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بررسی تأثیر قابلیت های پویای هوشمندی و تجزیه و تحلیل کسب و کار بر توانمندسازی عملکرد شرکت

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Provides a nontechnical introduction to the partial least squares (PLS) approach. As a logical base for comparison, the PLS approach for structural path estimation is contrasted to the covariance-based approach. In so doing, a set of considerations are then provided with the goal of helping the reader understand the conditions under which it might be reasonable or even more appropriate to employ this technique. This chapter builds up from various simple 2 latent variable models to a more complex one. The formal PLS model is provided along with a discussion of the properties of its estimates. An empirical example is provided as a basis for highlighting the various analytic considerations when using PLS and the set of tests that one can employ is assessing the validity of a PLS-based model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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New progressive technologies recorded growth in every area. Information-communication technologies facilitate the exchange of information and it facilitates management of everyday activities in enterprises. Specific modules (such as Business Intelligence) facilitate decision-making. Several studies have demonstrated the positive impact of Business Intelligence to decision-making. The first step is to put in place the enterprise. The implementation process is influenced by many factors. This article discusses the issue of key success factors affecting to successful implementation of Business Intelligence. The article describes the key success factors for successful implementation and use of Business Intelligence based on multiple studies. The main objective of this study is to verify the effects and dependence of selected factors and proposes a model of key success factors for successful implementation of Business Intelligence. Key success factors and the proposed model are studied in Slovak enterprises.
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Business intelligence and analytics (BI&A) has emerged as an important area of study for both practitioners and researchers, reflecting the magnitude and impact of data-related problems to be solved in contemporary business organizations. This introduction to the MIS Quarterly Special Issue on Business Intelligence Research first provides a framework that identifies the evolution, applications, and emerging research areas of BI&A. BI&A 1.0, BI&A 2.0, and BI&A 3.0 are defined and described in terms of their key characteristics and capabilities. Current research in BI&A is analyzed and challenges and opportunities associated with BI&A research and education are identified. We also report a bibliometric study of critical BI&A publications, researchers, and research topics based on more than a decade of related academic and industry publications. Finally, the six articles that comprise this special issue are introduced and characterized in terms of the proposed BI&A research framework.
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In 1992, DeLone and McLean suggested that the dependent variable for information systems (IS) research is IS Success. Their research resulted in the widely cited DeLone and McLean (D&M) IS Success Model, in which System Quality, Information Quality, Use, User Satisfaction, Individual Impact, and Organizational Impact are distinct, but related dimensions of IS success. Since the original IS Success Model was published, research has developed a better understanding of IS success. Meanwhile, comprehensive and integrative research on the variables that influence IS success has been lacking. Therefore, we examine the literature on the independent variables that affect IS success. After examining over 600 articles, we focused our attention on integrating the findings of over 140 studies. In this research, we identify 43 specific variables posited to influence the different dimensions of IS success, and we organize these success factors into five categories based on the Leavitt Diamond of Organizational Change: task characteristics, user characteristics, social characteristics, project characteristics, and organizational characteristics. Next, we identify 15 success factors that have consistently been found to influence IS success: Enjoyment, Trust, User Expectations, Extrinsic Motivation, IT Infrastructure, Task Compatibility, Task Difficulty, Attitudes Toward Technology, Organizational Role, User Involvement, Relationship with Developers, Domain Expert Knowledge, Management Support, Management Processes, and Organizational Competence. Finally, we highlight gaps in our knowledge of success factors and propose a road map for future research.
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The implementation of a business intelligence (BI) system is a complex undertaking requiring considerable resources. Yet there is a limited authoritative set of critical success factors (CSFs) for management reference because the BI market has been driven mainly by the IT industry and vendors. This research seeks to bridge the gap that exists between academia and practitioners by investigating the CSFs influencing BI systems success. The study followed a two-stage qualitative approach. Firstly, the authors utilised the Delphi method to conduct three rounds of studies. The study develops a CSFs framework crucial for BI systems implementation. Next, the framework and the associated CSFs are delineated through a series of case studies. The empirical findings substantiate the construct and applicability of the framework. More significantly, the research further reveals that those organisations which address the CSFs from a business orientation approach will be more likely to achieve better results.
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Much attention is currently being paid in both the academic and practitioner literatures to the value that organisations could create through the use of big data and business analytics (Gillon et al, 2012; Mithas et al, 2013). For instance, Chen et al (2012, p. 1166–1168) suggest that business analytics and related technologies can help organisations to ‘better understand its business and markets’ and ‘leverage opportunities presented by abundant data and domain-specific analytics’. Similarly, LaValle et al (2011, p. 22) report that top-performing organisations ‘make decisions based on rigorous analysis at more than double the rate of lower performing organisations’ and that in such organisations analytic insight is being used to ‘guide both future strategies and day-to-day operations’. We argue here that while there is some evidence that investments in business analytics can create value, the thesis that ‘business analytics leads to value’ needs deeper analysis. In particular, we argue here that the roles of organisational decision-making processes, including resource allocation processes and resource orchestration processes (Helfat et al, 2007; Teece, 2009), need to be better understood in order to understand how organisations can create value from the use of business analytics. Specifically, we propose that the first-order effects of business analytics are likely to be on decision-making processes and that improvements in organisational performance are likely to be an outcome of superior decision-making processes enabled by business analytics.
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This paper develops a dynamic capabilities-based theory of the multinational enterprise (MNE). It first reviews scholarship on the MNE, with a focus on what has come to be known as “internalization” theory. One prong of this theory develops contractual/transaction cost-informed governance perspectives; and another develops technology transfer and capabilities perspectives. In this paper, it is suggested that the latter has been somewhat neglected. However, if fully integrated as part of a more complete approach, it can buttress transaction cost/governance issues and expand the range of phenomena that can be explained. In this more integrated framework, dynamic capabilities coupled with good strategy are seen as necessary to sustain superior enterprise performance, especially in fast-moving global environments. Entrepreneurial management and transformational leadership are incorporated into a capabilities theory of the MNE. The framework is then used to explain how strategy and dynamic capabilities together determine firm-level sustained competitive advantage in global environments. It is suggested that this framework complements contract-based perspectives on the MNE and can help integrate international management and international business perspectives.
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Organizations are increasingly engaged in competitive dynamics that are enabled or induced by information technology (IT). A key competitive dynamics question for many organizations is how to build a competitive advantage in turbulence with digital IT systems. The literature has focused mostly on developing and exercising dynamic capabilities for planned reconfiguration of existing operational capabilities in fairly stable environments with patterned “waves,” but this may not always be possible, or even appropriate, in highly turbulent environments with unexpected “storms.” We introduce improvisational capabilities as an alternative means for managing highly turbulent environments; we define this as the ability to spontaneously reconfigure existing resources to build new operational capabilities to address urgent, unpredictable, and novel environmental situations. In contrast to the planned role of dynamic and operational capabilities and the ambidexterity that they jointly offer, improvisational capabilities are proposed to operate distinctly as a “third hand” that facilitates reconfiguration and change in highly turbulent environments. First, the paper develops the notion of improvisational capabilities and articulates the key differences between the two “reconfiguration”—improvisational and dynamic—capabilities. Second, the paper compares the relative effects of improvisational and dynamic capabilities in the context of new product development in different levels of environmental turbulence. Third, the paper shows how IT-leveraging capability in new product development is decomposed into its three digital IT systems: project and resource management systems, organizational memory systems (OMS), and cooperative work systems—and how each of these IT systems enhances improvisational capabilities, an effect that is accentuated in highly turbulent environments. The results show that although dynamic capabilities are the primary predictor of competitive advantage in moderately turbulent environments, improvisational capabilities fully dominate in highly turbulent environments. Besides discriminant validity, the distinction between improvisational and dynamic capabilities is evidenced by the differential effects of IT-leveraging capability on improvisational and dynamic capabilities. The results show that the more the IT-leveraging capability is catered toward managing resources (through project and resource management systems) and team collaboration (through cooperative work systems) rather than relying on past knowledge and procedures (through organizational memory systems), the more it is positively associated with improvisational capabilities, particularly in more turbulent environments. The paper draws implications for how different IT systems can influence improvisational capabilities and competitive advantage in turbulent environments, thereby enhancing our understanding of the role of IT systems on reconfiguration capabilities. The paper discusses the theoretical and practical implications of building and exercising the “third hand” of improvisational capabilities for IT-enabled competitive dynamics in turbulence.
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The aim of dynamic capabilities research is ambitious: to understand how firmscan sustain a competitive advantage by responding to and creating environmen-tal change (Teece, 2007). As one of the most central and difficult questionswithin the strategy domain, this might well be characterized as the Holy Grailof strategic management. The topical domain of dynamic capabilities, in conse-quence, is as broad and as complex as any in the field. It spans the domains ofstrategy process and content, and involves multiple levels of analysis, from man-agerial decision-processes, to organizational routines, to competitive inter-actions and environmental change. The complexity of the topic is matched,fittingly, by the complexity of the theoretical underpinnings. Undoubtedly, thishas generated some confusion. It is therefore not surprising that the critique ofArend and Bromiley (A&B) in the preceding essay reflects some of this confu-sion. Here, we address this by clarifying the dynamic capabilities concept, inrelation to its development and the challenges faced.We first survey the development path of dynamic capabilities research, anddiscuss the different theoretical bases of this emerging area of scholarship. Thenwe clarify issues regarding the definition of dynamic capabilities and discuss thelink between dynamic capabilities and firm performance. As part of our analy-sis, we address the two main conclusions of A&B regarding dynamic capabil-ities research. The first is that we should abandon the dynamic capabilitiesapproach if it does not ‘quickly develop a theoretical foundation’. The second isthat regardless of the pace of theory development, we should replace theseefforts with ‘work on strategic change tied to fuller theories of strategic organ-ization’. In what follows, we explain why these conclusions are premature andunwarranted. We also address other issues raised by A&B, focusing on the mainissues raised in the body of their commentary.
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This study examines the role of the decision environment in how well business intelligence (BI) capabilities are leveraged to achieve BI success. We examine the decision environment in terms of the types of decisions made and the information processing needs of the organization. Our findings suggest that technological capabilities such as data quality, user access and the integration of BI with other systems are necessary for BI success, regardless of the decision environment. However, the decision environment does influence the relationship between BI success and capabilities, such as the extent to which BI supports flexibility and risk in decision making.
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Introduction. We propose and test a model of the relationship between business intelligence systems and information quality and investigate in more detail the potential differential impact of business intelligence systems' maturity on two aspects of information quality: the quality of content and media quality. Method. The research was conducted in spring 2008. Empirical data were collected through a survey of Slovenian medium and large organizations. Analysis. A quantitative analysis was carried out on data relating to 181 organizations. A data analysis was conducted using structural equation modelling. Results. The implementation of a business intelligence system positively affects both aspects of information quality as conceptualised in our model. However, the effect and explanatory power (as measured by the determination coeficient) of business intelligence systems' maturity is greater on media quality than on content quality. Conclusions. Since most of the information quality problems in knowledge-intensive activities relate to content quality, it is reasonable to expect that the implementation of business intelligence systems would adequately address these problems. However, the effects of implementing such systems seem to be more focused on media quality outcomes. Based on our findings we suggest that projects implementing business intelligence systems need to focus more on ensuring content quality.
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The information systems (IS) literature has long emphasized the positive impact of information provided by business intelligence systems (BIS) on decision-making, particularly when organizations operate in highly competitive environments. Evaluating the effectiveness of BIS is vital to our understanding of the value and efficacy of management actions and investments. Yet, while IS success has been well-researched, our understanding of how BIS dimensions are interrelated and how they affect BIS use is limited. In response, we conduct a quantitative survey-based study to examine the relationships between maturity, information quality, analytical decision-making culture, and the use of information for decision-making as significant elements of the success of BIS. Statistical analysis of data collected from 181 medium and large organizations is combined with the use of descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling. Empirical results link BIS maturity to two segments of information quality, namely content and access quality. We therefore propose a model that contributes to understanding of the interrelationships between BIS success dimensions. Specifically, we find that BIS maturity has a stronger impact on information access quality. In addition, only information content quality is relevant for the use of information while the impact of the information access quality is non-significant. We find that an analytical decision-making culture necessarily improves the use of information but it may suppress the direct impact of the quality of the information content.
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Defining ordinary or ‘zero-level’ capabilities as those that permit a firm to ‘make a living’ in the short term, one can define dynamic capabilities as those that operate to extend, modify or create ordinary capabilities. Logically, one can then proceed to elaborate a hierarchy of higher-order capabilities. However, it is argued here that the strategic substance of capabilities involves patterning of activity, and that costly investments are typically required to create and sustain such patterning—for example, in product development. Firms can accomplish change without reliance on dynamic capability, by means here termed ‘ad hoc problem solving.’ Whether higher-order capabilities are created or not depends on the costs and benefits of the investments relative to ad hoc problem solving, and so does the ‘level of the game’ at which strategic competition effectively occurs. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Purpose As the health care sector is changing rapidly, there is a growing need to develop new ways to make data-driven decisions, especially at the organizational level. Data utilization, like business intelligence (BI) activities, benefits health care organizations. The purpose of this paper is to study the potential of Big Data and the utilization of BI tools in creating value in the private health care industry in Finland. Design/methodology/approach Intellectual capital (IC) components and Möller et al.’s (2005) work on value capabilities are used as a framework to point out the roles of data utilization and BI tools in value creation. Thematic interviews enable understanding of the value creation based on Big Data potential and utilization of BI tools in the Finnish private health care industry. Findings The findings will provide an understanding of the existing data sources and BI tools used in private health care. In addition, it provides an insight into the future-oriented Big Data potential, which can create new business concepts. The approach provides valuable insights for value identifying the future needs of data utilization and creates an understanding on the current state within the private health care sector. Originality/value Data-driven value creation is one of the most discussed topics in private health care sector. By analyzing the current data-source utilization, challenges with data and BI tool utilization and the future vision and development roadmaps, the authors gain a better understanding of the IC components and value creation capabilities.
Article
This study draws on the sense-seize-transform view of dynamic capabilities as the theoretical lens for examining the role of BI&A in organizations. It views BI&A as the sensing and seizing components of dynamic capabilities that contribute to firm performance by enabling business process change. Findings confirm a positive relationship between BI&A and performance, mediated by business process change capabilities. This study answers the call for a theoretically grounded examination of the relationship between BI&A and firm performance by highlighting the significance of the BI&A seizing capabilities, and the importance of business process change in translating BI&A output into improved performance.
Article
Business Intelligence (BI) has the potential to disrupt the processes through which healthcare services are offered. Despite this key role, most healthcare organizations fail in implementing or extending BI suites from the pilot niches in which these solutions are usually developed and tested to larger domains. In fact, healthcare practitioners lack comprehensive models that suggest the priorities to be followed for progressively developing a BI solution. This paper aims to start filling these gaps by developing a model through which: (i) to measure and increase the maturity of a BI solution within a healthcare organization; (ii) to enable extensive processes of benchmarking and continuous improvement.
Article
We revisit the psychological underpinnings of Teece's (2007) framework of dynamic capabilities development in the light of advances in social cognitive neuroscience and neuroeconomics. We argue that dynamic capabilities are based on a blend of effortful forms of analysis and the skilled utilization of less deliberative, intuitive processes, which enables firms to harness managers' cognitive and emotional capacities.
Article
The statistical tests used in the analysis of structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error are examined. A drawback of the commonly applied chi square test, in addition to the known problems related to sample size and power, is that it may indicate an increasing correspondence between the hypothesized model and the observed data as both the measurement properties and the relationship between constructs decline. Further, and contrary to common assertion, the risk of making a Type II error can be substantial even when the sample size is large. Moreover, the present testing methods are unable to assess a model's explanatory power. To overcome these problems, the authors develop and apply a testing system based on measures of shared variance within the structural model, measurement model, and overall model.
Article
Executives of information officers polled agree that rapid and accurate decision-making are essential to organizational agility and data plays an important role in decision making process. With Advanced information technologies, collecting data can be ubiquitously. However, the current volume of data accumulated in hospitals has exceeded the capacity of their medical information systems, not to mention using the data to make decisions. Hospitals started to employ business intelligence systems (BIS) to extract correct, timely, and useful information for hospital decision-makers. Most studies in the area focus on the establishment and related benefits of BIS. This research aims to evaluate the BIS maturity and its influences on decision quality to reveal the BIS impacts on hospital agility. To test the research model, opinions were collected by distributing questionnaires to clinical and administrative decision-makers who had experiences of using BIS in hospitals. The results showed that medical information quality was significantly influenced by BIS maturity. Furthermore, medical information quality exerted a significant effect on medical decision quality, BIS usage, and user satisfaction. The positive influence of user satisfaction on medical decision quality is also verified.
Article
Purpose A major trend in enterprise resource planning software (ERP) is to embed business analytics tools within user-centered roles in enterprise software. This integration allows business users to get better and faster insight to action. As a consequence, it is imperative for business students to learn how to use these new tools to adequately prepare them for new expectations in the industry. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this paper, the authors propose a new serious game, called ERPsim for big data, to enable the learner to acquire abilities at each level of the business analytics learning taxonomy. To maximize the pedagogical impact of the game, participatory design (PD) with professors as co-designers was used during game development. Findings This case study presents the PD approach and analyses the efficacy of the proposed new simulation. Originality/value The authors conclude by providing recommendations and lessons learned from this approach.
Article
This paper presents a model, synthesized from the literature, of factors that explain how business analytics contributes to business value. It also reports results from a preliminary test of that model. The model consists of two parts: a process and a variance model. The process model depicts the analyze-insight-decision-action process through which use of an organization's business-analytic capabilities create business value. The variance model proposes that the five factors in Davenport et al.'s (2010) DELTA model of BA success factors, six from Watson and Wixom (2007), and three from Seddon et al.'s (2010) model of organizational benefits from enterprise systems, assist a firm to gain business value from business analytics. A preliminary test of the model was conducted using data from 100 customer-success stories from vendors such as IBM, SAP, and Teradata. Our conclusion is that the model is likely to be a useful basis for future research.
Article
Understanding sources of sustained competitive advantage has become a major area of research in strategic management. Building on the assumptions that strategic resources are heterogeneously distributed across firms and that these differences are stable over time, this article examines the link between firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Four empirical indicators of the potential of firm resources to generate sustained competitive advantage-value, rareness, imitability, and substitutability are discussed. The model is applied by analyzing the potential of several firm resources for generating sustained competitive advantages. The article concludes by examining implications of this firm resource model of sustained competitive advantage for other business disciplines.
Article
Today, companies wish to evaluate and justify their investments into Business Intelligence systems, which requires measurement of their business value and comparison with similar systems in other companies. Maturity models offer an adequate baseline for comparison. Maturity models define levels of definition, efficiency, manageability and measurement of the monitored environment. This paper briefly describes and analyzes six different maturity models that can be used for the maturity of BI systems assessment. An overview and analysis will show that most of the models do not cover the whole area of Business Intelligence, but they rather focus on a specific point of view and/or area of the problem domain. Results show that by using maturity models, only a short period of time is needed in order for one to discover the areas within the company or institution that need special, more intensive attention and work. Namely, results of the analysis often expose problematic areas that could be easily overlooked.
Book
Information technology supports efficient operations, enterprise integration, and seamless value delivery, yet itself is too often inefficient, un-integrated, and of unclear value. This completely rewritten version of the bestselling Architecture and Patterns for IT Service Management, Resource Planning and Governance retains the original (and still unique) approach: apply the discipline of enterprise architecture to the business of large scale IT management itself. Author Charles Betz applies his deep practitioner experience to a critical reading of ITIL 2011, COBIT version 4, the CMMI suite, the IT portfolio management literature, and the Agile/Lean IT convergence, and derives a value stream analysis, IT semantic model, and enabling systems architecture (covering current topics such as CMDB/CMS, Service Catalog, and IT Portfolio Management). Using the concept of design patterns, the book then presents dozens of visual models documenting challenging problems in integrating IT management, showing how process, data, and IT management systems must work together to enable IT and its business partners. The edition retains the fundamental discipline of traceable process, data, and system analysis that has made the first edition a favored desk reference for IT process analysts around the world. This best seller is a must read for anyone charged with enterprise architecture, IT planning, or IT governance and management. - Lean-oriented process analysis of IT management, carefully distinguished from an IT functional model - Field-tested conceptual information model with definitions and usage scenarios, mapped to both the process and system architectures - Integrated architecture for IT management systems - Synthesizes Enterprise Architecture, IT Service Management, and IT Portfolio Management in a practical way
Article
Business intelligence (BI) systems have attracted significant interest from senior executives and consultants for their ability to exploit organizational data and provide operational and strategic benefits through improved management control systems. A large body of literature indicates that organizations have largely failed to use their business intelligence investments effectively to exploit the wealth of data they capture in their ERP systems. As a result, BI has too often failed to support organizations' managerial decision making at both the strategic and operational levels and, thus, failed to enhance business value. Whether and how organizations achieve business benefits from their BI investments remains unclear. This study draws on the strategic alignment and IT assimilation literature to develop a research model that theorizes the importance of BI systems assimilation, and the need for shared knowledge among the strategic and operational levels as the drivers of BI business value. Results from the study confirm the crucial role of BI assimilation in translating organizational resources into capabilities that enhance the business value of BI. The findings also contribute evidence on the importance of shared domain knowledge and the interrelations between senior business, IT executives, and operational-level managers for enhancing BI assimilation.
Conference Paper
Business Intelligence and Analytics (BI&A) is an important topic of IS research with significant implications for practitioners. However, while substantial research exists related to BI&A, it often fails to bridge the gap between normative specifications on BI&A use and improved business outcomes such as the development of competitive advantage. Building on the dynamic capabilities perspective, this paper proposes BI&A as a mechanism for capability monitoring, and describes how it may enable capability dynamization. In light of this view, we highlight five core internal components of BI&A: (1) collection and management of capability practices data, (2) collection and management of environmental data, (3) analysis of environmental data and identification of discontinuities in the environment, (4) identification of capability mal-adjustments, and (5) producing a request for change. We then discuss the implications of the capability dynamization view on BI&A design, implementation, and management.
Article
The microfoundations of dynamic capabilities have assumed greater importance in the search for factors that facilitate strategic change. Here we focus on microfoundations at the level of the individual manager. We introduce the concept of ‘managerial cognitive capability’, which highlights the fact that capabilities involve the capacity to perform not only physical but also mental activities. We identify specific types of cognitive capabilities that are likely to underpin dynamic managerial capabilities for sensing, seizing, and reconfiguring, and explain their potential impact on strategic change of organizations. In addition, we discuss how heterogeneity of these cognitive capabilities may produce heterogeneity of dynamic managerial capabilities among top executives, which may contribute to differential performance of organizations under conditions of change. Finally, we propose possible directions for future research.
Article
Information technology matters to business success because it directly affects the mechanisms through which they create and capture value to earn a profit: IT is thus integral to a firm's business-level strategy. Much of the extant research on the IT/strategy relationship, however, inaccurately frames IT as only a functional-level strategy. This widespread under-appreciation of the business-level role of IT indicates a need for substantial retheorizing of its role in strategy and its complex and interdependent relationship with the mechanisms through which firms generate profit. Using a comprehensive framework of potential profit mechanisms, we argue that while IT activities remain integral to the functional-level strategies of the firm, they also play several significant roles in business strategy, with substantial performance implications. IT affects industry structure and the set of business-level strategic alternatives and value-creation opportunities that a firm may pursue. Along with complementary organizational changes, IT both enhances the firm's current (ordinary) capabilities and enables new (dynamic) capabilities, including the flexibility to focus on rapidly changing opportunities or to abandon losing initiatives while salvaging substantial asset value. Such digitally attributable capabilities also determine how much of this value, once created, can be captured by the firm--and how much will be dissipated through competition or through the power of value chain partners, the governance of which itself depends on IT. We explore these business-level strategic roles of IT and discuss several provocative implications and future research directions in the converging information systems and strategy domains.
Article
This paper contributes to the understanding of the executive team dynamic managerial capabilities by developing theory about the interplay between the firm's dominant logic and dynamic managerial capabilities (including managerial human capital, social capital, and cognition). We underscore the criticality of the two key CEO-level functions: configuration and orchestration of senior executive team dynamic capabilities. We develop theory on how these functions create and sculpt the management team's absorptive capacity, which in turn shapes the team's adaptive capacity. We present theory about the distributed nature of efforts for organizational renewal where CEO's dynamic managerial capabilities in concerto with senior executive managerial capabilities will drive top management's ability to revitalize the firm's dominant logic and to achieve evolutionary fit.
Article
Providing analytical information to all stakeholders in a timely manner remains, in the face of current challenges, a key issue in organizations. Information logistics (IL) extends present concepts of decision support like business intelligence by focusing on enterprise-wide information supply and the exploitation of synergies. The article investigates which factors play critical roles in the success of IL strategies. An empirical study by means of a causal analysis provides evidence for significant relationships between those factors and organizational performance. The study identifies comprehensiveness, flexibility, support, communication, IT strategy orientation, business/IT partnership, and project collaboration as influencing factors for IL strategy success. Not all success factors, however, validated in related strategy research can be confirmed in the IL context.
Article
The dynamic capabilities framework analyzes the sources and methods of wealth creation and capture by private enterprise firms operating in environments of rapid technological change. The competitive advantage of firms is seen as resting on distinctive processes (ways of coordinating and combining), shaped by the firm's (specific) asset positions (such as the firm's portfolio of difftcult-to- trade knowledge assets and complementary assets), and the evolution path(s) it has aflopted or inherited. The importance of path dependencies is amplified where conditions of increasing retums exist. Whether and how a firm's competitive advantage is eroded depends on the stability of market demand, and the ease of replicability (expanding intemally) and imitatability (replication by competitors). If correct, the framework suggests that private wealth creation in regimes of rapid technological change depends in large measure on honing intemal technological, organizational, and managerial processes inside the firm. In short, identifying new opportunities and organizing effectively and efficiently to embrace them are generally more fundamental to private wealth creation than is strategizing, if by strategizing one means engaging in business conduct that keeps competitors off balance, raises rival's costs, and excludes new entrants. © 1997 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The NIPALS approach is applied to the ‘soft’ type of model that has come to the fore in sociology and other social sciences in the last five or ten years, namely path models that involve latent variables which serve as proxies for blocks of directly observed variables. Such models are seen as hybrids of the ‘hard’ models of econometrics where all variables are directly observed (path models in the form of simultaneous equations systems) and the ‘soft’ models of psychology where the human mind is described in terms of latent variables and their directly observed indicators. For hybrid models that involve one or two latent variables the NIPALS approach has been developed in [38], [41] and [42]. The present paper extends the NIPALS approach to path models with three or more latent variables. Each new latent variable brings a rapid increase in the pluralism of possible model designs, and new problems arise in the parameter estimation of the models. Iterative procedures are given for the point estimation of the parameters. With a view to cases when the iterative estimation does not converge, a device of range estimation is developed, where high profile versus low profile estimates give ranges for the parameter estimates.
Article
Intraclass correlation reliablity estimates are based on the assumption that the various measures are equivalent. Jöreskog's (1970) general model for the analysis of covariance structures can be used to test the validity of this assumption.
Article
Summary This paper explains that the resource-based view essentially addresses issues of competitive strategy, but by integrating some arguments from its evolutionary version, the dynamic capability view, it can be extended to inform our understanding of corporate-level strategy. We concentrate on the issue of value creation from corporate centres and ask how the centre can possess or provide resources. The primary dynamic capabilities identified by Teece, Pisano and Shuen (1997) are elaborated into six distinct modes of resource creation. Each mode is considered in relation to a set of organizational design parameters. We then propose resource-creating configurations that are congruent with respect to the modes and the required states of the design parameters. We point out areas of tension that are likely to arise if corporations try to combine different modes of resource creation. We conclude that corporate centres may possess resources but must display dynamic capabilities otherwise they will destroy shareholder value.
Article
ABSTRACTA major challenge for managers in turbulent environments is to make sound decisions quickly. Dynamic capabilities have been proposed as a means for addressing turbulent environments by helping managers extend, modify, and reconfigure existing operational capabilities into new ones that better match the environment. However, because dynamic capabilities have been viewed as an elusive black box, it is difficult for managers to make sound decisions in turbulent environments if they cannot effectively measure dynamic capabilities. Therefore, we first seek to propose a measurable model of dynamic capabilities by conceptualizing, operationalizing, and measuring dynamic capabilities. Specifically, drawing upon the dynamic capabilities literature, we identify a set of capabilities—sensing the environment, learning, coordinating, and integrating—that help reconfigure existing operational capabilities into new ones that better match the environment. Second, we propose a structural model where dynamic capabilities influence performance by reconfiguring existing operational capabilities in the context of new product development (NPD). Data from 180 NPD units support both the measurable model of dynamic capabilities and also the structural model by which dynamic capabilities influence performance in NPD by reconfiguring operational capabilities, particularly in higher levels of environmental turbulence. The study's implications for managerial decision making in turbulent environments by capturing the elusive black box of dynamic capabilities are discussed.
Article
This paper provides a System Dynamics approach to assessment of a theoretical model of management support systems (MSS). It extends theory about the structure of MSS using the system dynamics indexed variable approach. Experimentation with relationships among system elements suggests possible MSS management policies and offers insight into how to successfully manage such systems. Several key insights into the interactive behavior of the elements in the system are provided. For example, we show that the level of MSS use lags changes in the problem space as it becomes more complex. This in turn affects MSS quality because it can bring into question the decisions made that were based on the MSS. It is, therefore, necessary to ensure changes in problem space are understood quickly and reacted to in a timely manner.
Article
The aim of this paper is to extend the concept of dynamic capabilities. Building on prior research, we suggest that there are three levels of dynamic capabilities which are related to managers' perceptions of environmental dynamism. At the first level we find incremental dynamic capabilities: those capabilities concerned with the continuous improvement of the firm's resource base. At the second level are renewing dynamic capabilities, those that refresh, adapt and augment the resource base. These two levels are usually conceived as one and represent what the literature refers to as dynamic capabilities. At the third level are regenerative dynamic capabilities, which impact, not on the firm's resource base, but on its current set of dynamic capabilities, i.e. these change the way the firm changes its resource base. We explore the three levels using illustrative examples and conclude that regenerative dynamic capabilities may either come from inside the firm or enter the firm from outside, via changes in leadership or the intervention of external change agents.
Article
The dynamic capability perspective extends the resource-based view argument by addressing how valuable, rare, difficult to imitate and imperfectly substitutable resources can be created and how the current stock of valuable resources can be refreshed in changing environments. The concept of dynamic capabilities emerged in the 1990s, and the field has advanced considerably since. This paper presents a review as well as a synthesis of the extant literature. This synthesis first highlights, that dynamic capabilities are shaped by enabling and inhibiting variables within and outside the firm, including the perceptions and motivations of managers; secondly, it identifies processes that create dynamic capabilities; and thirdly, it explains that dynamic capabilities do not automatically lead to performance improvements. Finally, the paper addresses some areas of confusion and contradiction that hamper the development of the literature.
Article
This paper draws on the social and behavioral sciences in an endeavor to specify the nature and microfoundations of the capabilities necessary to sustain superior enterprise performance in an open economy with rapid innovation and globally dispersed sources of invention, innovation, and manufacturing capability. Dynamic capabilities enable business enterprises to create, deploy, and protect the intangible assets that support superior long- run business performance. The microfoundations of dynamic capabilities—the distinct skills, processes, procedures, organizational structures, decision rules, and disciplines—which undergird enterprise-level sensing, seizing, and reconfiguring capacities are difficult to develop and deploy. Enterprises with strong dynamic capabilities are intensely entrepreneurial. They not only adapt to business ecosystems, but also shape them through innovation and through collaboration with other enterprises, entities, and institutions. The framework advanced can help scholars understand the foundations of long-run enterprise success while helping managers delineate relevant strategic considerations and the priorities they must adopt to enhance enterprise performance and escape the zero profit tendency associated with operating in markets open to global competition. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The recent discussion in the field of strategic management broadly favors the idea of dynamic capabilities in order to overcome potential rigidities of organizational capability building. The major question addressed in this paper is whether capabilities can actually be conceived as being in flux—and if so, to what extent and in which way? After briefly recapitulating the distinguishing features of organizational capabilities, path dependency, structural inertia, and commitment are identified as the main capability-rigidity drivers causing a managerial dilemma. In the search for a resolution of this dilemma different approaches of dynamic capabilities are identified and discussed. The analysis shows that the approaches suffer from inherent conceptual contradictions: the dynamization runs the risk of dissolving the original idea and strength of organizational capability building. Ultimately, capabilities would lose the strategic power attributed to them in the resource-based view. The last section of this paper therefore aims to develop an alternative approach, which aims at preserving the original merits of organizational capability and solving the rigidity issue not by integrating a dynamic dimension into the capability construct but rather by establishing a separate function (‘capability monitoring’). The suggestions mount up to a tier solution. Its logic builds on the dynamics of countervailing processes and second-level observation. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The article reflects on the diffusion of the ‘resource-based view of the firm’ into academic and practitioner thought. The contributions of many people are noted. In closing, I offer some speculations about the future use of these ideas.
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This paper explores how the dynamic capabilities of firms may be linked to differential firm performance within an industry. A formal model is presented in which dynamic capabilities are treated as a set of routines guiding the evolution of a firm's resource configuration. The model centers on the endogenous choice firms make between resource deployment through imitation and experimentation in order to generate alternative resource configurations. Three performance-relevant attributes of dynamic capabilities are proposed: timing, cost, and learning of resource deployment. Theoretical propositions are developed that suggest how these attributes contribute to the emergence of differential intraindustry firm performance. Simulation analysis offers insights into the trajectories of evolutionary change engendered by dynamic capability, and serves to refine the theoretical propositions. It is found that timing, cost, and learning effects foster the emergence of robust performance differences among firms with strikingly similar dynamic capabilities. Moreover, the results show that even small initial differences among firms can generate significant intraindustry differential firm performance, especially when the effects of timing, cost and learning are combined. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.