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Purpose: Knowledge exchange between older and younger employees enhances the collective memory of an organization and therefore contributes to its business success. In this study, we take a motivational perspective to better understand why older and younger employees share and receive knowledge with and from each other. Specifically, we focus on generativity striving–the motivation to teach, train, and guide others–as well as development striving–the motivation to grow, increase competence, and master something new–and argue that both motives need to be considered to fully understand intergenerational knowledge exchange. Design/methodology/approach: We take a dyadic approach to disentangle how older employees’ knowledge sharing is linked to their younger colleagues’ knowledge receiving and vice versa. We applied an actor-partner interdependence model based on survey data from 145 age-diverse coworker dyads to test our hypotheses. Findings: Results showed that older and younger employees’ generativity striving affected their knowledge sharing, which in turn predicted their colleagues’ knowledge receiving. Moreover, we found that younger employees were more likely to receive knowledge that their older colleagues shared with them when they scored higher (vs. lower) on development striving. Originality: By studying the age-specific dyadic cross-over between knowledge sharing and knowledge receiving, this research adds to the knowledge exchange literature. We challenge the current age-blind view on knowledge exchange motivation and provide novel insights in the interplay of motivational forces involved in knowledge exchange between older and younger employees.
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The edited volume Age and Work: Advances in Theory, Methods, and Practice presents a systematic collection of key advances in theory, methods, and practice regarding age(ing) and work. This cutting-edge collection breaks new ground by developing novel and useful theory, explaining underutilized but important methodological approaches, and suggesting original practical applications of emerging research topics. The book begins with a prologue by the World Health Organization’s unit head for aging and health, an introduction on the topic by the editors, and an overview of past, current, and future workforce age trends. Subsequently, the frst main section outlines theoretical advances regarding alternative age constructs (e.g., subjective age), intersectionality of age with gender and social class, paradoxical age-related actions, generational identity, and integration of lifespan theories. The second section presents methodological advances regarding behavioral assessment, age at the team and organizational levels, longitudinal and diary methods, experiments and interventions, qualitative methods, and the use of archival data. The third section covers practical advances regarding age and job crafting, knowledge exchange, the work/nonwork interface, healthy aging, and absenteeism and presenteeism, and organizational meta-strategies for younger and older workers. The book concludes with an epilogue by an eminent scholar in age and work. Written in a scientifc yet accessible manner, the book ofers a valuable resource for undergraduate and graduate students, academics in the felds of psychology and business, as well as practitioners working in the areas of human resource management and organizational development.
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Chapter
Knowledge is a key asset in today’s economy. Accordingly, there is, a growing interest of researchers and practitioners in knowledge exchange and retention. Against the backdrop of workforce aging and increasing age diversity, we deem it timely and worthwhile to synthesize research investigating how to effectively preserve knowledge in organizations. This chapter thus addresses the topic of age and knowledge exchange by adopting the ability-motivation-opportunity framework to provide a summary of how, why, and when employees across the lifespan engage in knowledge exchange. First, we clarify key concepts relevant to age and knowledge exchange. Second, we examine the ability to exchange knowledge through the lens of age-related changes in cognitive abilities and expertise. Third, we break down the motivation to exchange knowledge against the background of age-related motives and goals. Fourth, we analyze the opportunity to exchange knowledge against the background of age norms and their impact on HR practices and organizational culture. In summary, we find arguments suggesting that younger employees are more able and motivated to receive knowledge, while older employees are more able and motivated to share knowledge. Organizations can promote knowledge exchange processes beyond individuals’ lifespan-related tendencies by supporting younger employees in sharing and older employees in receiving knowledge. Finally, we point out directions for future research (e.g., introducing an age-based perspective to explore knowledge hiding) and provide practical implications based on the current state of research (e.g., raise awareness of potential obstacles and implement practices to foster age-diverse knowledge exchange).
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Research on work and aging predominantly relies on self-report data to create new insights relevant to individuals, organizations, and society. Whereas surveys and interviews based on self-reports offer a valuable inward-directed perspective on individuals and their understanding of others, they can only provide limited knowledge on the behaviors of employees at different ages and in age-diverse settings. This is because what employees actually do is often considerably different from their survey-based reports of what they or others do. In this commentary, we challenge the field to move beyond a science of questionnaires by complementing survey research with behavioral data. First, this would allow scholars to identify when and how behaviors accurately translate into surveyed perceptions of behaviors. Second, such an approach can advance our understanding of the micro-dynamics occurring in age-diverse workforces that ultimately manifest in emerging phenomena (e.g., age-inclusive climate, psychological safety perceptions, or group affective tone). Lastly, studying concrete and specific behaviors also allows scholars to develop better interventions and provide meaningful recommendations for practice that differentiate actual from perceived behaviors.
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Post-retirement employment has become an increasingly important form of labor force participation for both retirees and employers in the last decade. In order to understand post-retirement employment decision-making, the cur- rent study investigates the meaning of work and its relationship to post-retirement employment. Based on previous research, we examined four dimensions of the meaning of work (i.e., social, personal, financial, and generative mean- ing of work) relevant to predicting post-retirement employment. Population-representative data from the German Transitions and Old Age Potential study (N = 2,149) were used to test the hypotheses. The results from binary logistic regression analysis indicated that the social and personal meanings of work were positively related to the likelihood to engage in post-retirement employment. Further, subjective economic status was found to moderate the relationship between the financial meaning of work and post-retirement employment. Exploratory analysis was conducted for post-retirement civil engagement and post-retirement family care in order to understand the broader role of the generative meaning of work. The findings of the present study extend previous research on late career decisions. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of theoretical development and individual and organizational practices.
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Career adaptability as a resource and adaptation as a process are essential concepts in career research and counseling, inspired by and building on a long tradition in vocational psychology. Career proactivity, a sub-facet of proactive work behavior in general, comes from industrial- and organizational psychology and is grounded in the literature on self-regulation. The current paper aims to compare these literatures, highlighting communalities and differences in their conceptual backgrounds, implied assumptions, and behaviors studied. Given how these literatures complement rather than contradict one another, we then integrate both literatures into a common framework based on the Rubicon model, a self-regulatory model of action phases. With this, we strive to highlight differences and communalities, potential blind spots and areas where either literature may learn from the other as well as directions for future research that might be beneficial for both literatures and the study of career related action overall.
Article
Purpose - With faster innovation and shorter product cycles, time pressure is a highly relevant factor affecting contemporary business processes. This study aims to extend prior research on the effects of velocity at the firm level by considering the effect of time pressure on knowledge transfer effectiveness (KTE) on the team level and the role of trust as a mediator of this effect. Design/methodology/approach - We empirically assess the impact of time pressure on knowledge transfer effectiveness in teams. Further, we test the mediating effect of trust on this relationship. We study a sample of 285 project teams applying partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Findings - The authors find that time pressure is negatively associated with KTE. Moreover, trust among team members has a complementary mediating effect on this relationship. Thus, while trust is urgently needed for enhancing KTE under time pressure, time pressure reduces trust-building too. Research limitations/implications - This study establishes empirically the importance of time pressure and trust as drivers of KTE in teams. The contribution connects the field of knowledge management to important streams in the wider business literature: organization studies, management, strategic management, project management, innovation etc. Whereas the model is parsimonious, it has high explanatory power and high generalizability to other contexts. Practical implications - Team managers should take care to allow enough time for knowledge transfer within the team. This is particularly important when knowledge sharing is central, e.g. in innovation, development and change processes. If this is not possible, measures should be taken to maintain trust among team members. Social implications - Effective knowledge management enhances the performance of business entities and public-sector organizations alike. Today, both the private and public sectors are under considerable pressure to increase both efficiency and effectiveness. Effective knowledge transfer within teams is a core capability to achieve this goal. More effective organizations result in more competitive private firms, more employment opportunities and improved public services to citizens. Originality/value - Time pressure is an increasingly relevant factor in contemporary business but so far little explored in research. This study extends current knowledge by considering the effect of time pressure on KTE.
Article
Purpose The high turnover rate of knowledge workers presents a challenge to both organizational and personal knowledge management. Although personal knowledge management plays an important role in organizational knowledge management, empirical research on the practices for its application is underdeveloped. This study aims to examine the role of idiosyncratic job-design practices (i.e. job definition, job autonomy, innovation as a job requirement and lifelong learning orientation) in cultivating personal knowledge management among knowledge workers in organizations, to increase their productivity and safeguard the organization against knowledge loss arising from knowledge workers’ interfirm mobility. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from 221 knowledge workers pursuing various knowledge-intensive jobs through a questionnaire survey and were analysed using partial least squares modelling. Findings The results demonstrated that three job-design practices (job definition, innovation as a job requirement and lifelong learning orientation) have a positive impact on personal knowledge management among knowledge workers and thus improve their productivity. However, job autonomy can affect personal knowledge management negatively. Research limitations/implications The findings are confined to a specific context and should be replicated across different contexts for better generalizability in future research. Practical implications Organizational managers should pay attention to (re)designing knowledge-intensive jobs to cultivate personal knowledge management by clearly outlining job responsibilities, offering opportunities to add relevant job activities and drop irrelevant ones, and making innovation and lifelong learning a formal job requirement. In addition, job autonomy should be judiciously provided along with sufficient social and network support to avoid lost opportunities in knowledge creation and sharing, and should be linked to job responsibilities and performance appraisals to avoid negative effects. Originality/value The high turnover rate of knowledge workers presents a challenge to both organizational and personal knowledge management. This study contributes to the literature by addressing the research gap in two aspects. Firstly, based on Drucker’s theory, this study identifies four idiosyncratic job-design practices (job definition, job autonomy, innovation as a job requirement and lifelong learning orientation) that reflect the distinctive characteristics of knowledge-intensive work. Secondly, this study examines whether and how these practices can cultivate personal knowledge management among knowledge workers, which can support their productivity.
Article
Purpose This study aims to resolve contradictions in the literature regarding the relationship between knowledge sharing (KS) and absorptive capacity (AC). The authors analyze the reasons for which KS has been interpreted as an antecedent and those for which it has been seen as a consequent of AC. Design/methodology/approach The study uses a systematic review of the literature to identify the arguments supporting the relationships between the constructs and propose a model. Additionally, the hypotheses were tested using SEM to assess the proposed model. Findings The findings reveal the nature of the relationship between KS and AC. Suggesting AC is bi-dimensional, consisting of potential AC and realized AC, while the relationship between these two dimensions depends on KS. Research limitations/implications This study provides consistent theoretical grounds for future empirical research. The study findings demonstrate KS provides a real contribution towards AC, validating the previous literature on the impact of KS antecedents on realized AC. Additionally, the authors provide evidence to suggest knowledge donation is an output of the AC process, thus generating a debate on the nature of knowledge donation (requested vs unrequested), which raises interesting research questions to be addressed in the future. As a limitation, empirical data was only collected in the context of software development in two countries. Practical implications The results elucidate the central role of knowledge collection within AC. For managers, the importance of the role of knowledge collection to fully benefit from AC and exploit knowledge is highlighted. Originality/value The research design is original in that it combines a systematic and integrative literature review to the ground and propose hypotheses with empirically testing of the emerging model. The study clarifies the relationship between KS and AC, providing evidence to show knowledge donation is an output of the AC process. The benefits of this study can be seen at the team and firm-level.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to examine the role of trust in colleagues and its relationships with the factors of the theory of reasoned action (TRA). Specifically, this study examines the relationships among perceived social pressure about knowledge sharing, attitude toward knowledge sharing, behavioural intent to share knowledge, trust in colleagues and knowledge-sharing behaviour. Design/methodology/approach The methodology adopted was a questionnaire survey of employees working in 34 member institutions of the Singapore Association for Private Education (SAPE). These institutions form the entire member list of the SAPE as of 2020. A total of 297 employees completed a self-administered and anonymous survey using a cross-sectional design. Multiple linear regression was used to test the conceptual framework. Findings On the mediation effects, full mediation was found to affect attitude toward knowledge sharing on knowledge-sharing behaviour, and partial mediation was found to affect perceived social pressure on knowledge-sharing behaviour. On the moderation effects, trust in colleagues moderates both perceived social pressure and knowledge-sharing behaviour and attitude toward knowledge sharing and knowledge-sharing behaviour positively. Specifically, as the level of trust in colleagues increases, the impact of direct relationships also increases. Research limitations/implications Data for the current study were obtained at a single point in time and self-reported. The findings may be biased because of common method variance. Furthermore, this study was conducted in a specific industry in Singapore, i.e. the private education institutions, which limits the generalisability of the research. Practical implications The results of this study indicate that managers need to encourage a higher level of trust between employees. Policies and processes could be enacted to promote building quality and trusting relationships between employees. Originality/value This study contributes to knowledge-sharing behaviour by integrating the role of trust with the TRA. This study extends the conceptual model of the TRA by providing a new theoretical perspective that takes into account the position of trust in knowledge sharing.
Article
Building on two studies, this research explored thriving at work by considering task identity and autonomy as its antecedents and job satisfaction as its outcome, with a focus on the moderating role of mentoring. Through a three-wave survey conducted among 140 Chinese university students with volunteer work, Study 1 found that task identity and autonomy positively predicted thriving, which in turn was positively related to job satisfaction. This mediation effect of thriving was verified in Study 2 with a sample of 522 Australian student nurses undertaking a clinical placement job. Supporting the moderating role of mentoring, Study 2 also found that the effect of task identity on thriving as well as its indirect effect on job satisfaction via thriving became weaker when the quality of mentoring increased. These results not only offer important theoretical insights by confirming relatively new antecedents of thriving and their boundary condition (i.e., mentoring), but also generate practical implications regarding how to use motivating job characteristics and relational resources to foster positive individuals with enhanced well-being at work.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on knowledge sharing and the moderating effects of individual demographics, organizational context and cultural context in that relationship. Design/methodology/approach – This study conducted a meta-analysis of 44 studies involving 14,023 participants to examine the direct and moderating effects of motivation on knowledge sharing. Findings – Results revealed that both extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors were associated with higherlevels of knowledge sharing, while the effect was stronger for intrinsic motivation. Moreover, results revealed that substantial variance was explained by moderating variables. Further investigation revealed that individual characteristics (age, gender), organizational context (organizational setting vs. open system, IT infrastructure) and cultural context (collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, performance orientation, powerdistance) moderated the motivation and knowledge sharing relationship. Research limitations/implications – As a meta-analysis, this study is confined to variables that have been frequently analyzed in prior research. Future research could further increase our understanding of different types of knowledge sharing and various boundary conditions. Practical implications – Organizations should provide customized incentive systems to specific target groups to align motivation and knowledge sharing. Multinational organizations may consider different motivation schemes across countries to better suit cultural differences. Originality/value – Despite a growing number of studies highlighting the important role of motivation in predicting knowledge sharing, the evidenceis mixed. Based on ameta-analysis, this study identified true relationships and identified moderating effects that help explain prior mixed results.
Article
Little research to date has focused on understanding employee motivation to share and hide knowledge. Using self‐determination theory, we tested the premise that knowledge sharing and hiding might be differentially motivated and that work design characteristics might influence the motivation to share knowledge with colleagues. In a panel survey of Australian knowledge workers and in a Chinese knowledge‐intensive organization, we asked knowledge workers, using time‐lagged designs, about perceptions of work design, motivation to share knowledge, and self‐reported knowledge sharing and hiding behaviors. Results, largely replicated across both samples, indicated that cognitive job demands and job autonomy were positively related to future reports of knowledge sharing frequency and usefulness via autonomous motivation to share knowledge. Unexpectedly, task interdependence was positively related to the three forms of knowledge hiding (evasive and rationalized hiding, and playing dumb) via external regulation to share knowledge. Implications for the design of jobs that motivate knowledge sharing and demotivate knowledge hiding are discussed.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of organizational information technology (IT)-based and non-IT-based knowledge transfer mechanisms (KTMs) for the retention of different types of knowledge from mobile experts. It differentiates among four types of knowledge loss (KL), namely, conscious knowledge (i.e. individual explicit knowledge that can be codified); codified knowledge (i.e. explicit knowledge captured at the social level); automatic knowledge (i.e. implicit individual knowledge); and collective knowledge (i.e. implicit knowledge embedded in the organization). Design/methodology/approach A research framework connecting the organizational knowledge retention (KR) cycle to KL is developed and an exploratory analysis is conducted using data from two case studies in the Canadian federal public service. Findings are confirmed using a third government agency. Findings Without the right processes in place for organizational knowledge retrieval and reuse, the KR cycle is not complete, leading to KL. The lack of available social KTMs for the conversion of individual to social objectified knowledge leads to KL. KTMs shortcomings increase the risk of automatic and objectified KL. Research limitations/implications Exploratory results demonstrate that KL does not always equate to lack of KR. Implementing knowledge-specific organizational KTMs is important to encourage the retention of individual knowledge at the social level. Propositions and a framework are developed for future research. Practical implications Mobile experts hold valuable knowledge at high risk of being lost by organizations. This paper provides managers with a set of guidelines to develop a knowledge-specific strategy focused on KTMs that increase KR and mitigate KL. Originality/value This paper challenges the assumption that KL only results from poor retention and studies both retention and loss to identify additional types of unintentional loss that occur when individual knowledge is not converted to social knowledge.
Article
The goal of this article is to clarify the conceptual, methodological, and practical issues that frequently emerge when conducting longitudinal research, as well as in the journal review process. Using a panel discussion format, the current authors address 13 questions associated with 3 aspects of longitudinal research: conceptual issues, research design, and statistical techniques. These questions are intentionally framed at a general level so that the authors could address them from their diverse perspectives. The authors' perspectives and recommendations provide a useful guide for conducting and reviewing longitudinal studies in work, aging, and retirement research.
Article
Purpose The focus of this study is on the knowledge retention process, including knowledge capture, knowledge codification and the internalising of knowledge in organisations – a key aspect of age management. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to an understanding of the difficulties in this process to discuss implications for organizational measures to retain knowledge. Design/methodology/approach This study is based on field research on a Swedish multinational company from the perspective of senior employees. Findings The findings indicate that knowledge retention is a complex phenomenon, partly because valued knowledge is tacit and knowing is highly subjective and transferred through learning in collaboration with others in the process of undertaking assignments and acting together in work situations. Research limitations/implications Knowledge retention is considered only from the perspective of senior, white-collar employees in this study; it would be of interest to consider other employees’ perspectives as well. A second limitation is that the data were collected at a single site. It could be argued, however, that a single case study research format provides an opportunity to gain deep knowledge and allows for explanations about observed phenomena, thereby contributing towards transferable scientific knowledge. Practical implications Knowledge retention is hindered by focusing solely on senior workers and on an explicit and commodified view of knowledge. Social implications Knowledge retention should be an on-going way of working throughout the organization in which tacit knowledge and knowing are important. Originality/value This study shows the importance of considering knowledge and knowing retention as a matter of continual interaction between actors. Retention of tacit knowledge and knowing is not merely a matter of capturing and codifying knowledge. This study contributes to an understanding of the internalisation of tacit knowledge and knowing in continual interaction and cannot be preceded by a step-wise process.
Article
Training transfer is a ubiquitous but frequently unmet goal of training initiatives amounting to billions of dollars lost annually and masses of under‐skilled workers due to the lack of application of training content to their job. Although research supports the impact trainee proactive personality, conscientiousness and motivation have on training transfer processes, their interrelationships remain understudied. To fill this gap, we utilized data from a multinational sample of trainees and examined a conditional, indirect process model, where proactive personality interacts with conscientiousness to influence transfer intentions through their effects on motivation to learn. Our results suggest that trainee proactive personality positively influences transfer intentions partially through its influence on motivation to learn and that higher levels of conscientiousness weakens this relationship. Our findings provide further evidence supporting the importance of proactive personality and conscientiousness as factors that need to be accounted for in the design of talent development solutions.
Article
Purpose Knowledge loss caused by employee exit has become a significant corporate risk. This paper aims to explore how to measure the impact of knowledge loss. The paper is based on empirical evidence from a five-year longitudinal study. Design/methodology/approach This paper is based on a longitudinal change project for a large Australian Research Council Linkage Project grant in the period 2008-2013. The method was a single case study using a critical realism paradigm. The project was a transformational change programme which aimed to help make the partner organization a learning organization to minimize the impact of knowledge loss. The partner organization was a large Australian Government Department, which faced the threat of knowledge loss caused by its ageing workforce. The sample was 118 respondents, mainly engineering and technical workers. A total of 150 respondents were invited to participate in the study which involved an annual survey and attendance at regular training workshops and related activities, with a participation rate of 79 per cent. Findings The results found that knowledge loss has most negative impact in terms of organizational problems including low productivity (morale), strategic misalignment of the workforce (capability gaps), resource cuts (stakeholders unhappy with performance), decreased work quantity and quality (inexperienced employees), work outputs not being used (customers mistrust), longer time to competence (learning cost) and slow task completion (increased search cycle time). The second most significant impact was increased sense of risk associated with work activities and declining capacity to manage the risk. The third main impact was decreased organizational knowledge base: knowledge loss creates knowledge deficit which is unlikely to be filled over time, as shown by the knowledge accounts of surviving employees which remained stable overall. The two remaining measurement constructs – psychological contract and learning organizational capacity – improved, which suggests that the negative impact of knowledge loss may be addressed with appropriate knowledge management. Research limitations/implications The research is based on a single case study in a public sector organization. While the longitudinal nature of the study and the rich data collected offsets this issue, it also presents good opportunities for researchers and practitioners to test the ideas presented in this paper in other industry contexts. The complexity and range of the constructs, concepts and scale items is acknowledged. Tables have been used wherever possible to help the reader access the findings. Practical implications Knowledge loss is perhaps the greatest corporate risk facing organizations today. This paper provides a method to measure the impact of knowledge loss. Managers may use this to assess the significance of the risk and use this as a business case to take action to minimize the impact of knowledge loss. Originality/value Prior research has found knowledge loss has caused decreased psychological contract, lost organizational memory, inefficiency and ineffectiveness and declining capability; however, these concepts are discussed in broad terms only. This paper addresses the need for measurement concepts which helps us understand the nature of the impact of knowledge loss. Five knowledge loss concepts are developed: knowledge resources, psychological contract, learning organization capacity, risk management and organizational problems. The results are based on a large-scale longitudinal study providing empirical evidence of change over a three-year period, situated within the context of a research intervention, i.e. knowledge management programme.
Article
Studies on diversity topics and knowledge management abound in the management literature. However, we still know little about the impact of generational diversity on knowledge transfer. This is surprising, given that particularly the transfer of knowledge between employees who differ substantially in terms of their age is of increasing relevance to organisations: unless firms manage to stimulate intra-organizational knowledge transfer, the knowledge of retiring employees will be lost. This conceptual study first systematically reviews the empirical literature on intergenerational knowledge transfer. Second, the study integrates research on knowledge transfer and generational diversity in order to develop a theoretical framework and set of propositions addressing the specific challenges of intergenerational knowledge transfer.
Article
Objectives: A considerable volume of experimental evidence demonstrates that exposure to aging stereotypes can strongly influence cognitive performance among older individuals. However, whether such effects extend to stereotypes regarding older adults’ generative (i.e. contributory) worth is not yet known. The present investigation sought to evaluate the effect of exposure to positive versus negative generative value primes on an important aspect of later life functioning, memory. Method: Participants of age 55 and older (n = 51) were randomly assigned to read a mock news article portraying older individuals as either an asset (positive prime) or a burden (negative prime) to society. Upon reading their assigned article, participants completed a post-priming memory assessment in which they were asked to recall a list of 30 words. Results: Those exposed to the negative prime showed significantly poorer memory performance relative to those exposed to the positive prime (d = 0.75), even when controlling for baseline memory performance and sociodemographic covariates. Conclusion: These findings suggest that negative messages regarding older adults’ generative social value impair memory relative to positive ones. Though demonstrated in the short term, these results also point to the potential consequences of long-term exposure to such negative ideologies and may indicate a need to promote more positive societal conceptualizations of older adults’ generative worth.
Article
Team cognition has been identified as a critical component of team performance and decision-making. However, theory and research in this domain continues to remain largely static; articulation and examination of the dynamic processes through which collectively held knowledge emerges from the individual- to the team-level is lacking. To address this gap, we advance and systematically evaluate a process-oriented theory of team knowledge emergence. First, we summarize the core concepts and dynamic mechanisms that underlie team knowledge-building and represent our theory of team knowledge emergence (Step 1). We then translate this narrative theory into a formal computational model that provides an explicit specification of how these core concepts and mechanisms interact to produce emergent team knowledge (Step 2). The computational model is next instantiated into an agent-based simulation to explore how the key generative process mechanisms described in our theory contribute to improved knowledge emergence in teams (Step 3). Results from the simulations demonstrate that agent teams generate collectively shared knowledge more effectively when members are capable of processing information more efficiently and when teams follow communication strategies that promote equal rates of information sharing across members. Lastly, we conduct an empirical experiment with real teams participating in a collective knowledge-building task to verify that promoting these processes in human teams also leads to improved team knowledge emergence (Step 4). Discussion focuses on implications of the theory for examining team cognition processes and dynamics as well as directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record
Article
From an organizational viewpoint, strategic career-development and succession-planning programs can help organizations keep valued employees, especially older ones, and reduce HR costs by developing existing workers rather than hiring new ones. They can also help organizations adapt more nimbly to changing circumstances by preserving accumulated expertise and experience while continuously refreshing skills.
Article
Using meta-analysis (283 effect sizes from 122 studies), we extend prior qualitative and quantitative reviews of research on proactive personality in a number of meaningful ways. First, we examine the discriminant and incremental validity of proactive personality using meta-analytic regression analyses. Our results reveal that more than 50% of variance in proactive personality is unrelated to the Big Five personality traits collectively. Also, proactive personality accounts for unique variance in overall job performance, task performance, and organizational citizenship behaviors, even after controlling for the Big Five personality traits and general mental ability (for overall job performance and task performance). Moreover, we find no subgroup differences in proactive personality, highlighting its potential use in selection contexts. In conclusion, we discuss implications of our findings for research and practice.
Article
Purpose – The primary purpose of this study is to examine the relationships among a firm’s industrial cluster involvement, organizational learning and its ability to successfully adapt to external environment. Design/methodology/approach – Field survey research method was used, and data were collected from 943 high-technology companies in the USA, China, Taiwan and Sweden. Multiple regression analysis, as well as mediation test, was conducted to analyze the data. Findings – The study finds that being positioned in an industrial cluster enhances a firm’s learning and further leads to a firm’s desired adaptive outcomes. Research limitation – Using self-reported data could be a potential limitation of this study. It would be preferable to have other forms of data for a study. Further, cross-cultural comparisons are needed to enhance our understanding in this multicultural setting. Practical implication – The findings provide business executives, as well as policymakers, a new way of thinking in respect to how to develop holistic learning practices and improve inter-firm trust to appropriately adapt to the fast changing environment. Originality/value – The major contribution of this study is an initial attempt to provide a comprehensive approach in analyzing a firm’s industrial cluster involvement. Further, the study attempts to empirically examine learning and cluster involvement in relation to organizational adaptation.
Article
Three questions stimulated by Erik Erikson's theory of generativity were addressed: 1) Is generativity associated with greater subjective well-being? 2) Are agency and communion additive or interactive predictors of generativity? 3) Does generativity play a distinct role during the midlife period? Among ninety-eight midlife adults, generativity was positively related to positive affectivity, satisfaction with life, and work satisfaction. Generativity was independently predicted by agentic (masculine) and communal (feminine) traits. Among fifty-eight young adults, generativity predicted positive affect at home. Generativity was independently predicted by agentic (power) and communal (love) interpersonal orientations. Using event-contingent recording of agentic and communal behavior at work, agency was a stronger predictor of generativity for young adult men, and communion was a stronger predictor for young adult women. The studies demonstrate that generativity has similar relations to agency and communion in young and midlife adults; however, generativity may be a stronger predictor of subjective well-being in midlife adults.
Article
The authors propose that need for cognition, an individual's tendency to engage in and enjoy thinking, is associated with individual innovation behavior. Moreover, drawing on an interactionist perspective, the authors suggest that need for cognition becomes more important when individuals face lower job autonomy and time pressure in their work. This is because, when these job characteristics are low, there is no contextual driving force for individual innovation, so personality has a stronger influence. In a multisource study of 179 employees working in a Dutch research and consultancy organization, the authors' expectations were largely supported. They found that need for cognition was positively associated with peer-rated innovation behavior, as were job autonomy and time pressure, even when controlling for openness to experience and proactive personality. Furthermore, the relationship between need for cognition and innovation behavior was strongest for individuals with low job autonomy and low time pressure and indeed was nonexistent at high levels of these contextual variables. This study, therefore, suggests that context can substitute for an individual's need for cognition when it comes to individual innovation.