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Sustainable Economy and Development of the Rural Territory: Proposal of Wine Tourism Itineraries in La Axarquía of Malaga (Spain)

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The certification of Malaga and Ronda wine route, within the model of certified wine routes in Spain, has given a new boost to wine tourism in Malaga. The study focuses on La Axarquía, located on the Eastern Costa del Sol in Southern Spain, which has been a reference point in the wine business since ancient times and has its own identity. This research aims at elaborating a diagnosis of the territory related to the possibilities offered by the area, from the perspective of the heritage resources and services provided by the winemakers outlining two efficient enotourism itineraries that enhance the value of the territory’s resources. The methodology used starts with the study of the territory in order to profile the existing resources, a task that was complemented by the analysis of the documentary sources required in order to understand the peculiarities of the territory. From there, a process of interviews was carried out between April and November 2019 with 100% of the winemakers and around 70% of the territory’s agents. The results of the research are specified in a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis, which has allowed evaluating the possibilities of the enotourist development in La Axarquía, which is complemented with a proposal of two possible itineraries that will promote such development of the rural territory. The conclusions convey the possibilities of the territory of a tourist segment which puts its resources to good use and moves forward the deseasonalization and destructuring of tourism in Malaga, especially on the Eastern Costa del Sol, according to criteria of efficiency and profitability with wine as a reference, although it could be applied to other gastronomic and cultural resources linked to the tourist sector in other geographical areas.
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Article
Sustainable Economy and Development of the Rural Territory:
Proposal of Wine Tourism Itineraries in La Axarquía of
Malaga (Spain)
Gorka Zamarreño-Aramendia 1, * , Elena Cruz-Ruiz 2and Elena Ruiz-Romero de la Cruz 1


Citation: Zamarreño-Aramendia,
Gorka, Elena Cruz-Ruiz, and Elena
Ruiz-Romero de la Cruz. 2021.
Sustainable Economy and
Development of the Rural Territory:
Proposal of Wine Tourism Itineraries
in La Axarquía of Malaga (Spain).
Economies 9: 29. https://doi.org/
10.3390/economies9010029
Academic Editor: Michał Roman
Received: 7 February 2021
Accepted: 25 February 2021
Published: 4 March 2021
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4.0/).
1Department of Economic Theory and Economic History, University Málaga, 29013 Málaga, Spain;
emruiz@uma.es
2Department of Economics and Business Administration, University Málaga, 29013 Málaga, Spain;
ecruz@uma.es
*Correspondence: gzama@uma.es; Tel.: +34-951952226
Abstract:
The certification of Malaga and Ronda wine route, within the model of certified wine
routes in Spain, has given a new boost to wine tourism in Malaga. The study focuses on La Axarquía,
located on the Eastern Costa del Sol in Southern Spain, which has been a reference point in the
wine business since ancient times and has its own identity. This research aims at elaborating a
diagnosis of the territory related to the possibilities offered by the area, from the perspective of the
heritage resources and services provided by the winemakers outlining two efficient enotourism
itineraries that enhance the value of the territory’s resources. The methodology used starts with
the study of the territory in order to profile the existing resources, a task that was complemented
by the analysis of the documentary sources required in order to understand the peculiarities of the
territory. From there, a process of interviews was carried out between April and November 2019 with
100% of the winemakers and around 70% of the territory’s agents. The results of the research are
specified in a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis, which has allowed
evaluating the possibilities of the enotourist development in La Axarquía, which is complemented
with a proposal of two possible itineraries that will promote such development of the rural territory.
The conclusions convey the possibilities of the territory of a tourist segment which puts its resources
to good use and moves forward the deseasonalization and destructuring of tourism in Malaga,
especially on the Eastern Costa del Sol, according to criteria of efficiency and profitability with wine
as a reference, although it could be applied to other gastronomic and cultural resources linked to the
tourist sector in other geographical areas.
Keywords: economy; sustainable development; wine routes; Axarquía; rural tourism
1. Introduction
Wine tourism has a special impact on rural economies (López-Guzmán et al. 2009)
as it involves activities in wineries, events, as well as different hospitality activities
(Carlsen and Charters 2006)
. Wine has gone from being a consumer product to favoring the
establishment of a development model for the rural territory, which requires policies and
actions that seek a change in the productive structure, with the objective of environmental
sustainability, as well as the enhancement of the heritage and culture of villages and nations
(Bruwer and Rueger-Muck 2019;Lourenço-Gomes et al. 2015).
The economic data on wine show the interest of this resource. In terms of production,
in 2019 it reached 26,000 million liters, of which 24,400 were consumed. Italy (47.5 mhl),
France (42.1 mhl) and Spain (33.5 mhl) represent 48% of the total production (OIV 2020).
And if we consider the value of wine tourism, Italy was estimated at 2.5 billion euros with
14 million tourists (MTV 2020); France accumulated more than 10 million wine tourists
who accounted for 5.2 billion euros for the sector (Saybus 2020).
Economies 2021,9, 29. https://doi.org/10.3390/economies9010029 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/economies
Economies 2021,9, 29 2 of 21
In Spain, the institution that channels this tourism in a regulated manner is ACEVIN
(Spanish Association of Wine Cities). It is a body that has numerous objectives, among
which stand out the promotion and collaboration with other European cities that tradi-
tionally produce wine and a proposal for responsible wine tourism that could be achieved
through sustainability and competitiveness plans to apply the concept of Social Responsi-
bility to the territorial, socioeconomic and cultural sphere of the Wine Routes (ACEVIN
2020).
In 2021 it integrates 30 routes, with more than 2000 associated companies that make
up the wine tourism offer of the destinations that are members of the Wine Routes of Spain
Club. A significant figure is the number of visits to wineries and museums of the Wine
Routes in 2019, which amounted to 3,076,334, experiencing a growth over the previous year
of 3.9% with an expenditure of just over 85 million euros per year, representing a growth of
around 5.68%. Turnover reached 256 million euros, adding the part corresponding to the
catering, hotel, business and leisure sectors (ACEVIN 2020).
These data are a true reflection of the interest of a sector that, linked to tourism, exerts
a great power of attraction in certain destinations, as they have placed value on tourism
formulas that have rural areas as protagonists (Khartishvili et al. 2019). It should be noted
that wine routes in destinations with tourist saturation can diversify the offer by revitalizing
the inland (Díaz Armas 2008), as well as promote job creation and rural development by
favoring the deseasonalization of demand, as stated by numerous authors (Álpizar and
Maldonado 2009;Álvarez García et al. 2014;López-Guzmán et al. 2009;Ramis Hernández
2010).
Enotourism is defined as the movement of certain travelers for a holiday focused on
getting to know certain areas and landscapes where wine is produced and carrying out
activities that increase knowledge about this product (Elias Pastor 2006). It is a consolidated
activity that is increasingly popular in countries with a long tradition in the Old World such
as Spain, Italy, France, Portugal, Greece, Romania, Germany or Serbia (Coros et al. 2019;
Dougherty 2012;Festa et al. 2020;Khartishvili et al. 2019;Koch et al. 2013;Lourenço-Gomes
et al. 2015;Triši´c et al. 2020;Vieira-Rodríguez et al. 2013;Wolikow 2014), implementing
tourism strategies significantly in other places such as Australia, New Zealand, South
Africa, Canada or the USA (Bruwer 2003;Hall et al. 2019a;Kirkman et al. 2013).
Wine routes are an opportunity for the promotion of cultural values, gastronomy and
local products, with a special consideration for wine (Bessière et al. 2013;Etcheverria 2015).
Thus, the aim of this work is to investigate the possibilities of La Axarquía to develop
a wine route through itineraries that discover the tourist potential of the area. From an
academic point of view, it is essential to analyze these routes with criteria of efficiency and
profitability, since for the wine route to be an attractive destination, it is necessary to know
the resources available in the territory and this is a particularly important factor, as it may
be what initially motivates the tourist to visit the area (Gatti and Incerti 1997).
This study is located in a line of research that revolves around wine tourism and
Málaga wine route (Ruiz-Romero de la Cruz et al. 2017), circumscribed in La Axarquía of
Malaga as it is a place where the climate, landscape and culture add an important value to
the traditional activity of making wines protected under the Certificates of Origin “Malaga”,
“Sierras de Malaga” and “Pasas de Malaga” (DDOMSPM). The conclusion of this research
phase culminated in a publication that modelled the fundamental elements (Figure 1) that
should be present in a wine route in general and specifically in La Axarquía (Cruz-Ruiz
et al. 2020). The structure of this research is based on the knowledge of the potential of La
Axarquía in Malaga (Spain), located in the southern Mediterranean. After a review of the
literature, the methodology of the study is presented, consisting of a field study, an analysis
of documentary sources and in-depth interviews with winemakers and agents involved
in the sector. The results obtained made it possible to carry out a specific diagnosis of the
territory by means of a SWOT analysis. On this basis, several proposals for wine tourism
itineraries have been drawn up, outlined with economic criteria of profitability for the
Economies 2021,9, 29 3 of 21
geographical area analyzed and its surroundings. The study ends with a discussion section
and the conclusions.
Economies 2021, 9, x FOR PEER REVIEW 3 of 23
a review of the literature, the methodology of the study is presented, consisting of a field
study, an analysis of documentary sources and in-depth interviews with winemakers and
agents involved in the sector. The results obtained made it possible to carry out a specific
diagnosis of the territory by means of a SWOT analysis. On this basis, several proposals
for wine tourism itineraries have been drawn up, outlined with economic criteria of prof-
itability for the geographical area analyzed and its surroundings. The study ends with a
discussion section and the conclusions.
Figure 1. Key elements for the design of a wine route. Source: Cruz-Ruiz et al. (2020).
The research has raised the following questions:
Q1: Does the territory of La Axarquía have sufficient resources to structure an enotourist
offer that benefits its development?
Q2: What is the diagnosis of the territory according to the stakeholders and winemakers?
Q3: Do the existing wineries offer adequate services to contribute to the development of
the rural territory?
Q4: Is it possible to design wine tourism itineraries in La Axarquía with the elements avail-
able?
2. Theoretical Background
The development of wine tourism has grown and in many countries it has been due
to wine routes, which can be defined as a set of duly marked itineraries that pass through
a specific geographical area with a wine tradition, an essential issue if we take into account
that they can be the reason for choosing a destination (Michael Hall 2013).
The study of the wine tourism phenomenon can be studied from three perspectives,
Getz and Brown (2006) highlight its interest for regional development and its strategies.
The opinions of consumers is another point of view that should be taken into account
(Alant and Bruwer 2004; Garibaldi et al. 2017; Ruiz-Romero de la Cruz et al. 2017) and, on
the other hand, the perspective provided by the wineries and the opportunity they have
to promote and sell their product directly to visitors is of great analytical value (Carlsen
2011; Hall et al. 2019b; Peters 2018, Festa et al. 2020).
The enhancement of the territory’s heritage is an important incentive for tourists to
make the decision to visit a destination. This includes aspects such as the natural land-
scape and environment, heritage, cities, architecture, artefacts, vineyards, wineries and
wines (Getz 2000; Getz and Brown 2006; Sparks 2007). The sensory enjoyment and pleas-
ure produced by the consumption of wine, as well as by the territories where wine routes
are located as the main motivation for wine tourists (Pulpón and Ruiz 2019; De Uña-
Álvarez and Villarino-Pérez 2019; Wolikow 2014), make them a more demanding traveller
in terms of quality, personalization and differentiation (Alonso and Liu 2012; Carlsen and
Boksberger 2015; Fountain 2018, Vasco Santos et al. 2019).
Figure 1. Key elements for the design of a wine route. Source: Cruz-Ruiz et al. (2020).
The research has raised the following questions:
Q
1
: Does the territory of La Axarquía have sufficient resources to structure an enotourist
offer that benefits its development?
Q2: What is the diagnosis of the territory according to the stakeholders and winemakers?
Q
3
: Do the existing wineries offer adequate services to contribute to the development of
the rural territory?
Q
4
: Is it possible to design wine tourism itineraries in La Axarquía with the elements
available?
2. Theoretical Background
The development of wine tourism has grown and in many countries it has been due
to wine routes, which can be defined as a set of duly marked itineraries that pass through a
specific geographical area with a wine tradition, an essential issue if we take into account
that they can be the reason for choosing a destination (Michael Hall 2013).
The study of the wine tourism phenomenon can be studied from three perspectives,
Getz and Brown (2006) highlight its interest for regional development and its strategies.
The opinions of consumers is another point of view that should be taken into account
(Alant and Bruwer 2004;Garibaldi et al. 2017;Ruiz-Romero de la Cruz et al. 2017)
and, on
the other hand, the perspective provided by the wineries and the opportunity they have to
promote and sell their product directly to visitors is of great analytical value (Carlsen 2011;
Hall et al. 2019b;Peters 2018;Festa et al. 2020).
The enhancement of the territory’s heritage is an important incentive for tourists
to make the decision to visit a destination. This includes aspects such as the natural
landscape and environment, heritage, cities, architecture, artefacts, vineyards, wineries
and wines (Getz 2000;Getz and Brown 2006;Sparks 2007). The sensory enjoyment and
pleasure produced by the consumption of wine, as well as by the territories where wine
routes are located as the main motivation for wine tourists (Pulpón and Ruiz 2019;De
Uña-Álvarez and Villarino-Pérez 2019;Wolikow 2014), make them a more demanding
traveller in terms of quality, personalization and differentiation (Alonso and Liu 2012;
Carlsen and Boksberger 2015;Fountain 2018;Vasco Santos et al. 2019).
Characterizing wine tourists allows us to build an appropriate offer, and numerous
studies have produced profiles that bring us closer to their reality (Famularo et al. 2010;
Garibaldi et al. 2017;Marzo-Navarro and Pedraja-Iglesias 2009;Quintal et al. 2017;Wade
et al. 2006). Comparative studies between different types of tourists are not very abundant,
although they are a very useful tool for making strategic decisions that make it possible to
redirect the flow of visitors in order to deseasonalize tourism activity (Díaz Armas 2008;
Ruiz-Romero de la Cruz et al. 2019).
The economic development potential of certain regions is linked to their ability to
develop interesting tourism segments that offer economically viable alternatives and
Economies 2021,9, 29 4 of 21
generate income for the local population (Roman et al. 2020). In this regard, wine tourism
has an interesting attraction, generating visitor flows that bring significant economic benefit
(Carlsen 2004;Gammack 2009;Hall and Mitchell 2000), providing greater brand awareness
and involvement (Charters and Ali-Knight 2002), increasing the number of subsequent
visits and encouraging purchasing behavior (Johnson and Bruwer 2007;Mitchell and
Hall 2006;O’Neill et al. 2002). In this way, wineries are able to progressively add value
to the destination, invigorating the traditional agricultural sector and innovating wine
products with an impact on local economies. Hashimoto and Telfer (2013) highlight the
contribution of wine routes to the improvement of wine product marketing strategies,
economic performance and the efficiency of wine producers, while Carmichael and Sense
analyze the competitiveness and sustainability of wine destinations (Carmichael and Senese
2012).
Wine routes are therefore an integrated strategy for a rural development (Ferreira and
Hunter 2017;Northwood 2000;Williams and Kelly 2001). They are intimately linked to
institutional decisions, as well as to the commitment and responsibilities acquired between
the public and private spheres, a point at which noticeable divergences can arise (Ferreira
and Hunter 2017;Northwood 2000;Williams and Kelly 2001). The design of an enotourism
route must address different angles (Blum et al. 2014;Cruz-Ruiz et al. 2020;Getz et al. 2007;
Getz and Brown 2006): gastronomic (Crespi-Vallbona and Mascarilla-Miró2020;Millán
Vázquez de la Torre and Pérez 2014), cultural (Arnáiz et al. 2019;Carrasco et al. 2019;
Mitchell et al. 2012), natural heritage or terroir (Harvey et al. 2014;Holland et al. 2014) and
formative (Buhalis and O’Connor 2005;Famularo et al. 2010;Wargenau and Che 2006).
Wine routes are defined by the vineyards, festivals, shows and especially the wineries
of a given wine-producing region (Sigala 2014). All this in a geographical space where the
exploitation of the vine and the wine-making takes place, where the wineries are located,
where the interaction of the tourist with all the elements that make up the wine tourism
route occurs (Cruz-Ruiz et al. 2020;Pulpón and Ruiz 2019), becoming, together with the
terroir, basic elements in the conceptualization, design and management of wine routes
(Brás et al. 2010;Pérez-Calderón et al. 2015)
and being one of the primary resources in the
wine business (Riera Palmero 2014;Yagüe Guillén and Jiménez 2002).
It is in this framework where wineries have a greater chance of creating an offer
focused on the attraction of wine linked to the hedonistic experience (Bruwer and Alant
2009;Crespi-Vallbona and Mascarilla-Miró2020). Collaboration between all the actors
involved is decisive for generating value on the routes (López-Guzmán et al. 2009;Medina
and Tresserras Juan 2008;Miranda Escolar and Fernández Morueco 2011;Vieira-Rodríguez
et al. 2013;McGregor and Robinson 2019) and for the entire wine sector (Gomis et al. 2010).
A collaboration that will be more productive if the possibilities of generating enotourism
circuits in geographical areas that meet certain conditions are analyzed.
The study of the wine tourism offers and the needs of wine tourists has received
contributions from the perspective of case studies (Chiodo et al. 2020;Holmes 2017;Ilie¸s
et al. 2020;Triši´c et al. 2020;Triantafyllou et al. 2020); which have led academics and
specialists to understand the dynamics of this sector being assumed by the wineries as well
as the public and private agents involved (Cruz-Ruiz et al. 2020).
All of these arguments highlight the importance of wine tourism and the interest in
designing sufficiently attractive itineraries for the development of a sustainable tourism
model. This is a challenge that institutions will have to take on from a multidisciplinary
perspective, in which geographers, sociologists and economists, among others, will have
to intervene (Fernández Portela and Vidal Domínguez 2020). In this way, the process of
shaping a wine route as a tourism product is considered a way of conserving and enhancing
the cultural heritage that belongs to the identity of the local population (Carrasco et al. 2019;
Pulpón and Ruiz 2019), as well as an opportunity for economic diversification (Northwood
2000;da Silva et al. 2018;Wolikow 2014).
Economies 2021,9, 29 5 of 21
3. Territory of La Axarquía
La Axarquía belongs to the easternmost part of the province of Malaga and has a total
surface area of 1026.7 km
2
(Figure 2). It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south,
while to the north and east is the province of Granada and to the west it is bordered by
the capital of Malaga and the regions of Antequera and Nororma (Lucena 2007). It has
peculiar features, orography, farming systems and diversity of landscape and resources.
The average altitude of the region is 391 m, reaching a maximum altitude of 2069 m, making
it a territory with steep slopes alternating with open areas.
It has a Mediterranean-type climate, semi-tropical with mild winters and warm
summers. In fact, Tejeda, Almijara and Alhama mountain ranges protect this territory from
the cold north winds. Its subtropical latitude allows it to enjoy 3000 h of sunshine a year.
Average temperatures in the coastal area range from an average of 10
C in winter to 25
C
in summer, being somewhat more extreme in the inland villages, especially in those located
above the 900 meter mark (Carrión-García 2015).
Economies 2021, 9, x FOR PEER REVIEW 5 of 23
All of these arguments highlight the importance of wine tourism and the interest in
designing sufficiently attractive itineraries for the development of a sustainable tourism
model. This is a challenge that institutions will have to take on from a multidisciplinary
perspective, in which geographers, sociologists and economists, among others, will have
to intervene (Fernández Portela and Vidal Domínguez 2020). In this way, the process of
shaping a wine route as a tourism product is considered a way of conserving and enhanc-
ing the cultural heritage that belongs to the identity of the local population (Carrasco et
al. 2019; Pulpón and Ruiz 2019), as well as an opportunity for economic diversification
(Northwood 2000; da Silva et al. 2018; Wolikow 2014).
3. Territory of La Axarquía
La Axarquía belongs to the easternmost part of the province of Malaga and has a total
surface area of 1026.7 km2 (Figure 2). It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south,
while to the north and east is the province of Granada and to the west it is bordered by
the capital of Malaga and the regions of Antequera and Nororma (Lucena 2007). It has
peculiar features, orography, farming systems and diversity of landscape and resources.
The average altitude of the region is 391 m, reaching a maximum altitude of 2069 m, mak-
ing it a territory with steep slopes alternating with open areas.
It has a Mediterranean-type climate, semi-tropical with mild winters and warm sum-
mers. In fact, Tejeda, Almijara and Alhama mountain ranges protect this territory from
the cold north winds. Its subtropical latitude allows it to enjoy 3000 h of sunshine a year.
Average temperatures in the coastal area range from an average of 10 °C in winter to 25
°C in summer, being somewhat more extreme in the inland villages, especially in those
located above the 900 meter mark (Carrión-García 2015).
Figure 2. Location map of La Axarquía (Malaga, Spain). ETRS89 UTM 30S. Own elaboration.
The cultivation of vines in La Axarquía has certain peculiarities that make it attractive
for wine tourism, including the grape harvest, which is one of the earliest in Europe that
used traditional techniques for harvesting. The difficulty imposed by the physical envi-
ronment on the tasks of maintaining the vines and harvesting the grapes, which have to
be done by hand, means that this viticulture can be described as heroic (CERVIM 2020).
La Axarquía is currently made up of 31 municipalities and up to 67 districts. The total
population in the last municipal census amounts to 214,323 inhabitants and, as shown in
Table 1, Vélez-Málaga is the most populated urban center, with 81,643 inhabitants (IECA
2020), therefore it is part of the province of Malaga, but has a sufficient entity to be ana-
lyzed separately. It has its own bodies that identify it and work in a coordinated manner
throughout the territory, such as the Association of Municipalities of La Axarquía (Man-
comunidad de Municipios de la Axarquía) and the Centre for Rural Development of La
Axarquía (Centro de Desarrollo Rural de la Axarquía, CEDER).
Figure 2. Location map of La Axarquía (Malaga, Spain). ETRS89 UTM 30S. Own elaboration.
The cultivation of vines in La Axarquía has certain peculiarities that make it attractive
for wine tourism, including the grape harvest, which is one of the earliest in Europe
that used traditional techniques for harvesting. The difficulty imposed by the physical
environment on the tasks of maintaining the vines and harvesting the grapes, which have
to be done by hand, means that this viticulture can be described as heroic (CERVIM 2020).
La Axarquía is currently made up of 31 municipalities and up to 67 districts. The
total population in the last municipal census amounts to 214,323 inhabitants and, as shown
in Table 1, Vélez-Málaga is the most populated urban center, with 81,643 inhabitants
(IECA 2020)
, therefore it is part of the province of Malaga, but has a sufficient entity to
be analyzed separately. It has its own bodies that identify it and work in a coordinated
manner throughout the territory, such as the Association of Municipalities of La Axarquía
(Mancomunidad de Municipios de la Axarquía) and the Centre for Rural Development of
La Axarquía (Centro de Desarrollo Rural de la Axarquía, CEDER).
At present, the coast municipalities of La Axarquía have a much higher population
density than those of the inland, which means a strong urban pressure on the coast strip
(Almeida García and López Cano 2003)
. Table 1shows the towns and their surface areas,
with Vélez-Málaga, Rincón de la Victoria, Nerja, Torrox and Algarrobo standing out as the
most densely populated. On the other hand, the least populated municipalities are those
located inland, marked by a rugged terrain and more complicated accesses, which may
influence their tourist potential, the latter being Salares, Árchez, Alfarnatejo, Macharaviaya,
Sedella, Cútar, Totalán and Canillas de Albaida.
Economies 2021,9, 29 6 of 21
Table 1. Population of La Axarquía.
Municipality Surface (has.) Population
Vélez Málaga 157.9 81,643
Rincón de la Victoria 27.51 47,179
Nerja 85 21,091
Torrox 51 17,234
Algarrobo 9.73 6444
Cómpeta 54 3922
Colmenar 66 3376
Frigiliana 41 3009
Periana 58.76 3048
Benamocarra 6 3011
Riogordo 41 2724
Alcaucín 45.1 2230
La Viñuela 27.22 2034
Almáchar 15 1811
Sayalonga 18.3 1681
Canillas de Aceituno 42 1677
Benamargosa 12.12 1511
Comares 25.5 1315
Moclinejo 15 1271
Arenas 26.3 1156
Alfarnate 34 1069
El Borje 24 930
Iznate 8 868
Canillas de Albaida 33 716
Totalán 9.21 607
Cútar 20 614
Sedella 32 606
Macharaviaya 7.24 480
Alfarnatejo 20 377
Árchez 4.8 385
Salares 10 169
Source: IECA (2020).
4. Materials and Methods
The research was carried out in three stages. The first consisted of a study of the wine
production area of La Axarquía. The visits to this geographical area were made between
April and November 2019, a method used by other researchers to learn about the reality
of wine tourism in specific areas (Bruwer 2003;López-Guzmán et al. 2014). In this phase
a vital issue for the structuring of the itineraries of the wine tourism route was analyzed,
namely the resources and services offered.
The information obtained was completed by means of a documentary analysis using
multiple sources (General Catalogue of Andalusian Historical Heritage, Catalogue of
Protected Assets and Spaces of the Provincial Council of Malaga and tourist information
available both in brochures and online).
The second stage consisted of an in-depth interview with winemakers and agents
involved in the production of wine (Table 2), an appropriate tool for exploring the subject,
as it allows for the evaluation of non-neutral knowledge (Gillis and Jackson 2002;Mason
2006;Pepper and Wildy 2009). The questionnaire was designed by a work team belonging
to the SEJ 121 “Mediterráneo Económico” research group at the University of Malaga
and was structured in a single section of XII questions. In order to eliminate problems of
comprehension and subsequent interpretation of the data, a pilot experience was carried out
by selecting four participants. The interview (Appendix A) invited participants to comment
on what they believed to be the key strengths and weaknesses of the wine activity in terms
of wine tourism. The authors of the responses have remained anonymous. The interview
was implemented by all 100% of the winemakers, whose wineries are located in eight
Economies 2021,9, 29 7 of 21
municipalities in the region. Vélez Málaga and Cómpeta hosted two wineries and the rest
were distributed in the nearby towns of Árchez, Colmenar, Moclinejo, Sayalonga, Sedeya,
and Torrox. Ten responses were collected from institutional representatives, managers of
public and private companies, and other entities, which represented 70% of the institutional
sector present in the territory of La Axarquía.
Table 2. Fact sheet of the interview.
Data Collection
Method Semi-Structured In-Depth Interviews
Sample
Winery owners and managers, business sector agents, representatives
of institutions and social agents.
Number of interviewees 20
Sampling period April–November 2019
Interviewees
100% of wineries: Bodegas Hermanos López Martín, Bodega José
Molina, Bodegas Almijara, Bodegas Luis Picante, Bodega A. Muñoz
Cabrera, Bodegas Bentomiz, Sedella Vinos, Bodegas Medina y Toro,
Bodegas Jorge Ordoñez & Co., Cooperativa Unión Pasera de la
Axarquía (Ucopaxa)
70% of agents: Mancomunidad Costa del Sol Axarquía (Turismo),
Centro de Desarrollo Rural de la Axarquía (CEDER-Axarquía),
Asociación para la Promoción Turística de la Axarquía (APTA),
Delegación Agricultura Junta Andalucía, Turismo Andaluz,
Asociación de Empresarios de Vélez Málaga, Asocación de
Empresarios de Nerja, Asociación Agraria de Jóvenes Agricultores
(ASAJA) Vélez Málaga, Unión de Pequeños Agricultores Axarquía
(UPA-Axarquía). Fundación Cueva de Nerja.
Source: own elaboration.
Once the interviews had been analyzed, a SWOT was structured to determine the
real situation and define the implementation of possible wine tourism itineraries in the
region of La Axarquía, a methodology already used in other studies on the development
of strategies related to wine tourism (Carràet al. 2016;de la Torre and Navarro 2008;
Wilkins and Hall 2001). SWOT analysis is a multi-application tool that can be used to
analyze different aspects of a strategic nature, given that it provides excellent information
for decision-making. The benefit obtained with its application is the knowledge of the
real conditions in which an organization finds itself, in order to assume risk and take
advantage of the opportunities offered by the environment. It is important that the wine
industry and the tourism industry identify and understand their key strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities and threats, as well as how these factors interact, so that effective decisions
can be made in terms of sustainable wine tourism development (Álvarez García et al. 2014;
Millán 2012).
Thirdly, with the information available, we proceeded to make a proposal for wine
tourism itineraries that take into account the needs indicated by the interviewees, as well as
the heritage elements of the territory and the most necessary services for the development of
the enotourism route, having in mind the findings made by the research group (Cruz-Ruiz
et al. 2020), shown in Figure 1.
5. Results
The study of heritage resources, both tangible and intangible, tourism services and
wineries present in a geographical space is valued to the extent that they provide options
for progress in the form of wine tourism itineraries, taking into account the peculiarities
of the territory. In this case study and in researches applied to other wine-growing areas,
where wine and tourism come together (Harvey et al. 2014), where the rural is perceived as
Economies 2021,9, 29 8 of 21
a space in which the land prevails as an element of production, the values, resources and
culture itself promote products to discover and enjoy (Privitera 2010).
5.1. Heritage and Services in La Axarquía
Following the Table 3, we can observe that the material heritage has a great diver-
sity in the region in the form of unique historical buildings, traditional architecture and
monuments, representing elements that add value to the territory. Obviously, the richness
of this matter is highly variable and does not necessarily correspond to the size of the
municipality, hence the importance of the fieldwork carried out.
Table 3. Types of tourist resources and services offered in the municipalities of La Axarquía.
Tangible Heritage Intangible Heritage Services Offered
Municipalities
Heritage and Services
Wineries
Traditional Architecture/
Historic Buildings
Museums
Archaeological Heritage
Gastronomy
Traditional Festivities
Craftwork/Local Products
Nature/Wine Landscape
Leisure/Sports Services
Wine Shops/Wine Cellars
Restaurants
Tourist Services Companies
Tourist Offices
Accommodation
Vélez Málaga 2 x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Rincón de la Victoria x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Nerja x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Torrox 1 x x x x x x x x x x x x
Algarrobo x x x x x x x x x
Cómpeta 2 x x x x x x x x x x
Colmenar 1 x x x x x x x x x
Frigiliana x x x x x x x x x x x x
Periana x x x x x x x x x x x
Benamocarra x x x x x x x
Riogordo x x x x x x
Alcaucín x x x x x x x x x x
La Viñuela x x x x x x x x
Almáchar x x x x x x x x
Sayalonga 1 x x x x x x x x
Canillas de Aceituno x x x x x x x
Benamargosa x x x x x x x
Comares x x x x x x x x x x
Moclinejo 1 x x x x x x x x
Arenas x x x x x x x x
Alfarnate x x x x x x x x x x
El Borje x x x x x x x
Iznate x x x x x x x
Canillas de Albaida x x x x x x x
Totalán x x x x x x x x
Cútar x x x x x x
Sedella 1 x x x x x x x x x
Macharaviaya x x x x x x x
Alfarnatejo x x x x x x x
Árchez 1 x x x x x x x x
Salares x x x x x x x
Source: Own elaboration according to IECA (IECA 2020), as well as on elements and resources of La Axarquía in the General Catalogue of
Andalusian Historical Heritage and the Catalogue of Protected Assets and Spaces of the Provincial Council of Malaga. The symbol “x”
means that the element is present in the corresponding municipality.
Economies 2021,9, 29 9 of 21
With regard to the tasks related to viticulture, heritage elements have been preserved,
in particular the grape drying sheds for the production of raisins must be mentioned
due to their exceptional nature. As reported by the respondents, there is a worrying
and progressive process of disappearance of agricultural heritage elements, wine presses,
drying sheds and warehouses, due to the updating of wine-making work and the lack of
valorization of these places until recently. Some of them are part of the history of certain
wine-producing localities in the territory under study.
Therefore, this vast heritage is present, to a greater or lesser extent, in all the munici-
palities of La Axarquía in the form of historic buildings (churches, houses, old industries,
archaeological remains). As far as museums are concerned, although there are several of
these infrastructures, only one of them is entirely devoted to traditional wine making. It
is located in the municipality of Cómpeta. In the rest we can find and recognize some
elements related to wine production, as well as archaeological, artistic or anthropological
ones that illustrate the historical and patrimonial richness of the region.
In this way, the itineraries to be designed will be determined by the local wine industry
and the value of its culture, contributing to sustainable development and preserving the
existing rich heritage, a casuistry observed in other territories (Carrasco et al. 2019) under
the model of wine tourism product club in Spain (Gomis et al. 2010).
La Axarquía has a strong sense of identity reflected in the potential of its intangible
heritage. Even today, in most of its municipalities you can still find examples of traditional
trades, mainly those related to agriculture and in particular those related to wine-making.
Festivals are another attraction and a perfect complement to wine tourism visits
(Getz 2019;López-Guzmán et al. 2019)
. The cultural and ethnographic variability endows
La Axarquía with a complex festive framework developed throughout the year, be it the
typical patron saint feasts or other festivities and events related to the traditional tasks of
wine and gastronomy, which is an added motivation for the visitor. In fact, the prominence
of wine and raisins is a central theme of certain festivals usually held in the summer
months, when the grapes are harvested. The municipalities with the greatest wine-growing
traditions, such as Cómpeta, Moclinejo and Colmenar, are the main protagonists, although
raisins and grapes are also part of the popular culture in El Borge, Iznate and La Viñuela.
The wine landscape is the most outstanding natural and genetic heritage. The tourist
resource of the landscape and the vineyard offer one of the most interesting options in
a wine tourism route (González Morales et al. 2015). In this sense, the vineyards of La
Axarquía make up a very characteristic landscape due to the unevenness of the terrain,
which makes it necessary to use mules to harvest the grapes. In addition, it is considered an
economic and heritage resource, due to its determining influence on productive activities
of great relevance, among which is tourism and also residential development (Almeida
García and Cortés Macías 2011).
As for services, these are concentrated in the municipalities with the largest number
of inhabitants and in the centers characterized by their offer of sun and beach tourism
activities, such as Rincón de la Victoria, Vélez Málaga, Torrox and Nerja. Leisure services
and tourist service companies are present in the aforementioned municipalities, to which
are annexed Periana and Arenas, where there are companies related to active tourism.
More than a third of the municipalities in the inland of the region, apart from those on
the coast, have tourist information offices, which makes them interesting stop points on the
route: Cómpeta, Frigiliana, Benamocarra, Alcaucín, La Viñuela, Comares, Alfarnate and
Sedella. Restaurant and accommodation services are omnipresent in all the towns. The
type of accommodation is varied, ranging from the large hotels located in the coastal towns
of Vélez Málaga and Nerja to the small rural hotels in municipalities such as Arenas, as
well as the tourist apartments that flourish in towns such as Frigiliana and Alcaucín. In the
case of restaurants, all the towns except Cútar have them and, even though the types are
varied, local gastronomy is present in all of them.
Economies 2021,9, 29 10 of 21
5.2. Diagnosis of the Territory: SWOT
The information compiled through the interviews has allowed the elaboration of a
diagnosis of La Axarquía by means of a SWOT, in which the strengths and weaknesses,
threats and opportunities of wine tourism in the area are specified (Table 4).
The present offer of services is based mainly on tangible elements such as wine and
wineries, but there are intangible elements that add attractiveness and interest such as the
surrounding elements or the associated services. The geographical context has a major
influence on the analysis. In the case of La Axarquía, it has recently been transformed into
an area where agriculture has given way to tourism as a source of income, becoming just
another zone of the metropolitan area of Malaga, which can generate conflicts of interests
that can be overcome with proper planning (Almeida García 2011).
Furthermore, it is necessary to take into account the important role played by the
different local, provincial and regional public administrations in the development of the
initiatives related to the construction of a certified wine route, as they require active
incentive policies, as well as elements to boost the necessary infrastructures and the
promotion of the territory. SWOT shows the most relevant issues for outlining the actions
that can be derived from public policies to support the development of the rural territory.
Table 4. SWOT matrix on the wine sector in La Axarquía.
WEAKNESSES STRENGTHS
Need to adapt the wineries to the demand
for wine tastings and local gastronomy.
Problems of promotion and
communication (marketing) of the wine
tourism attractions of La Axarquía.
Lack of interest in the world of wine
among the sun and beach tourists who
visit the area, as wine culture is not a
priority for them.
Lack of professional experts specialized in
the richness of heritage and/or oenology.
Inadequate indication of wine tourism
points of interest.
Lack of collaboration between the
different establishments involved.
Dispersed population centers and poor
land communications.
Visually attractive agricultural landscape.
Wide variety of tangible and intangible
heritage.
Wide variety of local events and
festivities.
Recovery of ethnographic spaces that
enhance the wine itinerary.
Wide and varied range of rural
accommodation and restaurants.
Deep-rooted ancestral winemaking
tradition
High quality of the vineyards in the area
with native and endemic grape varieties.
THREATS OPPORTUNITIES
Limited number of wineries with
adequate infrastructures to guarantee the
reception of visitors.
Possibility of other tourist itineraries
overshadowing La Axarquía itineraries.
Progressive disappearance of the
traditional wine landscape due to the
introduction of non-native agricultural
species.
Small wineries with limited production
volumes.
Little dialogue between institutional
authorities and winemakers.
Willingness of public institutions to
promote wine tourism as a sustainable
tourism offer.
Emergence of operators specializing in
wine tourism
Concern for the sustainability and
survival of viticulture as an activity that
provides high added value.
Integration of La Axarquía into the
Malaga and Ronda Wine Route.
Compatibility of wine tourism with other
rural and inland tourism activities.
Differentiation through the development
of a sustainable tourism product.
Large number of visitors and tourists
from the coast.
Source: own elaboration.
Economies 2021,9, 29 11 of 21
5.3. Characteristics of the Wineries and the Services Offered
Wine tourism as an economic driver has its ultimate expression in the organization
of routes and itineraries. A construction that requires institutional collaboration and the
involvement of private initiatives that are channeled through the winemaking businesses
in La Axarquía.
The research carried out in person in each of the wineries (Table 5) has allowed a
rigorous study of their possibilities and a mapping of the characteristics of each one of
them, which is essential for the elaboration of wine tourism itineraries. Table 5shows
the characteristics of the wineries in the area of La Axarquía, as well as the services they
provide.
Table 5. Characteristics and services of the wineries of La Axarquía.
Characteristics Services
Wineries Town Founding
Year
Type of
Business *
Own
Vine-
yards
Products
Business
Marketing
Language **
Tasting/
Gastronomic
Menu
Direct
Sale of
Wine
Visits
to Vine-
yards
Events Website
Hermanos
López MartínArchez 1988 Family-run x Wine Spanish x
JoséMolina Colmenar 2011 Family-run x Wine Spanish/English x x
Almijara Cómpeta 1993 Family-run x Wine Spanish/English x x x
Luis Picante Cómpeta 2001 Family-run Wine Spanish x
A. Muñoz
Cabrera
(Dimobe) Moclinejo 1927 Family-run x Wine Spanish/English x x x x x
Bentomiz Sayalonga 2003 Family-run x Wine Spanish/English x x x x x
Sedella Vinos Sedella 2006 Family-run x Wine Spanish/English x x x x
Medina y Toro Torrox 2006 Family-run x Wine Spanish x x x
Jorge Ordoñez
& Co Vélez-
Málaga 2004 Family-run x Organic
wine Spanish/English x x x x
Cooperativa
Unión Pasera
de la Axarquía
Vélez-
Málaga 1980 Cooperative x Wine/Raisins Spanish x x
* The typology indicates the ownership of the business and its structure, irrespective of the corporate form under which they are registered
in the business and company registers. ** Languages in which the public is served for the marketing of the wineries’ wines. The symbol “x”
means that the element is present in the corresponding winerie. Source: Own elaboration.
The predominant business structure is the family-run type, with the exception of
UCOPAXA, a cooperative that brings together more than 700 farmers and which produces
and markets 70% of Malaga’s raisin production, making various types of wine. Most of the
wineries have their own vineyards; only Bodegas Luis Picante purchases must from local
producers to make its wines. With regard to wine production, the traditional production of
sweet wines in the area has given way to red, roséand white wines, which in the case of
Bodegas Jorge Ordoñez are organically produced.
In the case of the wineries, the dates on which they were founded are striking, with
those that began their activity at the end of the 21st century dominating the scene in the heat
of the growing interest in viticulture. However, we recognize the singularity of Bodegas
A. Muñoz Cabrera, known as Dimobe, founded in 1927, whose business has continued
uninterruptedly since then.
Despite the fact that all the wineries are committed to wine tourism, the degree of
development of services is uneven. Customer service is provided in Spanish and English,
at least in most of them. Most of the wineries offer the possibility of wine tastings which
can be accompanied by gastronomic menus, while visitors can buy the wines they produce
directly. Wine-related events are only offered at three wineries, while vineyard tours are
only available at three of the wineries.
Economies 2021,9, 29 12 of 21
6. Organization of Wine Tourism Itineraries
Tourist routes and itineraries are nowadays a matter of great interest for the competent
tourist bodies in Spain. In the case of Malaga, their existence is promoted by the Public
Company of Andalusian Tourism, the Provincial Council of Malaga, and in La Axarquía
by La Axarquía Rural Development Group (Grupo de Desarrollo Rural de La Axarquía,
CEDER).
The wine tourism itineraries proposed for La Axarquía highlight the importance of the
existing heritage resources and services. The opinions gathered among the agents involved
point to the existence of numerous routes of tourist interest which can be based on the
attractions of the area. The interviewees acknowledged the existence of some institutional
initiatives, although they have not had a significant impact on the localities along the
routes.
With regard to an enotourism route or itinerary, it must have a layout that brings
together specific resources and that meets the criteria of efficiency and economic profitabil-
ity. Assuming these criteria in a geographical, cultural and historical context linked to
wine, two different wine tourism route/itinerary options are proposed, taking into account
environmental sustainability criteria, placing value on the tangible and intangible elements
it possesses and combining the efforts of social and institutional agents, private companies,
producers and consumers.
After having catalogued the elements present in the region of La Axarquía useful for
the definition of a wine tourism route, having validated them through a field study and the
interviews in the SWOT matrix, we believe that it is possible to propose two wine itineraries
in La Axarquía. Logically, the role played by the wineries is fundamental, especially those
that are more closely linked to the wine tradition or those that show a greater interest in
being linked to the wine tourism route.
These itineraries try to create a coherent visit, in which the greatest number of heritage
elements and services are present, taking into account the mandatory inclusion of the
wineries, which work as a critical element and must necessarily be included in the itinerary.
The density of heritage elements complicates the route, as almost any corner of the territory
is worth a visit. Services are another of the keys to success. The restaurant offer covers
almost all the municipalities, with interesting proposals that recover the local culinary
heritage and modernize it, while the local wines have an important presence in bars,
restaurants and in the few wine cellars in the area. There is a wide range of possibilities for
overnight stays in the area, thanks to the large network of rural accommodation available
in most of the municipalities.
1st Proposed Itinerary
The first itinerary aims to showcase the largest number of wineries in La Axarquía,
as well as its heritage elements (Figure 3). It is a circular route that starts and ends in
Vélez Málaga, which is the municipality where the visitor can find the largest offer of
accommodation and which is easily accessible from the A-7 motorway, which connects
with the city of Malaga in 30 min. Vélez Málaga is the head of the region of La Axarquía
and is home to two wineries, Jorge Ordóñez & Co. and Ucopaxa, the latter also dedicated
to the marketing of raisins.
There is a wide range of heritage and services on offer, and it is worth highlighting
the heritage that is concentrated in the historic center. The direction of the route does not
affect the visit, so the first point of interest is Bodegas Medina y Toro, located in Torrox, a
municipality that is divided between the coastal strip and Almijara mountain range and
that is organized along the axis marked by the river Torrox. This town has a historical
and archaeological heritage that dates back to the time of the Roman colonization and
includes important remains of industrial activities such as the San Rafael sugar factory. The
next milestone on the route is the town of Cómpeta, which stretches along the southern
slopes of Sierra Almijara to the Montes de Málaga, with a landscape of hills covered with
vineyards, olive groves, almond trees and scrubland. The town is especially known for
Economies 2021,9, 29 13 of 21
its wine-growing tradition and culture and is home to Bodegas Luis Picante and Bodegas
Almijara. Numerous heritage elements can be found (the cemetery of San Sebastián and its
historic quarter stand out), as well as popular festivals.
Traditional work has also been preserved, apart from the work of the vineyard, which
is still practiced today, such as the lime industry and tinplate craftwork. The next point
on the route is Árchez, a small town at the foot of Sierra Tejeda, surrounded by vines and
olive trees and which preserves a minaret of Muslim origin. In this town you can visit the
Hermanos López Martín winery, whose main interest lies in the surrounding landscape
and ethnographic values.
The route can be extended to Sedella, a municipality of singular interest that treasures
an interesting popular architecture and where traditional crafts such as imagery and esparto
grass work are still preserved. Sedella Vinos winery is responsible for keeping alive the
town’s winemaking tradition, where the mountain landscape and the vineyards, olive and
almond groves coexist. The return is from Cómpeta in the direction of Sayalonga on the
A-7206. This small municipality of steep slopes is home to Bodegas Bentomiz, ending the
route back in Vélez Málaga.
Figure 3.
Own elaboration based on the Digital Cartography of Andalusia (IECA). Location map of Itinerary #1. La Axarquía
(Malaga, Spain). ETRS89 UTM 30S.
2nd Proposed Itinerary
Economies 2021,9, 29 14 of 21
The second itinerary takes in what is known as the Raisin Route, which has an
interesting heritage value, both tangible and intangible (Figure 4). It highlights the vineyard
landscape in a steeply sloping terroir that extends over the hills of the Montes de Málaga
and where the traditional grape drying sheds are also located. The route can be followed
in either direction, and if you take the possible extension to El Rincón de la Victoria, it is
a circular route. The possibilities for overnight stays in the area are varied, especially in
terms of rural accommodation.
Economies 2021, 9, x FOR PEER REVIEW 15 of 23
spreads out on a hill of the same name, dominating the surrounding valley. It is worth
mentioning some heritage elements linked to economic activities, such as mills and foun-
tains. Apart from the wine-growing activity, traditional trades such as esparto and basket
weaving are still preserved. The route continues to Benamargosa, which takes its name
from the river that runs through it and which allows the development of orchards where
citrus and avocado trees are grown, blending in with the vineyard landscape. Comares is
the next point on the route, located on the hill from which it takes its name. Its geograph-
ical conditions made it an excellent defence post, especially during the period of Moorish
rule. It is around the fortifications of this period that the historic quarter is clustered, with
its typical Moorish urban layout, which is completely pedestrianized due to the narrow-
ness and steepness of the streets. There are numerous heritage elements, some of which
are linked to the defensive function of the town or to religious worship, as well as those
of a civil nature. Of particular note is the folkloric expression of the Verdiales, a style of
fandango typical of the province of Malaga, which takes its name from this locality in one
of its styles and which is danced in its popular festivals. The route ends in Totalán, a small
municipality adjoining the town of Málaga, which adapts to the terrain and takes ad-
vantage of the waters of the stream of the same name that runs through the town. The
urban layout denotes its Moorish origins, although the area has been inhabited since pre-
historic times.
Figure 4. Own elaboration based on the Digital Cartography of Andalusia (IECA). Location map of Itinerary #2. La Axar-
quía (Malaga, Spain). ETRS89 UTM 30S.
7. Discussion
In recent decades, the rural world has been undergoing profound social and eco-
nomic changes in many territories, joining a global and intensely interconnected world
and demanding a better exploitation of its resources, among which wines are particularly
Figure 4.
Own elaboration based on the Digital Cartography of Andalusia (IECA). Location map of Itinerary #2. La Axarquía
(Malaga, Spain). ETRS89 UTM 30S.
Starting from Moclinejo, it is there where you can visit Bodegas Muñoz Molina, the
only establishment dedicated to the production of wine along the route. The next point of
interest is Almáchar, situated on a hill located between the rivers El Borge and Almáchar
and here, from the end of August, you can observe the process of drying the grapes to
produce raisins. Other activities of interest are the festivals and popular celebrations
around the livestock activity and the typical products of the area such as “ajoblanco”. A
short distance away is El Borge, a municipality that is clustered around the Ejido hill, on
the banks of the river from which the town takes its name. The urban center is integrated
into the landscape with a structure of winding streets adapted to the relief of the area. Of
interest are several heritage elements such as the cemetery, the parish church and two old
mills. The traditional activities of grape harvesting and processing are still common among
the inhabitants. The route now heads towards the small town of Cútar, which spreads out
on a hill of the same name, dominating the surrounding valley. It is worth mentioning some
heritage elements linked to economic activities, such as mills and fountains. Apart from
the wine-growing activity, traditional trades such as esparto and basket weaving are still
preserved. The route continues to Benamargosa, which takes its name from the river that
runs through it and which allows the development of orchards where citrus and avocado
Economies 2021,9, 29 15 of 21
trees are grown, blending in with the vineyard landscape. Comares is the next point on the
route, located on the hill from which it takes its name. Its geographical conditions made it
an excellent defence post, especially during the period of Moorish rule. It is around the
fortifications of this period that the historic quarter is clustered, with its typical Moorish
urban layout, which is completely pedestrianized due to the narrowness and steepness
of the streets. There are numerous heritage elements, some of which are linked to the
defensive function of the town or to religious worship, as well as those of a civil nature. Of
particular note is the folkloric expression of the Verdiales, a style of fandango typical of the
province of Malaga, which takes its name from this locality in one of its styles and which is
danced in its popular festivals. The route ends in Totalán, a small municipality adjoining
the town of Málaga, which adapts to the terrain and takes advantage of the waters of the
stream of the same name that runs through the town. The urban layout denotes its Moorish
origins, although the area has been inhabited since prehistoric times.
7. Discussion
In recent decades, the rural world has been undergoing profound social and economic
changes in many territories, joining a global and intensely interconnected world and
demanding a better exploitation of its resources, among which wines are particularly
important (Baird et al. 2018;Brunori and Rossi 2000). In this context, wine tourism and,
more specifically, wine routes and itineraries, are a way that reflects the consumption
patterns of tourists seeking leisure experiences that are close to and adapted to their
lifestyles.
Sensitivity to environmental values, sustainability and the search for authenticity
through cultural and landscape elements are an important asset for the economic de-
velopment of rural wine-growing areas, as tourists are willing to pay to discover new
experiences far from the overcrowding of traditional holiday destinations (Cristófol et al.
2020;Pulpón and Ruiz 2019). In fact, public and private actors in La Axarquia have
undertaken sustainability policies both in coastal areas and in the rural territory.
In the case of Spain, ACEVIN plays a transcendental role in improving the wine
tourism offer in places with a great wine tradition, promoting quality tourism. In recent
times, numerous routes have been set up, such as the Ronda and Malaga route (including
the territory of La Axarquia), which is just beginning its journey and represents a great
business opportunity for each of its tours (Vázquez Palmero et al. 2017;Ruiz-Romero de la
Cruz et al. 2017).
Wine and wineries are the central axis that articulates the exploitation of this tourist
segment. Therefore, these businesses should organize tastings and guided tours in which
the singularities of Malaga’s wines and their production methods are made known. How-
ever, a wine tour contains more elements, so special attention must be paid to accommoda-
tion, restaurants, complementary tourist activities, infrastructures (Alberdi Collantes 2018;
Asero and Patti 2009;Festa et al. 2020), as well as to an adequate availability of information
about the destination (websites, maps, brochures and tourist documentation) (Cassar et al.
2018).
8. Conclusions and Implications
The research has examined the resources and services available in the region of
La Axarquía to create itineraries that represent an undoubted opportunity for economic
diversification that can have a direct impact on the economy, fulfilling the objectives
promoted by UNESCO to enhance the value of local heritage. Some of these wineries with
a long tradition in the family business will play a fundamental role in the development of
the wine tourism itineraries, satisfying a demand from wine tourists who are looking for
a unique experience during their visit, as well as the opportunity to discover vineyards,
wine landscapes, traditions and local festivities. Some of the wineries in La Axarquía have
made an important updating effort, organizing visits to their vineyards, as well as wine
and local gastronomy tastings, favoring the dissemination of Spanish wine culture.
Economies 2021,9, 29 16 of 21
The planning and organization of wine tourism and the collaboration between in-
stitutions and companies are necessary in order to correct the imbalances that are being
generated by the massive offer of sun and beach in the coastal area, concentrated in certain
coastal municipalities such as Rincón de la Victoria, Torre del Mar, Torrox Costa and Nerja.
The diversion of the flow of visitors towards a quality and sustainable tourist activity must
take into account the inherent limitations of the region in terms of environmental pressure,
capacity and preservation of the natural environment, as well as a landscape that gives it a
unique identity. At present, the flow of visitors makes short trips to the production areas,
responding to a need to “discover” the values of the interior of the region and showing its
capacity to concentrate its visits on weekends and short holiday periods.
The research findings highlight the importance of promoting quality wine production
and its landscape as distinctive tourism resources, favoring the creation of a brand image
and a transversal territorial discourse that local agents perceive as one of the most important
factors of the necessary rural development in this environment.
Wine routes are perceived as an opportunity for sustainable economic development
and as an opportunity for synergy between wine, natural landscape and cultural heritage.
The strategy to be followed involves the appropriate management of resources with the
aim of rebalancing the tourist area of the region, a measure aimed at the specialization of
tourist resources by means of their enhancement through the creation of facilities for their
enjoyment, recognition and sustainable management.
One of the most critical aspects of this work is the need to involve the local commu-
nity, so that they feel represented and participate in the whole process of setting up an
enotourism route, something that worries most of the interviewees.
The region of La Axarquía meets all the conditions to become a successful wine
destination, which is why the role of the institutions must be very active, allocating
resources for training and support for emerging service companies, as well as promotion
through the mechanisms available to the different bodies, providing both technical and
economic resources to the companies involved.
The results of the study are specific to a particular region and therefore cannot be
generalized, but the conclusions can be useful for the actors responsible for the development
of an economic sector as important as tourism, as well as opening a path for research into
the development of future wine routes.
The field study and, in particular, the interviews with the agents and winemakers have
highlighted the interest in starting or continuing a new line of business, which goes beyond
the interest in marketing a wine product. They are aware of the need to promote wine
tourism in the area as a way of developing the rural territory and making their businesses
profitable. Adaptations to the needs of regulated wine tourism are not homogeneous and
are at different stages, depending on the interest and impulse of the owners. An awareness-
raising effort on the part of the institutions that we believe would result in greater tourism
benefits for the area and for their own businesses.
The case study has led to a proposal for the layout of two possible wine itineraries
conceived with criteria of efficiency and sustainability, which can favor the progress of La
Axarquía, achieving one of the main objectives of the development of the rural territory, as
well as economic and socio-cultural effects. The wine route in La Axarquía is based on a
unique and specific tourist product, for which we establish a series of suggestions:
Visit and participation in the harvesting and winemaking process.
Training of wine tasting experts.
Training of experts in local heritage and culture.
Increased complementary offer (events, active tourism, cultural tourism, gastronomic
tourism).
Improvement of road infrastructures.
Active promotion of the destination and improvement of the information available.
Creation of a specific and distinctive markers of the route and of all the elements likely
to be attractive to visitors.
Economies 2021,9, 29 17 of 21
Improving the online presence of the wineries and the possibilities offered by social
networks.
Improving of private and institutional collaboration.
Commitment to the production of organic wines
In general, we believe that the link between wine businesses and those whose existence
is based on raisins, as is the case in Malaga, should collaborate closely and could even
participate jointly in the future design of tourist routes with both elements as essential
resources to promote the tourist development of the rural territory in this area. It would be
a unique specialization that would reinforce their identity in the marketing of new tourist
products. In fact, the very structure of the Ronda and Malaga wine route is covered by the
Regulatory Council of the Designation of Origin, which includes both wines and raisins.
Future studies and actions on the territory should take into account the heritage elements
and relate them to the sustainability of the territory as a way to generate wealth in the
terroir.
Author Contributions:
Conceptualization, E.R.-R.d.l.C. and G.Z.-A.; methodology, E.C.-R. and G.Z.-
A.; software, G.Z.-A.; validation, E.R.-R.d.l.C., E.C.-R. and G.Z.-A.; formal analysis, E.C.-R. and
E.R.-R.d.l.C.; investigation, G.Z.-A. and E.C.-R.; resources, E.C.-R.; data curation, E.R.-R.d.l.C. and
G.Z.-A.; writing—original draft preparation, E.R.-R.d.l.C. and G.Z.-A.; writing—review and editing,
E.C.-R. and E.R.-R.d.l.C.; visualization, G.Z.-A. and E.R.-R.d.l.C. All authors have read and agreed to
the published version of the manuscript.
Funding: This research received no external funding.
Acknowledgments:
We would like to thank all respondents for their kind cooperation for our
questionnaires and the members of SEJ-121 and the University of Malaga (UMA) for their support.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Appendix A
Model interview with winemakers and stakeholders
Name:
Position:
Institution/company:
Date:
Ref:
1.
Do you think it would be interesting for La Axarquía to have its own itinerary in the
Malaga Wine Route?
2.
What needs do you detect in La Axarquía in order to promote it as a tourist destina-
tion?
3. Do you think that the current offer of La Axarquía is interesting for tourists?
4. Are the resources and services of La Axarquía sufficient to attract wine tourists?
5. What problems do you detect in La Axarquía related to the wine tourism activity?
6. How would you qualify the offer of tourist accommodation in La Axarquía?
7. What should be the involvement of the wineries in the wine route?
8.
Is the involvement of the private agents and institutions of La Axarquía in the imple-
mentation of the certified wine route adequate?
9. Do you think that a sustainable wine tourism offer can be designed in La Axarquía?
10.
Do you think that the wine tourism itineraries are compatible with other existing
activities?
11.
Do you think that the service providers of La Axarquía are sufficiently involved with
the new wine tourism route?
12.
Do you think that the new wine tourism itineraries will have an economic impact on
the development of La Axarquía?
Economies 2021,9, 29 18 of 21
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... It therefore seems that the Bairrada wineries and route should take more advantage of the natural winescape environment for more involved and memorable wine route experiences. Activities such as picnics in vineyards, walking or cycling through these landscapes would probably add delight and immersive experience opportunities, as well as the chance of including more elements of intangible cultural heritage [76]. As a matter of fact, the diverse positive impacts that nature, culture and wine-related attractions revealed on visitors' experience outcomes (Table 6) suggest the potential of combining these three themes/experience contexts, possibly through wine-related activities in the aesthetically appealing cultural landscape of wine-producing territories (winescape), enriched with cultural heritage and art, and active cocreation, e.g., through workshops (e.g., food and wine pairing, creative culinary or artistic workshops), concerts or traditional events in the vineyards, simultaneously fostering visitors' entertainment, as pointed out in previous studies [41,44,48]. ...
... As, similar to other studies [44,47], entertainment was less found in Bairrada, 'edutainment' could be a strategy to reinforce this dimension in the region's wine experiences, particularly when considering the potential and sometimes neglected market of families travelling with children [79]. Besides, for more active, co-creative experience opportunities [38,47,51], possibly local actors may be involved, thus facilitating tourists' engagement in experiences perceived as 'authentic' while fostering the social dimension of the experience and thereby sustainable wine tourism development [38,73,76]. ...
... In this context, Montella [80] stresses the pertinence of identifying those tourists who are environmentally aware of green issues in wine tourism and who sustainabilityyielding wineries may want to attract through targeted experience offerings [80]. In La Axarquía, Zamarraño et al. [76] also found an increasing concern about sustainability issues amongst wine tourists, which should be taken into account when designing the tourism offer, such as guided tours or other 'educational' winery experiences. These actual global themes, with locally visible repercussions, could enhance the visitors' emotional and cognitive engagement, make the visit more meaningful and memorable, as well as potentially enhancing sustainability behaviours amongst tourists (who may become more aware of the need to save water, even on holidays, being an increasingly scarce and crucial resource for wine production). ...
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Wine tourism in rural territories, sometimes organised along wine routes, increasingly attracts visitors, tourism agents, wine producers and those responsible for developing rural territories. Wine tourism is located at the intersection of two distinct business sectors: the agribusiness-oriented wine production and the hedonic service/experience-oriented tourism activity. From the tourism perspective, the visitor experience is paramount and requires an understanding of its nature, conditioning factors and possible outcomes. This study analyses tourist experiences of the Bairrada wine route/Portugal, as reported by regional visitors on TripAdvisor. Results reveal not only the overall quite positive evaluation of these experiences, but also the importance of the aesthetic and educational experience dimensions, when applying Pine and Gilmore’s consumer experience framework. Diverse experience contexts contribute to a rich terroir experiencescape, where contents are far from limited to wine, wine cellars or wineries. These contexts seem to be connected distinctly to diverse experience dimensions, whose analysis should help regional developers understand the role of core resources and conditions for attracting, satisfying and delighting visitors. Additional understanding of the relationship between experience dimensions and outcomes, namely satisfaction and destination loyalty, should further help develop wine destinations more successfully.
... Analyses of wine tourism at the county level were carried out by several researchers in Romania. Ungureanu [72], Coros, Pop, and Popa [73] evoked the connection between wine roads and wine tourism in Alba county; Ciopi [74] and Nedelcu et al. [75] for Prahova county; and Manilă [76] for Vrancea county. Other national studies associate wine tourism with gastronomy [75,77,78]. ...
... Ungureanu [72], Coros, Pop, and Popa [73] evoked the connection between wine roads and wine tourism in Alba county; Ciopi [74] and Nedelcu et al. [75] for Prahova county; and Manilă [76] for Vrancea county. Other national studies associate wine tourism with gastronomy [75,77,78]. ...
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In the last decades, wine tourism (WT) has been a topic of study, especially for researchers from large producer countries. The relationship between wine tourism and rural tourism (RT) has been approached from many angles in the past. Ranking sixth in Europe in having its surface cultivated with vines, Romania is one of the major players in the Old World of wine producers. In Romania, the scientific literature on wine tourism is scarce and has a limited coverage on the subject. The present paper, by its main purpose, raises the curtain of Romanian wine tourism drawing a consumer profile and analyzes the relationship between WT and RT. Through quantitative research with 850 valid wine tourist respondents and a margin of error of 3.36%, we discovered that people who know what wine tourism means are 1.85 times more confident that it will contribute to the development of rural tourism compared to those who know less about the subject. A high number of visits leads to a decrease in the confidence that rural tourism can be developed through wine tourism due to the poor diversification of leisure activities offered by wine cellars and a weak connection between economic activity and local space. In the end, we draw some practical implications for wine cellars. By developing local-based leisure activities, vineyards can contribute to the sustainable development of the local community. Due to the COVID-19 impact on tourism, there are some limitations to our study. Future studies are needed to cover the changes and evolution of this type of tourism.
... As many of the recent publications on the sustainable gastronomic tourism topic involve wine tourism, we discovered that in most of the destinations where wine is used to promote food tourism, the area is included in famous wine routes [82]. There are 30 different wine routes in Spain alone (as of 2021). ...
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As tourism became more accessible, the number of visitors to various destinations increased, and that led to mass tourism. In the few last decades, new types of tourism started to emerge in response to the mass tourism offer which was oversaturated. People started to want ‘something different’, and that created new trends and niches in tourism. One of these new niches is food tourism. In this article, our main research purpose is to identify the state of the research carried out on the topic of gastronomic tourism, mainly between 2012 and 2022, as well as on the correlated topic of sustainable gastronomic tourism, and consider the impact they can have on a destination. We are also answering a few research questions including who are the food tourists, where do they go for food tourism and what do they do while traveling. The main research method used was desk review, and the papers taken into consideration for this analysis were mostly published between 2012 and 2022. The novelty of this paper lies in the result of indicating the state of the literature review regarding food tourism, and where is it heading. The research is significant not only because our results answer research questions, which give an insight into gastronomic tourism, but they offer a precise overview in this field with a focus on sustainability, and on gastronomy as a way to revive cultural heritage.
... Other research analyses food according to the territory in countries such as Portugal [58], Japan [59,60], China [61], India [62,63], Croatia [64], Greece [65,66], France [67][68][69], Hungary [70], and Poland [71]; or depending on a specific food such as oil [72], wine [73], cheese [74], tuna fish [75], cod [76], and cider [77]; or depending on the gastronomic routes [78,79]. Other studies analyse gastronomic destinations based on the dishes prepared according to traditional recipes, such as pizza [80,81], salmorejo and rabo de toro (oxtail) [82], plato minero (miner's dish) [83], and noodles [84], or depending on the life cycle of the gastronomic product. ...
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Iberian ham is a food product of great quality endorsed by Protected Denominations of Origin, which is beginning to be marketed as a tourist product, and visits to pastures, ham dryers, etc., are becoming tourist attractions in the rural areas of Andalusia. In this research, a factor analysis with VARIMAX rotation is carried out to determine the factors that influence the development of ham tourism. Five components are determined, of which the supply factor is one of the most important. Pull factors are highlighted as the local gastronomy and heritage, among others, and push factors include visiting dryers, pastures, and ham museums. Based on these results and the descriptive analysis of the profile of the ham tourist, it is found that the ham tourist is very satisfied with the visit made, and that the tourist would repeat the experience. However, it is observed that it is necessary to create routes combined with other better known gastronomic products, such as wine, and carry out marketing campaigns to publicize this tourist product in the national and international market, because at present it is local tourists who perform this type of tourism.
... Active foster agricultural business entities represented such as family farms and farmer cooperatives [21] can effectively drive green, organic, technological. Other elements in agricultural development [22] promote the development of rural industries and increase farmers' income. ...
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Agricultural eco-efficiency (AEE) emphasizes the unification of agriculture production efficiency and environmental benefits. It is an important indicator to measure agriculture's high-quality and sustainable development. Therefore, improving agricultural ecological efficiency is the key to achieving high-quality and sustainable agricultural development. The work uses the EBM-Super-ML method with strong disposability of undesired output to calculate the AEE and further in-depth the spatial-temporal differences driving factors and promotion potential of AEE. The result shows that the overall average value of China's AEE is increasing and has substantial regional heterogeneity. From the analysis of the improvement potential of agricultural ecological efficiency, the mean value of output inefficiency is 0.05, and input inefficiency is 0.07. Among the undesired output, the emission reduction ratio of the agricultural film can reach up to 40%. Among the input elements, the potential for intensive use of labor input is the largest, the average value in the eastern region is relatively high. The input intensity coefficient of agricultural machinery is negative, so the utilization rate of machinery and equipment should be increased. Based on this, the paper put forward some policy recommendations to improve agriculture's high-quality, sustainable development and the AEE.
... Wine is increasingly considered not just a consumer product but a potential development tool for rural territories, aiming at environmental sustainability, as well as the conservation and enhancement of heritage and culture (Zamarreño-Aramendia, Cruz-Ruiz, & De La Cruz, 2021). Tourists' terroir experience involves several actors and includes symbolic elements and material goods, such as wine products, culture, and landscape (Chiodo, Adriani, Navarro, & Salvatore, 2019). ...
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Space-time tourist behaviour is influenced by numerous factors related both to tourists and the destination. Yet, however complex it may be, understanding and to some extent managing the way tourists move in space and time is crucial to ensuring the quality of their experience, as well as the effective and sustainable management of destinations and attractions. In the rural wine tourism context, studies on space-time behaviour are rare. The present study uses empirical data collected from tourists staying in hotels of the Bairrada Wine Route territory (N = 116), combining a GPS tracking study with a questionnaire survey. Using a time-geographical analytical approach, the GPS tracking data were mapped for a more detailed analysis of the tourists’ movements in the Bairrada terroir. The findings highlight specificities of tourist consumption in the context of rural wine regions and provide valuable insights for destination planning, service design and marketing of the Bairrada Wine Route.
... Winery's tourism in grape and wine region To explain tourism in wineries, it is necessary to understand the definition of wine tourism, which according to Zamarreño-Aramendia et al. (2021) is the visitation of vineyards, wineries, wine festivals or grape shows in which the main motivation of tourists is related to wine tasting and the attributes of a wine region. Still in the definition, Valduga (2012) highlights the tourist, who through the escape from everyday life, moves from their original place and aim to get to know the wine industry. ...
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Purpose – This paper aims to propose a multicriteria model for the evaluation of tourist service quality in Brazilian wineries from a tourism perspective. Design/methodology/approach – The model is comprising two phases: structure of the problem and application of the method. First, the selection of wineries in a given region, the identification of decision makers that will perform the evaluation according to a set of 19 criteria based on the Tourqual protocol and the construction of the evaluation matrix in the next phase. Then, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method is applied and a rank of wineries is provided. Findings – The model is applied to evaluate the seven most important wineries in South Brazil and the results provided by the AHP method, considering the categories of Tourqual protocol, are consistent with the opinion of specialists in wine tourism. Research limitations/implications – The model needs to be applied to other case studies to evaluate the consistency of the results and their acceptability by the tourism sector. Practical implications – The model has the potential to be applied as a formal tool for evaluation of wineries, support decision-making processes in different wine tourism management structures: private wine and tourism organizations; public managers of tourism activity and managers of governance structures. Originality/value – This paper presents a novel AHP-based model for evaluation of service quality in the winery’s tourism domain, an empirical application of the model for evaluation of wineries in one of the most important regions that produce grapes and wine in South America.
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The International TWINE Conference - Co-creating sustainable rural tourism experiences with food & wine, local culture, landscapes, and people, will take place online on the 24th and 25th of February 2022 and it is organized in 2 plenary sessions, 1 round table and 19 parallel sessions. Main topics approached were: a) Understanding food & wine tourists in rural areas: motivations, perceptions, experiences, behavior, memories, attachment and imagination; b) Understanding rural communities’ perspectives of food & wine tourism and their role within tourism development; c) Entrepreneurship and innovation for quality rural food & wine tourism experiences; d) Marketing the rural food & wine tourism experience: co-creation, experience design, branding and market communication; e) Governance, networks and strategic partnerships for enhancing the rural food & wine tourism experience; f) Enhancing sustainable development through rural food & wine tourism experiences.
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This paper is aimed at investigating wine companies’ perceptions and attitudes towards the role of wine routes as an actual tool to improve their tourist attractiveness and sustainable tourism on a territorial level. Through a comparative approach, some wineries from the Italian regions of Abruzzo and Tuscany have been surveyed and in-depth-interviews to key local stakeholders have been conducted. The aim of the survey is to investigate the companies’ perception about wine tourists’ characteristics and wine route management. Through a multivariate analysis, the reasons behind wineries’ satisfaction/discontent have been analyzed. The findings identify a close relation between the complexity of the services offered, the companies’ involvement in the wine routes management and their satisfaction about the results obtained. The more complex the services are, the more satisfied the companies. The comparative analysis of the strengths and weaknesses pointed out by the wineries’ keepers has allowed some general considerations about the tools to use for the improvement of wine routes management. In a broader sense, the wineries’ direct involvement both in investment and in governance appears to be key in the success of the routes as a model for local tourism development.
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The aim of the article is to present the analysis of tourism competitiveness of the rural areas of the Eastern Poland microregion (Podlaskie, Warmińsko-mazurskie, Lubelskie,Świętokrzyskie, Podkarpackie provinces). To group the rural communes in terms of tourism competitiveness, a cluster analysis with Ward's method was applied. To do so, the data provided by the Central Statistical Office (Warsaw) in Poland of 2019 were used. The analyses provided in the article confirm the dependence between the size of the areas of outstanding natural beauty and the region's tourism competitiveness. The results can be applied by the representatives of various institutions and organizations supporting the development of tourism in those areas.
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The design of enotourist routes represents an opportunity for the sustainable development of rural territories. This qualitative study was structured in three parts to reach a cohesion model representing the academic literature, visitors, and winemakers. This research focused on the region of La Axarquía in Málaga (Spain) because of its wine and tourist tradition. In relation to the methodology, this study used content analysis techniques for the analysis of both the relevant literature and the questionnaires completed by all the winemakers of the territory, 60 tourists who visited the wineries, and the 10 most representative agents linked to the tourist development of this region. The findings provided a model with the elements to be taken into account in the creation of a wine route or itinerary in any destination of the world. The application of this model will contribute to the creation of new tourist policies that can move towards efficient progress of the region.
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The aim of this article is to analyze the social media effects on enotourism. Two territories of similar extension and with historical coincidences in their development have been selected: the Okanagan Valley, Canada, and the region of Somontano, Spain. Methodologically, an analysis of the content on Twitter has been performed, collecting 1377 tweets. The conclusion is that wineries create sentimental and experiential links with the users, avoiding commercial communications. Specifically, Okanagan wineries establish a relevant conversation network on Twitter based on the high percentage of responses, which is 31.3%, but this is not so in the case of Somontano, which is 12.8%. The tourist attractions most used to create a bond are the wine landscape and the gastronomy in the case of both territories. The tourism sustainability variable remains a minor matter in the emission of messages on Twitter.
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El papel de las sinergias entre cultura del vino, identidad territorial y turismo puede ser crucial para el desarrollo rural. El enfoque de la investigación considera la percepción y experiencia de los actores locales sobre esta cuestión, en el territorio de la Denominación de Origen Ribeira Sacra (Noroeste de España). La metodología está basada en la realización de entrevistas en profundidad. La cultura del vino, junto con su paisaje y patrimonio, favorece la consolidación de las estrategias turísticas. Las sinergias entre cultura del vino, identidad y turismo generan valores esenciales para el desarrollo rural. The role played by synergies between wine culture, territorial identity and tourism may be crucial for rural development. This research focuses on the perception and experiences about this topic by the local actors in the territory of the Denomination of Origin Ribeira Sacra (NW Spain). The research relied on twelve in-depth interviews. The wine culture, along with its landscape and heritage, favors the consolidation of tourism strategies. The synergies between the world of wine, identity and tourism generate values that are essential for rural development.
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Sustainable tourism development of the northern part of Serbia in Autonomous Province of Vojvodina aims to achieve ecological, sociocultural, and economic benefits. This means that all entities should be included in the planning and implementation of tourism, such as the local community, tourists, and state entities, while tourism activity should be focused on improving ecological principles and sociocultural conception in a destination. One of the models of this development is seen in specific products that can play a significant role in tourism development. Such an authentic product is wine, which has a very important role in the promotion of tourism. The aim of this paper is to explore Vojvodina-the region of Serbia-as a valuable wine tourism destination in the country, especially the experiences of the wine routes. We use descriptive statistics techniques to summarize and present the data and adopt a correlation analysis technique to describe respondents' preference on the importance of the wine routes. In the empirical survey, the main conclusion is a positive correlation that by developing wine tourism in Vojvodina, we can influence economic development of the region.
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Purpose This paper aims to provide a theoretical and conceptual analysis of wine and wine tourism experiences evidencing the current state of the art and providing some directions for future research. Design/methodology/approach The paper provides an in-depth literature review and content analysis of prior work. Findings The experience focussed on wine and wine tourism requires further exploration. The boundaries of the wine and wine tourism experience were identified, together with highlights and strategic agenda for future actions. Originality/value Based on some key prior literature on the topic of wine and tourism experience, future research directions and approaches were proposed.
Article
The importance of the vineyard in the agricultural economy throughout history is unquestionable. The quest for quality wines in a market increasingly competitive and globalized world is a goal of all wine regions in the world. In this context, the effort to innovate and to provide consumers more diversified and complementary products to the wine itself has led to the creation of a wide range of wine tourism, articulated on many occasions about the so-called wine routes. With the aim to guarantee the visitor a high quality tourism product, it has created the product Wine Routes of Spain, based on the idea that wine can be defined as a “territorial intensive product” (TIP) since it contains a strong reference in the territory in which it is produced.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the intrinsic components of wine tourism products that satisfy the consumers and analyze the economic development of wine regions, away from consolidated tourist destinations. Design/methodology/approach The objective of the study is fulfilled by reviewing the literature on culture and gastronomy as tourism-driving forces of hinterland development and the needs of wine lovers in their tourism experiences and then using it to design appropriate research tools to collect empirical data through a survey within the context of a single case study. Thus, the specific case of wine origin certification, denomination of origin (DO) in the Catalan regional area of Pla de Bages (Barcelona) is the successful case analyzed, through 210 valid questionnaires. Findings Wine tourism has a long history, although it may appear to be quite recent and innovative. Today’s visitors are well travelled and seek new experiences, authentic contexts and particular or exceptional activities. The findings show that the intrinsic components of wine tourism products that satisfy these consumers are critical to develop wine regions, focusing on the design of activities with significant dose of local identity and wine and gastronomic pairing. Definitely, participation, hedonism, significance, knowledge, nostalgia, tasting, novelty and local culture are the basic ingredients of a memorable and satisfying wine tourism experience. Research limitations/implications The present study has several limitations that need to be mentioned. First, this research is a single case study; the Pla de Bages DO serves as the case, focusing on one cultural heritage experience, the large wine vats walking visits. This fact can put the study’s validity in question. Another limitation is that this study is not a longitudinal one, the latter could lead to more accurate findings. It would be interesting to ad in-depth interviews to advance the understanding about how to enhance visits according to the analyzed components. Practical implications Sustainable governance of destinations implies the cooperation of private businesses, the public government and the support of the population of the territory, to develop creative and successful tourist products. Economic, social and cultural networks are necessary to create collaboration and innovation, following its mutual interests. The new governance approach based on networks that combines creative, sensorial and locally specific experiences is essential and offers many business opportunities and entrepreneurial options in hinterland regions, located near consolidated tourist destinations. Destination management organizations and private businesses should take into account the structure of the eight aforementioned components when they design oenological tourism activities. Originality/value The originality of the paper lies in the knowledge of the crucial components of memorable wine tourism experiences to satisfy visitor expectations. They have to include participation, hedonism, significance, knowledge, local culture, novelty, tasting and nostalgia.
Article
Wine tourism in Italy, the largest wine producing country in the world, has achieved outstanding performance over recent years. However, various institutional, managerial, and professional delays in the field impede Italy from developing its full potential as a wine tourism destination, most likely because of the still unsatisfactory engagement of all possible stakeholders. A recent step forward has been the specific amendment regarding wine tourism provided by the 2018 Budget Law, anticipating regulatory norms for the sector. In this scenario, Italian wine routes, established by Law No. 268/1999 and consolidated by the law on vines and wine (Law No. 238/ 2016), should play a key role in the governance and management of the local wine tourism industry. However, the state of the industry presents opportunities and (above all) challenges. Our research contributes to exploring this scenario, providing evidence from the field and potential guidelines for development through territorial stakeholders' engagement.