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Cultural Guidelines for Commercial Production of Interiorscape Aglaonema

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The intent of this article is to describe common Aglaonema species and cultivars in the foliage plant industry, provide guidelines on their culture and interior use, and list physiological problems encountered in both production and in the interiorscape. This document is ENH957, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date July 30, 2003. ENH957/EP160: Cultural Guidelines for Commercial Production of Interiorscape Aglaonema (ufl.edu)
ENH957
Cultural Guidelines for Commercial Production of
Interiorscape Aglaonema 1
Jianjun Chen, Dennis B. McConnell, Richard J. Henny, and Kelly C. Everitt 2
1. This document is ENH957, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date July 30, 2003. Visit the EDIS Web Site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.
2. Jianjun Chen, Assistant Professor, Mid-Florida Research and Education Center and Environmental Horticultural Department, Dennis B. McConnell,
Professor, Environmental Horticultural Department, Richard J. Henny, Professor, Mid-Florida Research and Education Center and Environmental
Horticultural Department, and Kelly C. Everitt, Research Assistant, Mid-Florida Research and Education Center at the Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences, University of Florida.
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin.
For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative
Extension Service/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences/University of Florida/Christine Taylor Waddill, Dean.
The genus Aglaonema belongs to the family
Araceae and comprises 21 species. All species are
open-pollinated, herbaceous evergreens native to the
humid and heavily shaded tropical forests of
southeast Asia, northeast India, southeren China,
Indonesia, and New Guinea. Due to the attractive
foliar variegation and tolerance to low light,
Aglaonema have been cultivated in China and other
Asian countries for centuries as plants of good
fortune. Thus, Aglaonema plants are commonly
referred to as Chinese Evergreens. They were
introduced into the western world in 1885.
Commercial production of Aglaonema cultivars
in Florida started in the 1930s but it took almost 30
years before their ability to survive under interior low
light conditions became widely recognized by
interiorscapers. The increased interior use is also
attributed to a continuing release of attractive
interspecific hybrids. For example, a total of 29
Aglaonema hybrids received U.S. patents during the
1990s. The intent of this article is to describe
common Aglaonema species and cultivars in the
foliage plant industry (See Table 1), provide
guidelines on their culture and interior use, and list
physiological problems encountered in both
production and in the interiorscape (See Table 3).
Cultural Guidelines
1. Propagation
The rooting of cuttings and division of basal
shoots or suckers are the main methods of Aglaonema
propagation since micropropagation (tissue culture)
has not been successful with this genus. Cuttings
should have four to five leaves and root best in
well-aerated media (air space of 10 to 20%) with a
pH of 5.5 to 6.5 and soluble salts of 1.0 to 1.5 dS/m.
Currently, many unrooted cuttings are purchased
from Central America and Caribbean nurseries.
Cuttings should always be carefully inspected before
sticking, as conditions during shipping may spread
plant pathogens.
During propagation, the containers with cuttings
should be kept off the ground to improve drainage.
Cultivars vary in sucker production; some produce
more than four, while others produce none.
Consequently, cultivars producing the most suckers
Archival copy: for current recommendations see http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu or your local extension office.
Cultural Guidelines for Commercial Production of Interiorscape Aglaonema 2
are grown in larger numbers, as more propagules are
available for division.
2. Production
Quality Aglaonema production can be achieved
with media comprised of sphagnum peat, pine bark,
vermiculate, or perlite with a bulk density between
0.2 to 0.8 g/cm3 (dry weight), a total porosity of 50 to
75%, a moisture content of 50 to 75%, and air space
of 10 to 20%. Media pH should range from 6.0 to 6.5
and soluble salts of 1 to 2.5 dS/m when root-zone
solution is extracted by the pour-through method.
Aglaonema should be grown in 75% to 90% shade
(3,000 to 1,250 foot candles). Leaves of most
Aglaonema cultivars lose color and are held in an
upright vertical position when grown under the upper
end of the suggested light range. Consequently most
Aglaonema growers use 80 to 90% shade. Air
temperatures below 55°F may cause chilling injury
in Aglaonema, particularly 'Silver Queen'. Detailed
information on cultivar response to chilling can be
found at:
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/EP/EP10300.pdf.
Either controlled-released or water-soluble
fertilizers with micronutrients, or a combination of
both, can be used for Aglaonema production. The
appropriate ratio of N:P2O5:K2O should be 3:1:2.
The suggested application rate is 2 to 2.5 lb N per
1,000 sq ft per month or 150 to 200 ppm N using a
water-soluble complete fertilizer. A supplemental
micronutrient fertilizer may be needed, as most
Aglaonema cultivars are prone to develop copper and
other microelement deficiencies. Growers are
recommended to monitor media soluble salts and pH
every 2 or 3 weeks using the pour-through method.
If the soluble salts reading is 1 dS/m, the plant will
show nutrient deficiency if no fertilizer is provided
during growing season; if the soluble salts reading is
2 dS/m, nutrient levels are adequate; and if the
reading is 3 dS/m or above, reduce either the rate or
frequency of fertilizer application; in some cases,
leaching media with water is necessary to reduce
soluble salt buildup. Table 2 provides a guide for
determining if Aglaonema cultivars are appropriately
fertilized based on leaf analysis. It is advisable to
stop fertilizing one month before shipment. Media
should be kept moist with a container capacity of 50
to 80%.
Shipping and Interior Care
As mentioned previously, Aglaonema cultivars
are generally sensitive to chilling temperatures, and
air temperatures below 55°F during shipping can
damage their leaves. Leaves of some cultivars are
prone to mechanical damage during shipping. Thus,
shipping boxes should be used to minimize plant
movement.
Once plants are placed in interior conditions,
only minimal maintenance is required. Aglaonema
cultivars can tolerate a light level as low as 25 foot
candles but should never be placed in full sun or the
leaves will be scorched. A supply of a 20-20-20
water soluble fertilizer solution with a N level at 50
ppm once a month should be adequate under interior
conditions. Over-fertilization indoors will cause
soluble salts buildup and lead to leaf margin or tip
injury. The soil should be kept moist but not
saturated. When inflorescences appear (a spathe and
spadix in the center of the foliage), it is best to
remove them. This aids plant longevity and keeps
the plant full. The foliage will get dusty and most
interiorscapers either wipe the leaves with a damp,
lint-free cloth periodically or use a light spray of leaf
polish. Pruning is not necessary. However, dead or
yellowing leaves should be removed. Plants should
be rotated every 1-2 weeks within the cache pot to
maintain symmetry.
Archival copy: for current recommendations see http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu or your local extension office.
Cultural Guidelines for Commercial Production of Interiorscape Aglaonema 3
Table 1. A listing of Aglaonema cultivars available in Florida as of 2002.
Cultivar or Common
Name Characteristics
'Abidjan' This cultivar appears as a broad-leaf version of 'Jubilee' and can grow to 40 inches tall.
'Amelia' It is more dense than other cultivars and can grow to 36 inches tall hosting deep green
foliage with random spots of pale green.
'B. J. Freeman' Also known as 'Cecelia', this cultivar has a wide stature, fragile leaves, and a higher light
requirement.
'Black Lance' Its lanceolate leaves are deep green surrounded by a jagged strip of silver straddling the
midvein. It has an upright habit to 36 inches tall. Tall leaves tend to droop in lower light
levels, and it is extremely chill sensitive.
'Brilliant' This mid-sized cultivar has a lot of bright white color and very few maintenance
requirements.
'Cory' This is another mid-sized cultivar with a feather-like pattern of silver and green foliage
with cream-colored stems.
'Deborah' Wide and mid-sized, the centers of the leaves are grey with dark green margins, gold
veins, and cream-colored stems.
'Emerald Beauty' See 'Maria'.
'Emerald Star' One of the tallest of the Aglaonema cultivars, it has an upright habit with dark, wide,
glossy leaves with yellow green speckles. Tolerates chilling temperatures.
'Golden Bay' It suckers heavily and can become dense. It can handle temperatures as low as 45°F
with minimal damage. The leaf is very pale green with a deeply colored margin.
'Green Lady' Stocky yet symmetrical. The leaves are deep green with lighter green jagged stripes
emanating from the midvein. It suckers well.
'Illumination' The stems are cream colored. The leaves are silvery with deep green vertical striping
straddling the gold midvein.
'Jewel of India' This silver cultivar is very tall, symmetrical and full, and it suckers well. Tolerates chilling
temperatures.
'Jubilee' This one has a comparatively higher light requirement. It is deep green with a wide silver
streak
'Jubilee Petite' Short, compact, and full, this cultivar has a pale green center reaching to the tips with a
bit of deeper green on the sides of the leaves.
'Maria' Its leaves are dark green and grey, and it has a compact habit.
'Maria Christina' This cultivar looks like a more compact version of its parent, 'Silver Queen'.
'Mary Ann' This stocky cultivar is deep green with silver stripes terminating just before the margins.
'Painted Princess' This heavily suckering cultivar stays compact and full throughout its life. It has deep
green leaves striped with almost transparent grey.
'Patricia' This cultivar has a spiky appearance and almost entirely silver leaves.
'Peacock' The leaves have patterns similar to a peacock's feathers.
'Queen of Siam' A cream-stemmed, flimsier version of 'Deborah', it is very large and suckers when it is
cut back. Its leaves are medium green with grey centers.
Archival copy: for current recommendations see http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu or your local extension office.
Cultural Guidelines for Commercial Production of Interiorscape Aglaonema 4
Table 1. A listing of Aglaonema cultivars available in Florida as of 2002.
Cultivar or Common
Name Characteristics
'Rhapsody in Green' Similar to 'Black Lance', this cultivar has stockier leaves with a splotch of silver in the
center. It is enormous and durable.
'Romana' A mid-sized cultivar that was originally sold as 'Manila'. It tends to root first before
suckering and cannot tolerate high humidity.
'Royal Ripple' This one resembles a darker 'Silver Queen'. It is mid-sized and maintains its color
patterns in low light.
'San Remo' In color, this is the darkest of the Aglaonema.
'Silver Bay' Grey dominates the leaf while it is bordered in a basic shade of green. Leaves are more
ovate than other cultivars. It suckers heavily with an upright, boxy habit and prefers
lower light.
'Silver Queen' The most common of the cultivars, it has alternating green and silver splotched stripes.
One of the most chilling-sensitive cultivars.
'Silver Ribbon' This tri-colored cultivar has undulating, narrow leaves.
'Silverado' The striking green margin borders a leaf whose color fades from light green to white as it
approaches the midvein.
'Stars' Similar to 'Emerald Star', its leaves have deep green and cream random spotting. It
tends to get top heavy. Tolerates chilling temperatures.
'Stripes' It has blatant banding of white along the veins of the leaves.
'White Lance' White stems and dense, narrow leaves with pale colors are its main features.
'White Rain' It is dense, suckers well, and will not thin. The leaves are wider and deeper in color
when compared with 'White Lance' but patterning is more similar to 'Deborah'.
Table 2. Nutrient concentrations in leaves that are generally considered low, medium, or high for Aglaonema growth.
Nutrient Low Medium High
Nitrogen (%) <2.5 2.5-3.5 >3.5
Phosphorus (%) <0.2 0.2-0.8 >0.8
Potassium (%) <2.5 2.5-5.0 >5.0
Calcium (%) <1.0 1.0-2.5 >2.5
Magnesium (%) <0.3 0.3-0.8 >0.8
Sulfur (%) <0.2 0.2-0.8 >0.8
Iron (ppm) <50 50-300 >300
Manganese (ppm) <30 30-200 >200
Zinc (ppm) <15 15-200 >200
Copper (ppm) <10 10-80 >80
Boron (ppm) <15 15-50 >50
Archival copy: for current recommendations see http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu or your local extension office.
Cultural Guidelines for Commercial Production of Interiorscape Aglaonema 5
Table 3. Causes and effects of various physiological problems.
Symptoms Cause Treatment
Grey spots that turn dark and
greasy appear on leaves. Chilling injury. Prevention is best since this usually occurs in
shipping or during cooler weather. Avoid drafts
and low temperatures. Injury occurs 3-7 days
after exposure to temperatures below 50-55°F
beginning with the older leaves. Remove
damaged leaves and move the plant to a
warmer location.
Older leaves lose some of their
color and terminal leaves become
chlorotic and sometimes even
dwarfed and deformed with
serrated edges.
Copper (Cu) deficiency. Apply copper sulfate to soil surfaces at a rate
equivalent to 1.5 lbs CuS04/1000 ft2, or apply
copper sprays to foliage. To prevent, include
copper in the potting medium or use a periodic
micronutrient application. Roots are less able to
harvest copper from cold soil, so keep soil
temperatures above 65°F.
Leaves assume a more or less
vertical or low angle position
instead of a normal 45 to 90 degree
angle from the stem. Leaf color will
also be light or display a
washed-out appearance, and, in
extreme cases, leaf tips will be very
pale.
Excess heat and/or light. Prevent by providing the recommended light
and temperature levels. Leaves will return to
their normal position once light and temperature
levels are appropriate. Severely bleached
leaves may not fully recover.
The emerging terminal leaf has a
fishhook appearance. The new
leaf tip sometimes is obstructed
and caught by the succeeding leaf.
Bent-tip. This occurs when environmental and cultural
conditions that affect the growth rate of the plant
fluctuate. The greater the fluctuations, the more
severe bent-tip will become. Variations in light
levels, fertilizer, water regimes and
temperatures increase the incidence of bent-tip.
Maintain constant and consistent environmental
and cultural conditions to minimize this problem.
Tips of leaves turn brown and
brittle. Tip burn. This is caused by high soluble salt levels in the
soil. Leach the soil, check soluble salt levels,
and reduce the fertilizer level.
Archival copy: for current recommendations see http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu or your local extension office.
... The Chinese evergreen plant (Aglaonema spp.) is a member of the Araceae family of plants. 1 It is a perennial plant native to the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and a popular garden and flowering plant in Papua New Guinea (PNG). 1 Like most plants of the Araceae family, its roots, stem and leaves are poisonous. 2,3 The sap contains needleshaped insoluble calcium oxalate crystals (raphides) contained in specialised cells called idioblasts. ...
... The Chinese evergreen plant (Aglaonema spp.) is a member of the Araceae family of plants. 1 It is a perennial plant native to the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and a popular garden and flowering plant in Papua New Guinea (PNG). 1 Like most plants of the Araceae family, its roots, stem and leaves are poisonous. 2,3 The sap contains needleshaped insoluble calcium oxalate crystals (raphides) contained in specialised cells called idioblasts. ...
... Tissue culture is preferable for rapid multiplication of healthy plants. Tissue culture has not been particularly successful with Aglaonema (Chen et al., 2003), largely due to endogenous microbial contamination. Reduced occurrence of contamination and browning in axillary bud explants excised from the stock plants of Aglaonema Schott 'White Tip' that had not been watered for 2 months (Chen and Yeh, 2007). ...
... None of the plants without GA 3 treatment showed any sign of flowering when the experiment was terminated after 185 days. Similar flowering responses to temperature and GA 3 were observed in Aglaonema commutatum 'Pseudobracteatum', Aglaonema 'Silver Queen', and A. commutatum 'Elegans' (Chen and Yeh, 2003). These results are consistent with Henny (2000) showing that GA 3 treatment induces flowering of Aglaonema and many other ornamental aroids. ...
Article
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Breeding for Aglaonema (Araceae) cultivars with beautiful foliar variegation and color has long been the prevailing goal. The present works studied on regulation of flowering, chromosome number and genetic relationship to facilitate hybridization. Plants flower within 23 to 48 weeks, depending on the cultivar, following a single spray with 250 ppm gibberellic acid (GA3). RAPD analysis on 61 accessions showed that Aglaonema genotypes are highly diverged and could be clustered into seven groups. Cultivars 'Curtisii' and 'Galaxy' are diploid (2n = 40), 'Pride of Sumatra' and 'Chalit's Fantasy' have 50 and 60 chromosomes, respectively. At least eight dominant alleles each with distinct pattern have been identified. Tissue culture is preferable for rapid multiplication of healthy plants. The inflorescence was an alternative source of explants to reduce endogenous microbial contamination, and the suggested cultural medium was half-strength MS basal medium with 5 to 10 μM Dicamba and 10 μM TDZ for direct shooting. After transferring to a shaded greenhouse, plants under 130 μmol.m-2.s-1 during ex vitro acclimatization had higher dry weight than those under 80 or 200 μmol.m-2.s-1.
... The genus Aglaonema Schott (Araceae) is comprised of 21 species that inhabit humid and heavily shaded forests of many territories of Asia [3,5,6]. Aglaonema, one of the world's most popular houseplants, has provided a rich source of variation for the breeding of different foliage forms. ...
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This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from the leaves of Aglaonema commutatum Schott and its cultivars («Malay Beauty», «Silver Queen», and «Silver King») against Escherichia coli (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers (ATCC® 25922™) strain. The leaves of Aglaonema commutatum plants and its cultivars, cultivated under glasshouse conditions, were sampled at M. M. Gryshko National Botanic Garden (NBG), National Academy of Science of Ukraine (Kyiv, Ukraine). The leaves were brought into the laboratory for antimicrobial studies. Freshly sampled leaves were washed, weighed, and homogenized in 96% ethanol (in proportion 1:19) at room temperature. The extracts were then filtered and investigated for their antimicrobial activity. Escherichia coli (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers (ATCC® 25922™) strain was used in our study. Antimicrobial activities of various ethanolic extracts obtained from leaves of Aglaonema commutatum plants and its cultivars («Malay Beauty», «Silver Queen», and «Silver King») against Escherichia coli (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers (ATCC® 25922™) strain was screened in the current study. The testing of the antibacterial activity of the plant extracts was carried out in vitro by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. The leaf extracts from A. commutatum «Silver Queen» and A. commutatum 'Silver King' exhibited higher inhibitory activity than the extracts from A. commutatum and A. commutatum «Malay Beauty». Maximum in vitro inhibition was scored by A. commutatum «Silver Queen», followed by A. commutatum «Silver King», A. commutatum, and A. commutatum «Malay Beauty». In particular, the leaf extracts from A. commutatum «Silver Queen» and A. commutatum 'Silver King' exhibited higher inhibitory activity than the extracts from A. commutatum and A. commutatum «Malay Beauty». Maximum in vitro inhibition was scored by A. commutatum «Silver Queen», followed by A. commutatum «Silver King», A. commutatum, and A. commutatum «Malay Beauty», which presented inhibition zones of (18.6±1.2) mm, (16.1±0.9) mm, (15.7±1.1) mm, and (13.5±1.0) mm, respectively. In the case of the positive controls, 96% ethanol possesses a mild anti-E. coli effect, which presented inhibition zones of (9.5±1.2) mm. The inhibition zone diameters were increased by 96% (p<0.05) for A. commutatum «Silver Queen», by 69 % (p<0.05) for A. commutatum «Silver King», by 65 % (p<0.05) for A. commutatum, and by 42 % (p<0.05) for A. commutatum «Malay Beauty». Thus, the use of these plants in traditional medicine and veterinary medicine was experimentally confirmed as a potential source of raw materials for the development of medicines in the future, as well as for the development of innovative feed for farm animals.
... (Kunisaki, 1980), Dieffenbachia exotica Schott 'Marianna' (Voyiatzi and Voyiatzis, 1989), and Spathiphyllum floribundum L. (Ramirez-Malagon et al., 2001). Tissue culture has not been particularly successful with Aglaonema (Chen et al., 2003), and information in the literature is currently limited. Thus, the objectives of the present work were to develop a procedure for disinfection, to determine the effects of cytokinins on the shoot multiplication, and to evaluate the effects of auxins on ex vitro rooting of microcuttings in Aglaonema. ...
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Elimination of in vitro contamination and shoot multiplication were studied with Aglaonema Schott 'White Tip'. Apparently, contamination was reduced, but explants browned when 200 mgÁL –1 streptomycin was used as either a pretreatment or incorporated into the medium. Reduced occurrence of contamination and browning was achieved in axillary bud explants excised from the stock plants that had not been watered for 2 months. Six shoots per explant elongated normally in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 30 mM benzylaminopurine (BA). MS medium containing 20 mM thidiazuron (TDZ) also resulted in six shoots per explant, but these shoots failed to extend beyond a rosette. Only microcuttings from 30 mM BA treatment were used for the ex vitro rooting trial, and indole-3-butytric acid (IBA) at 9.8 or 19.7 mM applied to the base of the microcuttings resulted in 100% ex vitro rooting and the longest roots.
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Aglaonema commutatum is an ornamental foliage evergreen plant and important for interiorscaping due to its attractive foliage, easiness to grow and tolerance to low relative humidity and low light conditions and commonly referred to as 'Chinese Evergreens'. It belongs to family Araceae, which commonly known as aroids and member of the genus aglaonema. The aim of this study is to develop a technique for micropropagation of A. commutatum plants using single nodal cuttings excised from soft cuttings cultured on full strength MS medium, 30g/l sucrose, 3g/l gelrite augmented with various concentrations of plant growth regulators as NAA, BA and their combinations. Different parameters including the mean number of shoots, shoot length (cm), mean number of leaflets, mean number of nodes and mean number of roots formed per propagule were studied during the time course of all tested stage. Neoformed shoots were divided into single nodes with one axillary bud per node each which were used for all micropropagation stages (i.e. initiation, multiplication and rooting). In general, the present study concluded that the best results for initiation stage was achieved, when MS medium were fortified with NAA and BA at 2.00 and 1.00 mg/l, respectively. Meanwhile, fortified medium with BA and NAA at 4.00 and 1.00 mg/l, consecutively, gave rise to the best results for multiplication stage. Regarding rhizogenesis stage, the best results were recorded when the neoformed shoots of multiplication stage were divided singly and cultured on MS medium plus IBA and NAA at 0.50 and 0.25 mg/l, respectively which led to the highest mean number of roots formed per propagule. Neoformed plantlets were acclimatized ex vitro and in vivo vigorously in mixture of perlite and peatmoss at (1:1) or (1: 2) or (1: 4) or (2:2) and (2:4) consecutively; which resulted in the highest mean value of survival percentage/plant (100%) and showed true-to-type plants ex vitro.
Article
Mandated processing of waste by‐products in the United States has inspired national interest in addressing the effectiveness of using composted biosolids and yard trimmings to grow containerized plants. Diamond bay Chinese evergreen (Aglaonema ‘Diamond Bay’) was transplanted in containers filled with one of eight formulated media (components added by volume). Medium 1 was a standard mix commonly used in Aglaonema production (5:2:3 peat–vermiculite–perlite); medium 2 was formulated on site to contain peat–bark–stalite–rice hulls–coir (2:2:3:1:2); media 3 and 4 contained 40% biosolid–yard waste compost instead of peat and with or without 20% stalite, respectively; and media 5, 6, 7, and 8 were commercially formulated to contain peat–bark–perlite–rice hulls–coir (4:1.5:2.5:1:1, 4:1.5:2.5:1:1, 4:2:2:1:1, and 3.0:2.5:2:1:1.5, respectively). Physical and chemical properties of the eight media were in ranges 50–65% container water‐holding capacity, 2.9–7.8% air‐filled porosity, 55–80% moisture (w/w), 0.11–0.37 g·cm3 bulk density, 0.34–0.96 g·cm3 particle density, 4.2–7.2 pH, 0.12–4.4 dS·m−1 electrical conductivity (EC), 27.3–54.5 meg/100 g cation exchange capacity (CEC), 17.9–39.0% carbon (C), and 0.22–1.7% nitrogen (N). Medium 4 (40% compost) had 5.5 times more ammoniacal N (NH4‐N) and 1.7 times more nitrate N (NO3‐N) than that of the standard commercial mix. At week 8, plants grown in media 2 and 5 were 8.9% to 9.5% taller than plants grown in medium 1 (commercial standard). At week 16, there were no significant differences in plant heights or growth indices among media. At week 24, there were no significant differences in plant height, growth index, visual quality, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight among media. However, cumulative phosphorus (P) leaching from media 1, 4, and 5 was significantly more than leaching from media 2 and 8. This study suggests that compost may serve as a horticulturally suitable and cost‐effective alternative to peat‐based media for Aglaonema production.
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