study highlighted a basket of effective recommendations and strategies to enhance the deployment of BIM throughout a project lifecycle. Policymakers and government departments can utilize the model in assessing the level of usage of BIM in a construction project as one of the useful measures in gauging which construction firms to be provided subsidies.
Research
Full-text available
The paper offers a broad overview of how ICTs and digital tools are being used to help bring M&E up to speed with the changing external environment and ways that they are helping to address operational and methodological challenges. Based on an examination of the available literature; in-depth discussions with development, technology and evaluation practitioners; and interviews with development and evaluation experts from a range of disciplines who are working to find new ways to measure progress and impact qualitatively and quantitatively and to learn and improve practices, the paper offers a snapshot of a wide range of ways that ICTs are being integrated into M&E.
Article
Full-text available
Construction industry is rich of knowledge that is considered to be the main source of the competitive advantage. This knowledge is threatened to be lost unless it is managed using a systematic knowledge management approach. This study investigated the level of knowledge management practice within the biggest Malaysian construction companies through the perceptions of the project managers. A questionnaire was distributed to the project managers of a number of 480 construction companies in Malaysia via an online survey. A total number of 227 completed respondents were collected from 181 companies. It is found that the practices of knowledge management processes, namely creating knowledge, capturing knowledge, organizing knowledge and storing knowledge were modest. However, the practices of disseminating knowledge and applying knowledge were low. Thus, Malaysian construction companies have to give more attention to their knowledge and ensure a structured application of knowledge management to sustain their knowledge and competitive advantage.