Conference Paper

Effecting Competitive Intelligence Drivers on Corporate Performance with Mediator Role of Customer Satisfaction

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The expansion of web-based information sources and social media attracts companies 'attention to such channels as sources of competitive intelligence because of their reduced advertising costs, good quality and utilization of competitors' knowledge and products. Up to now, most research has focused on information gathering techniques rather than competitive intelligence and its impact on firm performance. The competitive intelligence applied by management and employees, makes knowledge transferred across the organization. The present study was conducted using applied-qualitative and library research methods through various articles. Information analysis is performed using the grounded theory method. The assessments show the positive impact of competitive intelligence web resources and alliance with information providers in the field of competitive intelligence. Competitive intelligence has an impact on the performance of the company with the mediating role of customer satisfaction and also using the information gained from the knowledge of competitive intelligence has increased the level of customer satisfaction and thus increased financial performance for the company.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Business intelligence and analytics (BI&A) has emerged as an important area of study for both practitioners and researchers, reflecting the magnitude and impact of data-related problems to be solved in contemporary business organizations. This introduction to the MIS Quarterly Special Issue on Business Intelligence Research first provides a framework that identifies the evolution, applications, and emerging research areas of BI&A. BI&A 1.0, BI&A 2.0, and BI&A 3.0 are defined and described in terms of their key characteristics and capabilities. Current research in BI&A is analyzed and challenges and opportunities associated with BI&A research and education are identified. We also report a bibliometric study of critical BI&A publications, researchers, and research topics based on more than a decade of related academic and industry publications. Finally, the six articles that comprise this special issue are introduced and characterized in terms of the proposed BI&A research framework.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The paper seeks to show how the increasingly popular use of data and information acquired from open sources (OS) impacts competitive and marketing intelligence (C/MI). It describes the current state of the art in analysis efforts of open source intelligence (OSINT) in business/commercial enterprises, examines the planning and execution challenges organizations are experiencing associated with effectively using and fusing OSINT in C/MI decision‐making processes, and provides guidelines associated with the successful use of OSINT. Design/methodology/approach This is a descriptive, conceptual paper that utilizes and develops arguments based on the search of three unclassified bodies of literature in competitive and marketing intelligence, intelligence processing and marketing analysis. Findings Open sources are useful in marketing analyses because they can be easily accessible, inexpensive, quickly accessed and voluminous in availability. There are several conceptual and practical challenges the analyst faces in employing them. These can be addressed through awareness of these issues as well as a willingness to invest resources into studying how to improve the data gathering/analysis interface. Practical implications Marketing analysts increasingly rely on open sources of data in developing plans, strategy and tactics. This article provides a description of the challenges they face in utilizing this data, as well as provides a discussion of the effective practices that some organizations have demonstrated in applying and fusing open sources in their C/MI analysis process. Originality/value There are very few papers published focusing on applying OSINT in enterprises for competitive and marketing intelligence purposes. More uniquely, this paper is written from the perspective of the marketing analyst and how they use open source data in the competitive and marketing sense‐making process and not the perspective of individuals specialized in gathering these data.
Article
Full-text available
Studies on the diffusion of practices provide valuable insights into how organisations adopt, adapt, sustain and abandon practices over time. However, few studies focus on how stigmatised practices diffuse and persist, even when they risk tainting the adopters. To address this issue and understand how firms manage stigmatized practices, we study U.S. organisations associated with the practice of competitive intelligence (CI) between 1985 and 2012. CI includes legitimate information gathering practices that are sometimes also associated with infringements and espionage. Our findings suggest that CI became highly diffused and persisted despite the risk of stigmatising its adopters. We identified three factors to explain CI’s persistence: 1) keeping it opaque to avoid the negative effects of stigmatisation, 2) “constructing” usefulness to justify its ongoing use by leveraging accepted beliefs and invoking fear of unilateral abandonment and 3) adapting it by developing multiple versions to increase its zone of acceptability. These three factors contribute to practice persistence by allowing firms to dilute the potential stigma from use of the practice. Our contribution lies in explaining the adoption, diffusion and ongoing use of a stigmatised practice whose benefits cannot be overtly acknowledged nor made public.
Article
Full-text available
With the growing recognition of the customer's role in service creation and delivery, there is an increased impetus on building customer-centric organizations. Digital technologies play a key role in such organizations. Prior research studying digital business strategies has largely focused on building production-side competencies and there has been little focus on customer-side digital business strategies to leverage these technologies. We propose a theory to understand the effectiveness of a customer-side digital business strategy focused on localized dynamics--here, a firm's customer service units (CSUs). Specifically, we use a capabilities perspective to propose digital design as an antecedent to two customer service capabilities--namely, customer orientation capability and customer response capability--across a firm's CSUs. These two capabilities will help a firm to locally sense and respond to customer needs, respectively. Information quality from the digital design of the CSU is proposed as the antecedent to the two capabilities. Proposed capability-building dynamics are tested using data collected from multiple respondents across 170 branches of a large bank. Findings suggest that the impacts of information quality in capability-building are contingent on the local process characteristics. We offer implications for a firm's customer-side digital business strategy and present new areas for future examination of such strategies.
Article
Full-text available
Salespeople represent a primary source of competitive intelligence (CI), but the contextual factors that influence the performance impact of salesperson CI quality remain underresearched. The authors develop a framework to examine the performance impact of CI quality at the individual salesperson and sales district levels, with sales district CI quality diversity and sales managers' network centrality as contingencies thereof. The empirical results from multilevel data sets of two U.S.-based corporations reveal that district CI quality diversity weakens the positive performance effect of CI quality at both levels. Sales managers' centrality in within-district and peer advice networks buffers the performance losses created by district CI quality diversity, but salespeople's centrality does not have this buffering effect. The study uncovers conditions under which the positive performance impact of salesperson and district CI quality can disappear and even become negative, thus highlighting the role of managers as CI hubs.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The paper seeks to address the viability of planning and executing the integration of four often independent marketing information management techniques, i.e. competitive intelligence (CI), customer relationship management (CRM), data mining (DM) and market research (MR). Design/methodology/approach The research presented is a longitudinal, exploratory and descriptive case study, covering a three‐year period during a critical development phase of a medium‐size, national employer association which sought to improve the quality of marketing‐based insights to its strategic planning capability as well as improve economic outcomes. Findings It is possible to achieve profitable and capability enhancing integration of diverse marketing information management techniques. Successful integration and the use of a highly focused cross‐functional team generated better market strategies and bottom line benefits. Practical implications The need to generate greater insight from popular marketing information management and planning techniques is routinely experienced by marketing and other executive decision makers. This article provides a multi‐year roadmap of the successful execution of technique integration, including identifying barriers that arose as well as suggesting solutions for achieving progress. Originality/value There are very few case studies published that demonstrate the successful evolution and integration of CI, CRM, DM and MR into the enterprise's strategy‐making process. The unique element of this example is that it was achieved within the context of a medium‐sized, national, not‐for‐profit employer association.
Article
Full-text available
In this article, the authors develop a theoretical framework that specifies how customer satisfaction affects future customer behavior and, in turn, the level, timing, and risk of future cash flows. Empirically, they find a positive association between customer satisfaction and shareholder value. They also find significant variation in the association across industries and firms.
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the role of the decision environment in how well business intelligence (BI) capabilities are leveraged to achieve BI success. We examine the decision environment in terms of the types of decisions made and the information processing needs of the organization. Our findings suggest that technological capabilities such as data quality, user access and the integration of BI with other systems are necessary for BI success, regardless of the decision environment. However, the decision environment does influence the relationship between BI success and capabilities, such as the extent to which BI supports flexibility and risk in decision making.
Article
Full-text available
Export information acquisition has mostly been examined disparately as researchers have tended to focus on certain modes of information acquisition independently of others. Furthermore, past studies have typically employed single-item measures to operationalize information acquisition. The present study attempts to redress these deficiencies by considering a comprehensive set of export information acquisition modes and by developing psychometrically sound measures for each. The results show the adequacy of considering three broad export information acquisition modes (export marketing research, export assistance, and export market intelligence), each of which is operationalized by means of a multi-item scale. The latter are shown to be reliable and to possess content, convergent, discriminant, and nomological validity.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This study aims to examine the relationships between customer satisfaction and a variety of company performance metrics at the firm‐level of analysis. Design /methodology/approach The primary research method used in the study was a longitudinal analysis of series of quarterly surveys of customer attitudes, in relation to various company performance metrics of one large Fortune 100 company. The data were collected over a five‐year period and were analyzed with several statistical tests of association. Findings It was found that there are significant, and moderate‐to‐strong associations between satisfaction levels and a firm's financial and market performance. More specifically, there are strong links between customer satisfaction, and retention, revenue, earnings per share, stock price, and Tobin's q . Research implications/limitations The main implication of this study is that the longitudinal findings demonstrate a strong consistent link between customer attitudes and financial performance at the firm level. The study is clearly limited to one firm, from one industry sector, but offers future researchers a wealth of replication opportunities. Originality/value Numerous experts have noted that marketing needs to document the financial impact of marketing activities. Unlike most studies in this area, this study investigated these associations at the firm level, rather than at the aggregate or industry level where some relationships are potentially masked. The study also investigated the links between satisfaction and financial performance in the business‐to‐business services sector, rather than in business‐to‐customer services. Finally, the firm provided access to large samples of real customer attitude data over a five‐year period, rather than from a cross‐sectional study.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Little empirical research has been conducted on competitive intelligence (CI). This paper aims to contribute to the quantitative strand of the CI literature by exploring and validating the theoretical constructs of the CI process. Design/methodology/approach Data from 601 questionnaires filled out by South African and Flemish exporters were subjected to exploratory factor analysis and construct equivalence analysis between the sub‐samples. Findings The results showed that the CI process consists of three constructs, while the context in which CI takes place consists of four constructs. This agrees to some extent with the literature. When verifying the constructs for both cultures it was found that all but one CI context construct can be viewed as equivalent in both groups. Bias analysis identified one item in the questionnaire that was biased. Via regression analysis it was also indicated that the context in which CI takes place influences the CI process to a large extent. The research identified size as an important influencing factor in a business' CI process. Practical implications Businesses involved in CI should take note that an improvement in their formal infrastructure, employee involvement and internal information processes could enhance their CI capability. Originality/value This paper contributes towards the formalising of the constructs of competitive intelligence.
Article
Full-text available
Web Data Extraction is an important problem that has been studied by means of different scientific tools and in a broad range of application domains. Many approaches to extracting data from the Web have been designed to solve specific problems and operate in ad-hoc application domains. Other approaches, instead, heavily reuse techniques and algorithms developed in the field of Information Extraction. This survey aims at providing a structured and comprehensive overview of the research efforts made in the field of Web Data Extraction. The fil rouge of our work is to provide a classification of existing approaches in terms of the applications for which they have been employed. This differentiates our work from other surveys devoted to classify existing approaches on the basis of the algorithms, techniques and tools they use. We classified Web Data Extraction approaches into categories and, for each category, we illustrated the basic techniques along with their main variants. We grouped existing applications in two main areas: applications at the Enterprise level and at the Social Web level. Such a classification relies on a twofold reason: on one hand, Web Data Extraction techniques emerged as a key tool to perform data analysis in Business and Competitive Intelligence systems as well as for business process re-engineering. On the other hand, Web Data Extraction techniques allow for gathering a large amount of structured data continuously generated and disseminated by Web 2.0, Social Media and Online Social Network users and this offers unprecedented opportunities of analyzing human behaviors on a large scale. We discussed also about the potential of cross-fertilization, i.e., on the possibility of re-using Web Data Extraction techniques originally designed to work in a given domain, in other domains.
Article
Full-text available
The formal practice of forecasting and planning (F&P) has risen to prominence within a few decades and now receives considerable attention from both academics and practitioners. This paper explicitly recognizes the nature of F&P as future-oriented decision making activities and, as such, their dependence upon judgmental inputs. A review of the extensive psychological literature on human judgmental abilities is provided from this perspective. It is argued that many of the numerous information processing limitations and biases revealed in this literature apply to tasks performed in F&P. In particular, the "illusion of control," accumulation of redundant information, failure to seek possible disconfirming evidence, and overconfidence in judgment are liable to induce serious errors in F&P. In addition, insufficient attention has been given to the implications of numerous studies that show that the predictive judgment of humans is frequently less accurate than that of simple quantitative models. Applied studies of F&P are also reviewed and shown to mirror many of the findings from psychology. The paper subsequently draws implications from these reviews and suggests reconceptualizing F&P through use of decision-theoretic concepts. At the organizational level this involves recognizing that F&P may perform many, often conflicting, manifest and latent functions which should be identified and evaluated through a multi-attribute utility framework. Operationally, greater use should be made of sensitivity analysis and the concept of the value of information.
Article
The proliferation of Web-based information sources and social media draw firms' attention to these channels as sources of competitive intelligence (CI). To date, research has focused mainly on information collection techniques rather than on CI uses and its influence on firm performance. We define CI embeddedness as the extent to which management and employees incorporate CI in daily routines, so that actionable knowledge is transferred throughout the organization. A survey of 124 decision makers reveals positive impact of Web CI sources as well as alliances with information providers on CI embeddedness. Furthermore, while CI embeddedness shows no direct influence on firms’ performance, it has a mediated effect on performance through customer satisfaction.
Article
Our understanding of how organizations process market information can be advanced substantially on the basis of principles derived from models of organizational learning. Accordingly, the author examines the extant literature on organizational learning, proposes a hierarchy of market sense making, and provides research propositions that will enhance marketers’ understanding of information processing and knowledge creation in organizations.
Article
The process of knowledge utilization within firms has come to be viewed as an increasingly important area for research in light of its implications for organizational effectiveness. However, our current understanding of this phenomenon is limited because the process of knowledge use in organizations is complex and difficult to conceptualize and measure. Building on prior research in public policy, sociology, marketing, and other administrative disciplines, the authors first explicate the nature of knowledge utilization and propose a framework for circumscribing the concept of knowledge utilization. Next, using an emerging theoretical perspective on knowledge utilization, the “organizational” view, the authors present a conceptual model and research propositions that provide insights into informational and organizational factors that affect marketing knowledge utilization in firms.
Article
This study draws on the sense-seize-transform view of dynamic capabilities as the theoretical lens for examining the role of BI&A in organizations. It views BI&A as the sensing and seizing components of dynamic capabilities that contribute to firm performance by enabling business process change. Findings confirm a positive relationship between BI&A and performance, mediated by business process change capabilities. This study answers the call for a theoretically grounded examination of the relationship between BI&A and firm performance by highlighting the significance of the BI&A seizing capabilities, and the importance of business process change in translating BI&A output into improved performance.
Article
While we observe a growing interest in the role of market information in new product development (NPD), existing research has still largely ignored the quality of market information that is a crucial issue in the era of the information society. What does affect the quality of market information in new product development projects, and how does this quality influence the financial performance of new products? In this paper, we address these questions and hypothesize that sources of information (e.g. customers, competitors) influence the quality of market information, and this quality affects new product financial performance through market predictability as a mediator. We test these hypotheses using data of about 287 new product projects of medium-high and high technology firms from Poland. Our findings indicate that the key sources that influence market information quality are customers and competitors. More intensive collection of market information from these two sources, and especially from customers, will result in this information being of a higher quality. Surprisingly, gathering market information from other market entities (e.g. suppliers, distributors) has no effect on the quality of market information. We also find that an important consequence of high quality market information available in NPD is high new product financial performance. Additionally, market information quality positively influences market predictability that, in turn, has a positive impact on new product performance. Our results support a partial mediation effect of market predictability between the quality of market information and NPD financial performance. Based on these findings, the author discusses the theoretical and managerial implications of this work and proposes paths for future research. © 2018, Kauno Technologijos Universitetas. All rights reserved.
Article
With the advent of technology, a greater amount of information is available in a greater variety of formats that are accessible through a greater variety of media and communication channels, resulting in a much more complex and rich information environment for business managers. Many businesses are seeing the development of big data as unique opportunity and also experience it as demanding in terms of managerial skills and organisational capability to deal with it. Existing literature provides managerial prescriptions and systemic guidelines to make use of this information, but does not provide empirical evidence on how practising managers actually deal with information overload and make sense of the available data. This article discusses the findings from an interpretive case study of five organisations from the hotel industry within the hospitality sector. It was found that the volume and pace coupled with the qualitative and unsolicited nature of information caused information overload to managers. To cope with this phenomenon at personal level, managers used a combination of filtering, withdrawal and summarising strategies. At organisational level, the practice of summarising evolved into development and use of interactive dashboards.
Article
Prior research has argued that external knowledge sourcing can be supported by effective strategic human resource (HR) practices. However, whether and how the adoption of new organizational mechanisms in group settings influences the relationship between external search strategies and innovation performance represents an unanswered question. Therefore, the present paper aims to explore the relationship between the breadth of external knowledge sourcing (i.e., external search breadth) and product innovation by unveiling the moderating effects of strategic HR practices, as represented by the implementation of heterogeneous work groups and brainstorming sessions. On the basis of data from the Italian Innovation Survey, our results reveal that external search breadth is curvilinearly (inverted U) related to product innovation, and its negative effects occur later in the presence of heterogeneous work groups and brainstorming sessions.
Article
Technological knowledge and market knowledge are among the most valuable resources that a firm can utilize for competitive advantage. Absorptive capacity (ACAP) or a firm's ability to acquire, assimilate, transform, and apply knowledge, has long been a central construct in organizational studies. Yet, limited research exists on ACAP in a marketing context. Marketers tend to utilize market orientation (MO) in similar theoretical contexts. This study extends the scope of ACAP beyond a technology-related context and develops a model to compare the performance of both potential and realized ACAP as well as that of MO to assess shared performance in a market-related context. The survey results suggest that ACAP of market knowledge positively influences firm performance by enhancing customer acquisition & retention of the firm.The findings also indicate that market orientation operates through the innovation process to add its effects to that of ACAP. Finally, this study discusses the moderating role of a firm's balance in cost leadership and differentiation strategy, suggesting comparative and distinguishable effects of ACAP of market knowledge and market orientation.
Article
This article looked at competitive intelligence research reported from 1994 to 2014 in the ABI/Inform database to determine the development of competitive intelligence as subject field. This development can be attributed to several factors. Content analysis was used to establish research patterns and the author based the analysis on the extant literature and on the 338 articles that were gathered from the ABI/Inform database. Only peer-reviewed articles were analysed. The most popular term used in the literature is competitive intelligence, followed by business intelligence and marketing intelligence. The journals in which the articles appeared are scattered and few journals have published more than ten competitive intelligence articles. Few authors have published more than five articles.
Article
By highlighting consumers' personal characteristics related to online brand information search, this study sheds light on how information sources from eWOM (electronic word-of-mouth), neutral/third party, and manufacturer/retailer influence purchase intentions of consumers with high and low susceptibility to informational influence. Based on a two-phase study, we discovered that online brand-related information from these three sources has a positive influence on consumer attitude toward the brand and purchase intention for that brand. Furthermore, our results show that the eWOM source is likely to be perceived as more useful by consumers with high susceptibility to informational influence than neutral/third party and manufacturer/retailer sources. Conversely, all three sources of brand-related information are perceived to be useful by consumers with low susceptibility to informational influence. Implications for researchers and managers are discussed.
Article
Internet usage continues to explode across the world with digital becoming an increasingly important source of competitive advantage in both B2C and B2B marketing. A great deal of attention has been focused on the tremendous opportunities digital marketing presents, with little attention on the real challenges companies are facing going digital. In this study, we present these challenges based on results of a survey among a convenience sample of 777 marketing executives around the globe. The results reveal that filling “talent gaps”, adjusting the “organizational design”, and implementing “actionable metrics” are the biggest improvement opportunities for companies across sectors.
Article
This research models and tests the relationship between a salesperson's product knowledge, competitive intelligence behaviors (SCIB), and performance. Moreover, the research examines how a salesperson's use of a sales force automation (SFA) system influences the knowledge–SCIB–performance relationship. Our model and empirical evidence suggest that a salesperson's product knowledge influences performance indirectly through SCIB, and that this indirect influence is moderated by salesperson SFA use. Results show that the indirect positive influence of salesperson product knowledge on salesperson performance through SCIB is attenuated as SFA use increases, and enhanced when SFA use decreases. Theoretical and managerial implications are presented, followed by a discussion of limitations and future research.
Article
This study explores the generation and use of competitive intelligence (CI) within the buyer–seller exchange process and its influence on salesperson performance. Using the concept of social capital as a theoretical foundation and multilevel data collected at three time points from 686 customer–salesperson dyads, the authors empirically test a conceptual framework that proposes both antecedents and consequences of CI sharing between customer and salesperson. The results of the study demonstrate that CI sharing by customers is a function of salesperson customer orientation, customer-centric extra-role behaviors, and relationship quality. CI sharing translates into increased perceived value, share-of-wallet, and profit margins when the salesperson utilizes the information to position and differentiate his or her product; however this occurs only when the salesperson has strong adaptive selling skills. Surprisingly, CI negatively influences these outcomes among low-adaptive salespeople, indicating that CI can actually work to a firm’s disadvantage if the salesperson is not equipped to respond to it. These findings suggest that CI must be examined differently than general market knowledge and that firms may leverage CI to their tactical advantage at the salesperson–customer interface if managed effectively.
Article
Given their rapidly growing popularity, microblogs have become great sources of consumer opinions. However, in the face of unique properties and the massive volume of posts on microblogs, this paper proposes a framework that provides a compact numeric summarization of opinions on such platforms. The proposed framework is designed to cope with the following tasks: trendy topics detection, opinion classification, credibility assessment, and numeric summarization. An experiment is carried out on Twitter, the largest microblog website, to prove the effectiveness of the proposed framework. We find that the consideration of user credibility and opinion subjectivity is essential for aggregating microblog opinions. The proposed mechanism can effectively discover market intelligence (MI) for supporting decision-makers.
Article
This study investigates how different ways of using customer information affects a firm's performance in business-to-business markets. This study focuses on two different types of information usages, action-oriented and knowledge-enhancing information usage. Results from Partial Least Squares analysis show that action-oriented customer information usage, direct information usage, contributes to customer performance, but not directly to business performance. Furthermore, the findings indicate that the extent of customer information collected within a company and the sharing of this information improves both direct and indirect customer information usages. Implications for managers and avenues for further research are discussed.
Article
Although the literature on utilization of social science research is large and growing rapidly, the body of empirical studies on utilization is relatively small and discontinuous. A review of this literature yielded 27 empirical studies with data we considered relevant to the question of how to improve utilization of organizational research. In order to integrate and assess the results of these empirical studies, a conceptual framework of the utilization process in user systems is developed and used. Several types of use and various issues that recur are then identified and discussed within this framework. Twelve recommendations based on our analysis and synthesis of the accumulated empirical results are offered to assist interested organizational researchers in achieving greater utilization of their own and others' research and in improving research on the utilization of research.
Article
Although information use is crucial for effective export decision making and ultimately export performance, most of the extant literature focuses on information acquisition rather than information use. Using data from a five-country survey of exporting firms, this study examines the impact of information-, export-, and context-specific variables on different types of export information use. The results show that the effects of these factors depend on the type of information use considered and the mode of information acquisition involved. The authors discuss implications of the findings and identify further research directions.
Article
Market orientation (MO) and entrepreneurial orientation (EO) are correlated, but distinct constructs. MO reflects the degree to which firms' strategic market planning is driven by customer and competitor intelligence. Entrepreneurial orientation reflects the degree to which firms' growth objectives are driven by the identification and exploitation of untapped market opportunities. When modeled separately, research has reported direct effects of both constructs on firm profitability. When modeled simultaneously, however, the direct effect of EO has disappeared. This has led some scholars to postulate that EO is an antecedent of MO. The results of this study contradict this presumption and suggest that EO and MO complement one another, at least in small businesses, to boost profitability. The major difference between this and previous studies is the inclusion of innovation success, which captures an indirect effect of EO on profitability. At least in small firms, the results suggest that EO complements MO by instilling an opportunistic culture that impacts the quality and quantity of firms' innovations.
Article
Purpose The paper aims to give a new look at competitive intelligence (CI) and the resulting benefits to growing companies. Design/methodology/approach A total of 20 questions are presented, competitive information sources are listed, and the four core components of CI are displayed to explain how a company can implement CI into the business planning. Two case studies summarize a CI system that shows how successful this technique can be. Findings This research will inspire marketers to take a look at their CI and reactivate it based on what is presented. The overall practice of CI shows the rewards a company that develops this program can gain. Research limitations/implications All data were collected by Latitude Consulting. Reference is made to journal and newspaper articles. Practical implications The paper will explain how to use CI in a meaningful way. Originality/value This is an extremely new and original concept for businesses to apply.
Article
The marketing literature has predicated market orientation on information generation, dissemination and responsiveness to such information, implicitly assuming that information is perfect. Unfortunately, information distortion is a commonplace phenomenon in business. It is therefore conceivable that the generation and dissemination of distorted information can impede an organization's responsiveness to such information. Relationships between distortion, receiver reaction and responsiveness are discussed, with implications for continued research.
Article
We measure the links between store attribute perceptions and customer satisfaction, and between customer satisfaction and sales performance. Our data set consists of six waves of customer satisfaction and sales data for about 250 retail outlets over the period 1998–2001 for a publicly held supermarket company. We construct a statistical model to address nonlinearities and asymmetries in the satisfaction-sales performance links, and we illustrate how retailers can affect store revenues by managing customer satisfaction. Contributions of our study include the analysis of behavioral consequences of customer satisfaction in the food retail sector, the accommodation of complexities in the satisfaction-sales performance links based on an empirical model of first differences, and a discussion of how managers can employ the results for customer satisfaction policies.
Article
Purpose To explore the perceived attributes of export information quality provided by export assistance sources, in order to provide some guidelines for how these information suppliers can improve the quality of their offered information. Design/methodology/approach Twelve in‐depth personal interviews of export managers were used as the data collection method. The setting selected for this research is the Norwegian seafood industry, which mainly consists of a number of small and medium‐sized firms with a strong export dependency, and thus well positioned to address export‐specific issues. Findings Four service aspects are important: reliability (delivery within agreed deadline), responsiveness (rapid feedback and good communication flow), assurance (credibility and honesty) and empathy (able and willing to serve individual needs). Six aspects related to outcome are important: form and comparability (concrete, specific, precise, comparable and up‐to‐date), infrastructure (distribution, logistics and storage), general marketing (economics, trends and culture), specific marketing (detailed information regarding, e.g. price fluctuations, consumer preferences, distributor assessments, credit valuation), production/supply (volumes, quotas and availability) and regulatory framework (customs, market access and regulations). Research limitations/implications These findings are not fit for generalizing purposes and future research could test these results in a quantitative study. Further, the effect of other variables such as firm size and export experience could be examined and linked with different dimensions of export market information use. Practical implications Suggestions for providers of export information on how to improve the process of supplying information to exporters and the type of information needed by exporters and how exporters can influence this process and results are provided. Originality/value This paper identifies attributes of export information quality as perceived by exporters and thus enables subsequent information quality measurements and information quality improvements.
Article
Competitive success is governed by an organisation’s ability to develop new knowledge assets that create core competences. While these exist in many forms, organisational learning is an integral feature of any learning organisation that exploits its knowledge resources to generate superior performance. This paper explores the ideas and links between organisational learning and knowledge management, making reference to a number of sectors and companies, and specifically the airline industry, arguing that the culture, structure and infrastructure of an organisation are essential elements that facilitate and nurture learning. As a consequence, core competences are built and developed within the learning organisation which, in turn, contribute to its competitive success.
Article
Purpose The article traces the origins of the competitive intelligence fields and identifies both the practitioner, academic and inter‐disciplinary views on CI practice. An examination of the literature relating to the field is presented, including the identification of the linear relationship which CI has with marketing and strategic planning activities. Design/methodology/approach Bibliometric assessment of the discipline. Findings reveal the representation of cross disciplinary literature which emphasises the multi‐faceted role which competitive intelligence plays in a modern organization. Findings The analysis supports the view of competitive intelligence being an activity consisting dominantly of environmental scanning and strategic management literature. New fields of study and activity are rapidly becoming part of the competitive intelligence framework. Research limitations/implications The analysis only uses ABI Inform as the primary sources for literature alongside Society of Competitive Intelligence Professionals (SCIP) and Competitive Intelligence Foundation (CIF) publications, particularly the Journal of Competitive Intelligence and Management . A more comprehensive bibliometric analysis might reveal additional insights. Simple counts were used for analytical purposes rather than co‐citation analysis. Practical implications Attention is drawn to the need for the integration of additional, complementary fields of study and competitive intelligence practice. It is clear that today's competitive intelligence practitioner cannot afford to rely on what they learned 20 years ago in order to ensure the continued competitive advantage of their firm. A keen understanding of all business functions, especially marketing and planning is advocated. Originality/value While there have been bibliographies of competitive intelligence literature there have been few attempts to relate this to the three distinct areas of practice. This article is of use to scholars in assisting them to disentangle the various aspect of competitive intelligence and also to managers who wish to gain an appreciation of the potential which competitive intelligence can bring to marking and business success.
Article
One of the drivers of both strategy and success in the marketplace is the role of market intelligence. Samples a broad cross section of firms regarding their level of MI activity; MI data sources and MI accountability. Regarding MI activity and its value to consumer/competitive intelligence, two-thirds of the companies indicated a dramatic increase in level of activity and nearly three-fifths (54 per cent) said the impact of MI contributes heavily to tactical and strategic decision making. One third said activity was level, while none indicated a reduction. 44 per cent indicated MI contributed somewhat to decision making and only 2 per cent felt MI contributed little to strategy and success in the marketplace. Regarding MI data sources, customers, manufacturing, and R&D are the central source. Regarding MI accountability, about half held marketing accountable for MI.
Article
The resource-based view suggests that reputations can serve as a source of sustainable competitive advantage, but only if those reputations are durable. This research examines that durability. The authors conduct a 11-year longitudinal study using ordinal time series to examine the durability and dynamics of reputational status for firms within 33 industries. Results indicate that favorable reputational status is not significantly durable for most firms. Instead, reputational status loss from high ranks is often quite precipitous. However, consistent with the resource-based view, a few firms are able to maintain their reputational status over time. Moreover, the dynamics of reputational status show significant asymmetry between building and eroding in that reputation building is more gradual than reputation erosion. Additional analysis of individual reputation attributes shows that some attributes are more stable than others, emphasizing reputation's multidimensionality.Corporate Reputation Review (2006) 9, 3-25. doi:10.1057/palgrave.crr.1550006
Article
When faced with the prospect of dwindiling market share, companies need to examine how they stack up to the competition in the eyes of those who determine their long-term fate-their customers. Such competitive intelligence, however, is useful only if the company makes the effort to incorporate the data it obtains into subsequent investigations. At Douglas Aircaraft Company, managers used a series of survey questionnaires to measure customer satisfaction, assess company performace against the competition, and develop a game plan for improving key process areas and the survery instruments as well.
Article
Two distinct causal mechanisms—resource-picking and capability-building—have been proposed in the strategic management literature about how firms create economic rents. Under the resource-picking mechanism, managers gather information and analysis to outsmart the resource market in picking resources, similar to the way that a mutual fund manager tries to outsmart the stock market in picking stocks. Under the capability-building mechanism, managers design and construct organizational systems to enhance the productivity of whatever resources the firm acquires. These two rent-creation mechanisms are certainly not mutually exclusive, and it is likely that firms generally use both of them. It is therefore important to consider the interaction between these two rent-creation mechanisms: Do they complement each other? Or are they substitutes for each other? In other words, do they enhance each other's value, or detract from each other's value? Answering these questions is a necessary precondition to understanding how firms should allocate their time and effort between these two rent-creation mechanisms. The present paper develops a basic theoretical model to address these questions, and derives testable hypotheses from the model. The model predicts that the two rent-creation mechanisms are complementary in some circumstances but substitutes in others. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The authors report on the growing importance of competitive intelligence as a management practice in the majority of leading companies. Reviewing the history and definition of competitive intelligence, they then go on to distinguish types of competitive intelligence, to analyse the competitive intelligence process, and identify five categories of attitudes towards competitive intelligence. The advantages of this practice are set out in the conclusion.
Article
The study here examines the interaction between shareholder value and customer satisfaction, as well as the impact on a firm's brand equity. Customer satisfaction may have a positive effect on brand equity, except when managers show excessive customer orientation, in which case the effect is negative because of reductions in shareholder value. The empirical analysis uses incomplete panel data pertaining to 69 firms from 11 nations during the period 2002-2005 and supports the theoretical contentions. This result warns of the perverse effect on brand equity of implementing policies focused exclusively on satisfying customers at the expense of shareholders' interests.