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The Nearctic Chalybion zimmermanni (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) reappears in Europe: A new record of an alien species in Greece

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PARNASSIANA ARCHIVES 9: 15-17 2021
© Parnassiana Archives 9, 2021
www.wildgreeceeditions.com/parnassiana archives
ISSN (print-edition) : 2241-7834
ISSN (on-line edition) : 2241-7842
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THE NEARCTIC CHALYBION ZIMMERMANNI
(HYMENOPTERA: SPHECIDAE) REAPPEARS IN EUROPE:
A NEW RECORD OF AN ALIEN SPECIES IN GREECE
Jakovos Demetriou1, 2, George Kakiopoulos3 & Evangelos Koutsoukos1, 2
1 Section of Ecology and Systematics, Department of Biology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15784
Athens, Greece, e-mails: jakovosdemetriou@gmail.com & vag18000@gmail.com
2 Museum of Zoology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15784 Athens, Greece
3 Ilidos 60-62 street, 11527 Athens (Ampelokipi), Greece, e-mail: strepens@yahoo.com
Published online: March 4, 2021
Genus Chalybion Dahlbom, 1843 is represented by 51 species, distributed across the globe (Pulawski
2020). In the European fauna it is represented by six native species, namely: Ch. ebile (Lepeletier,
1845), Ch. femoratum (Fabricius, 1781), Ch. klapperichi (Balthasar, 1957), Ch. minos (de Beaumont,
1965), Ch. omissum (Kohl, 1889) and Ch. walteri (Kohl, 1889) (Pulawski 2020), all present in Greece
(Hensen 1988, Standfuss & Standfuss 2006, Dollfuss 2016). In addition, three species alien to the
European continent have been identied, the Oriental Ch. bengalense (Dahlbom, 1845) established in
Italy (Mei et al. 2012), the Nearctic Ch. californicum (Saussure, 1867) reported from Croatia (Mei &
Boščík 2016) and the Nearctic Ch. zimmermanni Dahlbom, 1843 intercepted until now only once in
Belgium (Leclercq 1994). In this publication we report the rst alien species of the genus Chalybion
from Greece.
Examined material: Greece, Thessaly, Karditsa Province, Magoulitsa, 39.42°N 21.76°E, 1♀, alt. 120
m, 10.vii.2020, leg. G. Kakiopoulos (Fig. 1). The specimen is deposited at the Museum of Zoology
of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (ZMUA, voucher code: ZMUA HYM 041).
The female specimen is identied as Ch. zimmermanni following the identication keys and species
descriptions of Hensen (1988). The black erect pubescence covering the head and thorax as well as
the dark brown wings can be used to set this species apart from others, within the bengalense species
group (Hensen 1988). In addition, the specimen is distinguished from the similar C. californicum
by the presence of a mandibular subapical tooth (absent in Ch. californicum), the presence of three
clypeal teeth of equal width (narrower median tooth in Ch. californicum), the absence of an angular
carina (characteristic of the monotypic californicum species group) and the absence of tarsal plantulae
(present in Ch. californicum) (Hensen 1988, Mei & Boščík 2016). This nding constitutes the rst
record of Ch. zimmermanni from Greece and only the second reported introduction incident of the
species in the European Continent.
As only one individual was collected from a building wall, in a rural area, no remarks concerning the
species ecology or the presence of an established population can be made. Ward & Cole (1975) stated
that captive individuals were attracted to Conium maculatum L. and Pastinaca sativa L. Both plant
species are widely distributed in the Greek mainland (Dimopoulos et al. 2013, Strid et al. 2020) and
their owering period coincides with the specimen’s collection date.
The alien Chalybion zimmermanni new to Greece
16
Fig. 1. Chalybion zimmermanni Dahl-
bom, 1843, ♀ (ZMUA). A. dorsal view,
forewing length = 13 mm; body length =
20mm. B. head, anterior view, mandibles
with subapical tooth, clypeus with 3 teeth
of equal width (scale bar: 4 mm).
Chalybion zimmermanni is known to utilize old nests belonging to species of the genus Sceliphron
Klug, 1801 and pre-existing cavities in wood (Bohart & Menke 1976, Ward 1971). According to Ward
& Ode (1984) the majority of the species active nests were built in wood while only a small proportion
(9%) accounted for used nests of Sceliphron caementarium (Drury, 1773), used nests of Trypoxylum
politum Drury, 1773, or other material. The species accidental introduction in Greece may have been
mediated by the transport of utilized old Sceliphron spp. nests, which are easily carried throughout
great distances via international trade. The Nearctic S. caementarium, whose nesting habits have been
closely associated with human settlements (Bohart & Menke 1976), may have acted as a mediator
of this transport. Alien to Europe, it has been identied in Greece only recently (Demetriou et al.
2020) and its range expansion in Europe may have well facilitated the dispersal of Ch. zimmermanni.
Alternatively, the species may have reached the Greek mainland by emerging from imported cargo
including timber, ornamental or horticultural trees.
The success of the presented introduction, through the formation of established populations, and
potential adverse ecological impacts should be re-addressed after the examination of further future
material, spider prey and possible nuisance to native Sceliphron spp. and xylophagous insects.
Acknowledgements
We are highly grateful to Dr. Maurizio Mei (Università di Roma "Sapienza", Italy) for comments
on the identication of the specimen as well as for his valuable revision, corrections and comments
regarding the manuscript. We would also like to thank Fanourios - Nikolaos Sakellarakis (Tour du
Valat, France) for providing us literature regarding the referred plant species and for his helpful
corrections on the manuscript.
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Parnassiana Archives 9
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... In Europe, various alien Sphecidae have been introduced, have established populations, and are currently expanding their range, such as the Grass-carrying Wasp Isodontia mexicana (Saussure, 1867) (Polidori et al. 2018;Turrisi 2020) and several mud daubers belonging to the genera Sceliphron Klug, 1801and Chalybion Dahlbom, 1843(Schmid-Egger 2005Rasplus et al. 2010;Baghirov 2011;Ćetković et al. 2011;Mei et al. 2012;Mei and Boščík 2016;Mokrousov et al. 2019;Demetriou et al. 2021). The genus Sceliphron is represented by 35 species widespread across all temperate and tropical areas of the world (Bohart and Menke 1976;Pulawski 2020). ...
Full-text available
Article
The Nearctic Sceliphron caementarium (Drury, 1773) is widely distributed in the Western Palearctic and is spreading to new territories. Despite the large quantities of data on citizen-science platforms, these records have been mostly overlooked. In this publication, the first records of S. caementarium from six Eastern European and Balkan countries (Albania, Greece, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, and Slovakia) are presented. Data derived from online citizen-science observations and museum specimens supplement our knowledge of this species' range. The distribution of this species in Europe and possible ecological implications are discussed.
Full-text available
Cover Page
SET IN THE NORTH-WESTERN CORNER OF GREECE – where three countries, Greece, Albania and North Macedonia, come together around two lakes – the Prespa National Park (PNP) covers an area of 257 km². It extends altitudinally from around 850 metres at the level of the lakes – Megali Prespa and Mikri Prespa, or Great and Lesser Prespa lakes respectively – to 2330 metres on Mount Varnous. On the Greek side, the lakes are encircled by locally extensive reedbeds and floodplains turned largely to farmland for the cultivation of beans these days. The lands surrounding the basin are characterised by considerable geological diversity, revealing gneiss and granite on the slopes of Mount Varnous and limestone on the mountains to the west and south of the lakes. Prespa is also renowned for its great biological diversity and as an internationally important site for breeding waterbirds, hosting the largest colony of Dalmatian pelicans on the planet. The Flora section and the descriptions of vegetation are based on more than 15,500 single plant records (both field observations and herbarium specimens), the majority of them made by the authors. The Flora section includes over 1,800 accepted vascular plant taxa (species and additional subspecies). Numerous other species reported from the area are included in the keys and descriptions (presented in smaller font) but are considered questionable by the authors and require confirmation.
Full-text available
Article
The first evidence of the introduction of the Nearctic mud-dauber wasp Chalybion californicum (de Saussure, 1867) into Europe is presented and discussed. The species is by now possibly established in southern Croatia.
Full-text available
Article
The first evidence of the introduction of the oriental mud-dauber wasp Chalybion bengalense (Dahlbom, 1845) in Italy and Europe is presented and discussed. The species is by now established in Verona and Rovigo provinces (Veneto region, Northeastern Italy).
Biologiezentrum Linz"-collection in Linz, Austria including the genera Chalybion Dahlbom
  • H Dollfuss
Dollfuss, H. 2016. The Chloriontinae, Sceliphrinae and Sphecinae Wasps of the "Biologiezentrum Linz"-collection in Linz, Austria including the genera Chalybion Dahlbom, Chlorion Latreille, Dynatus Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, Penepodium Menke, Podium Fabricius, Sceliphron Klug, Stangeella Menke and Trigonopsis Perty (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Sphecidae) and description of the new species Chalybion ohli from Madagascar. -Linzer Biologische Beiträge 48:1149-1185.
Un Hyménoptère Sphecidae vert bleuté Chalybion zimmermanni Dahlbom aztecum (Saussure) égaré en Belgique, à Tournai
  • J Leclercq
Leclercq, J. 1994. Un Hyménoptère Sphecidae vert bleuté Chalybion zimmermanni Dahlbom aztecum (Saussure) égaré en Belgique, à Tournai. -Lambillionea 94: 367-370.
Catalog of Sphecidae sensu lato. California Academy of Sciences
  • W J Pulawski
Pulawski, W.J. 2020. Catalog of Sphecidae sensu lato. California Academy of Sciences, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, California, USA. Available online at: https://www.calacademy.org/scientists/ projects/catalog-of-sphecidae [accessed on 06 October 2020].
Zum aktuellen Artenbestand der Pemphredoninae
  • K Standfuss
  • L Standfuss
Standfuss, K. & Standfuss, L. 2006. Zum aktuellen Artenbestand der Pemphredoninae, Bembicinae und Sphecinae (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae p.p. et Sphecidae) der planar-kollinen Vegetationsstufe in Südost-Thessalien/Griechenland. -Entomofauna 27(26): 301-316.