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Bioactive Compounds of Moringa (Moringa
N. Kumar, Pratibha, and S. Pareek
1 Introduction ................................................................................... 2
2 Bioactive Compounds in Moringa species ................................................... 4
2.1 Bioactive Compounds in Leaves . .. . ................................................... 4
2.2 Bioactive Compounds in Seeds ........................................................ 7
2.3 Bioactive Compounds in Roots ........................................................ 8
2.4 Bioactive Compounds in the Seed Oil of Moringa Species ........................... 8
3 Methods for Extraction of Bioactive Compounds in Moringa .............................. 9
4 Functional Applications of Moringa in Novel Food Products .............................. 11
5 Medicinal Properties of Moringa Species .................................................... 13
5.1 Anticancerous Property ................................................................. 13
5.2 Cardiovascular Property .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. 13
5.3 Antiasthmatic Property .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . . 14
5.4 Antidiabetic Property .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. 14
5.5 Antimicrobial Property .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . . 14
5.6 Anti-inammatory Property .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. 15
5.7 Antifertility Property .................................................................... 15
6 Conclusion and Future Perspectives ......................................................... 16
References ........................................................................................ 16
Moringa species have a wide variety of functional compounds from various
vegetative parts, that is, leaves, roots, seeds, and green pods. Such functional
compounds are made of carbohydrates, phenolic substances, fatty acids and
fats, and proteins and are ideally suitable for several dietary formulations.
N. Kumar · S. Pareek (*)
Department of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, National Institute of Food Technology
Entrepreneurship and Management, Sonipat, India
Department of Food Business Management and Entrepreneurship Development, National Institute
of Food Technology Entrepreneurship and Management, Sonipat, India
© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021
H. N. Murthy, K. Y. Paek (eds.), Bioactive Compounds in Underutilized Vegetables and
Legumes, Reference Series in Phytochemistry,
This review provides information on bioactive compounds of Moringa oleifera
and other Moringa species. This review aims to identify the bioactive compounds
and benets for food products. Moreover, efcient methods are discussed for
extracting and characterizing the bioactive compounds in Moringa species. In
addition, the medicinal properties provided by bioactive compounds of Moringa
species are also reviewed.
Alkaloids · Bioactive compounds · Extraction · Food incorporation · Moringa ·
Medicinal property · Phytochemicals
1 Introduction
Moringa oleifera Lam is among the major plants in the Moringaceae family. The
taxonomic classication of Moriga is given in Table 1.Moringa oleifera, also,
known as drum stick, is regarded as miracle tree (Fig. 1). Its each and every part is
used for one or another purpose and has medicinal importance. It is an excellent
source of nutrients and bioactive compounds [1]. In India and Africa, it is exten-
sively grown in tropical or arid regions, with 13 shrubs [2]. It is traditionally used to
treat ulcer, wound healing, cancer, obesity, anemia, and liver disease as a folk
medicine [3]. Moringa is also regarded as essential due to the high resistance of its
tuberous roots to drought and arid conditions [4]. Various Moringa plant parts
including leaves, roots, seeds, and green pods were found useful in medicinal
preparations, nutraceuticals, and purication of water and biodiesel [57]. Moringa
contains essential phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, steroids, and reducing
sugars [1]. Moringa oleifera plants have also been identied as a rich source of
bioactive compounds, phenols, glucosinolates, tocopherols, carotenoids, ascorbic
acid, minerals, and polyunsaturated fatty acids [8]. The extracted oil of Moringa seed
is referred to as Ben oil due to high monounsaturated fatty acids content in oleic acid
Table 1 Taxonomic classication of Moriga oleifera
Taxonomic classication
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Tracheobionta
Super division Supermatophyta
Division Magnoliophyta
Class Magnoliopsida
Subclass Dilleniidae
Order Capparales
Family Moringaceae
Genus Moringa
Species oleifera
2 N. Kumar et al.
(C 18:1), which is utilized in biodiesel production [9]. In vitro and in vivo, all parts
of Moringa oleifera Lam plant extracted with water, methanol, and ethanol solvents
have shown excellent antioxidant activity, phenolic activity, antiepileptic, anticon-
vulsant, antidiabetic, antibacterial, and anticancer activity [1,1012]. Moringa
oleifera had a higher amount of nutrients such as vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium,
and potassium content as compared to oranges, carrots, and banana. Furthermore, it
has 9-times the iron content of spinach and 4-times the ber content of oats and the
protein content resembling of milk and eggs (Fig. 2)[13]. The previous studies have
also reported the use of Moringa bioactive compounds in functional foods and
several commercial foods uses. Such plants may be used for various food technology
applications, such as antimicrobial agents, antioxidant, and food fortication, includ-
ing nutritional and technological applications, because of high amount and the
quality of bioactive components [1416]. Moringa seeds are used as seasonings in
food applications or can also be consumed as roasted seeds [17]. Because of the
abovementioned benets and high bioactive content, our of Moringa oleifera
leaves can be blended with other ours enhancing the nutritional value of the food
products. In food industry, Moringa our can be utilized as functional ingredients to
produce diversied products such as pasta, bread, cookies, snacks, and soups
Fig. 1 Moriga oleifera tree
with green pods and owers
Bioactive Compounds of Moringa (Moringa Species) 3
offering better nutritional quality and provide protection against diseases like obe-
sity, cancer, and diabetes [18].
2 Bioactive Compounds in Moringa species
2.1 Bioactive Compounds in Leaves
Moringa leaves contain various bioactive compounds such as phenolics, avonoids,
alkaloids, terpenes, sterols. Table 2summarizes the bioactive compounds presented
in leaves of Moringa species.Flavonoid compounds are found in the form of
avonol and glycoside. Rutin is mostly found in the leaves of Moringa stenopetala
[19] and Moringa oleifera [20]. Vongsak et al. [21] identied avonoid astragalin
and isoquercetin in the leaves.Many studies have conrmed the presence of
avonoids in Moringa oleifera leaves such as quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin,
quercetin-3-O-(600-malonyl) glucoside, kaempferol, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside,
kaempferol-3-rutinoside isorhamnetin, kaempferol-3-O-(600-malonyl) glucoside,
Fig. 2 Comparative bioactive compound concentrations in Moringa oleifera
4 N. Kumar et al.
Table 2 Bioactive compounds in different parts of Moringa species
part Plant species Bioactive compounds Ref.
Leaves M. stenopetala Rutin [19]
M. oleifera Isoquercetin, astragalin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol,
apigenin, luteolin, genistein, daidzein, myricetin, epicatechin,
quercetin-3-o-glucoside, quercetin-3-o-(600-malonyl) glucoside,
kaempferol-3-o-glucoside, aempferol-3-o-(600-malonyl) glucoside,
M. oleifera Kaempherol-3-o-α-rhamnoside, kaempferide-3-o-
(200,300-diacetylglucoside), lkaempferol-3-o-[β-glucosyl-(1 !2)]-
[α-rhamnosyl-(1 !6)]-β-glucoside-7-o-α-hamnoside, kaempferide-
3-o-(200-o-galloylrhamnoside), kaempferide-3-o-(200-o-
galloylrutinoside)-7-o-α-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-o-
[α-rhamnosyl-1 !2)]-[α-rhamnosyl-(1 !4)]β-glucoside-7-
glucosinolate, 4-[(20-o-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]
glucosinolate, 4-[(30-o-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]
glucosinolate, 4-[(40-o-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl]
glucosinolate, 4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl] isothiocyanate
M. oleifera Gallic acid, ellagic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, O-coumaric acid,
chlorogenic acid, gentisic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid,
sinapic acid
M. oleifera Cryptochlorogenic acid, salicylic acid, marumoside A,
marumoside B, pyrrolemarumine-400-o-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, N,
α-L-Rhamnopyranosyl vincosamide, niazimicin, niaziminin,
β-sitosterol, Vanillin, D-allose
M. peregrina Lupeol [32]
M. concanensis Tocopherols [33]
Seeds M. oleifera Myricetin, 1H-pyrazol-4-yl-methanol, 13-hydroperoxy
octadecadienoic acid, 1,4-naphthoquinone, quercetin-3-o-glucoside,
Bioactive Compounds of Moringa (Moringa Species) 5
Table 2 (continued)
part Plant species Bioactive compounds Ref.
7-rhamnoglucoside (hesperidin), benzyl glucosinolate
(glucotropaeolin), 4-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl-1-
>4-α-lrhamnopyranosyloxy) benzyl] isothiocyanate, niazimicin,
pterygospermin, β-sitosterol, O-ethyl-4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)-
benzyl] carbamate, moringyne, vanillin
M. stenopetala Glucomoringin [25]
Glucoconringiin;,5,5-Dimethyloxazolidine-2-thione [39]
Isobutylthiocyanate, 4-(40-O-methyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl
Benzyl isothiocyanate [26]
M. peregrina niazirin [27]
Roots M. oleifera Procyanidins, aurantiamide acetate, 1,3-dibenzyl urea, N-benzyl, S-
M. stenopetala Glucoconringiin, cholest-5-en-3-ol, 1,3-dilinoleoyl-2-olein,
Oil M. oleifera, M. drouhardii, M. ovalifolia,
M. peregrine, M. tenopetala, M. concanensis,
M. hildebrandtii
Oleic acid, linoleic acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic
acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid, linolenic acid, behenic acid,
paullinic acid
6 N. Kumar et al.
and kaempherol-3-O-α-rhamnoside, kaempferide-3-O-(200,300-diacetylglucoside),
kaempferol-3-O-[β-glucosyl-(1 !2)]-[α-rhamnosyl-(1 !6)]-β-glucoside-7-
O-α-rhamnoside, kaempferide-3-O-(200-O-galloylrhamnoside), kaempferide-3-O-
(200-O-galloylrutinoside)-7-O-α-rhamnoside, and kaempferol-3[α-rhamnosyl-
(1 !2)]-[α-rhamnosyl-(1 !4)]β-glucoside-7-O-α-rhamnoside luteolin, genistein,
apigenin, myricetin, daidzein, and epicatechin [2123]. A large number of
glucosinolates are found in Moringa species, with 4-O-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-
benzyl glucosinolate as most abundant glucosinolate present in the species, also
called glucomoringin (GMG) [24]. Leone et al. [22] and Tumer et al. [25] reported
three isomers of GMG as 4-[(20-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl] glucosinolate,
4-[(30-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl] glucosinolate, and 4-[(40-O-acetyl-α-L-
rhamnosyloxy) benzyl] glucosinolate, reported in the leaves of Moringa oleifera
depending on physiological properties and maturity [22,25]. Disturbance of the
tissue of plants usually from cuts to chews caused myrosinase to be released which
produces isothiocyanates, upon its interaction with glucosinolates. Most abundant
isothiocyanate present in the genus is 4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl] isothiocyanate
(GMG-ITC), generated from GMG. There has been a great interest of researchers in
isothiocyanates from Moringa because of their antidiabetic, anticancer, antimicro-
bial, and anti-inammatory activity [24]. Reason of great biological activity of
isothiocyanate is its alkylation with DNA and proteins [26]. The isothiocyanate
present in Moringa oleifera is quite stable and, owing to the extra sugar moiety in its
chemical composition, is solid at room temperature [25].
Gallic acid is the most important phenol in Moringa oleifera leaves [24]. Leone
et al. [20] reported ellagic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, and
o-coumaric acid in M. oleifera leaves, along with the abovementioned phenolic acids
gentisic acid, p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, and sinapic acid, are also present in
trace amounts [20]. Other phenolic compounds such as cryptochlorogenic acid and
salicylic acid also reported in leaves of M. oleifera [20,21].Sahakitpichan et al. [27]
have reported two pyrrole alkaloid glycosides (marumoside A and marumoside B)
and pyrrolemarumine-400-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside in the leaves of M. oleifera
[27]. Other alkaloids and sterols compounds such as Nα-L-Rhamnopyranosyl
vincosamide [28], niazimicin [29], niaziminin [30], β-sitosterol [31] have been
found in the leaves of M. oleifera. Lupeol was also detected in the leaves of
M. peregrina variety of M. oleifera [32]. Other bioactive compounds such as
tocopherols (M. concanensis), vanillin, and D-allose (M. oleifera) have been reported
in the leaves of Moringa species [3335].
2.2 Bioactive Compounds in Seeds
Seeds of Moringa species become more edible because of the sweet taste [36]. Some
important bioactive compounds found in seeds of Moringa species are summarized
in Table 2. Flavonoids reported in the M. oleifera seed extract were myricetin [20],
1H-pyrazol-4-yl-methanol, 13-hydroperoxy octadecadienoic acid, and
1,4-naphthoquinone [37]. Some avanol glycosides like quercetin-3-O-glucoside
Bioactive Compounds of Moringa (Moringa Species) 7
[38] and 7-rhamnoglucoside (hesperidin) [37]. These bioactive compounds exhibit
antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inammatory, and antidepressant activities.
Myricetin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside are also detected in M. oleifera leaves [24,
37]. Glucomoringin [25] and glucoconringiin [39] are the glucosinolates detected in
the seeds of M. stenopetala and benzyl glucosinolate (glucotropaeolin) in the seed of
M. oleifera [8]. Also, some isothiocyanates have been detected in the seeds of
Moringa species. Seeds of M. stenopetala contain isobutylthiocyanate [40], and
benzyl isothiocyanate [26]. M. oleifera seeds also contain 4-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl-1-
>4-α-Lrhamnopyranosyloxy) benzyl] isothiocyanate [38].
Alkaloids and sterols detected in Moringa species seeds are
5,5-dimethyloxazolidine-2-thione (Moringa stenopetala) [39], O-ethyl-4-[(α-L-
rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl] carbamate [41], niazimicin [29], pterygospermin [24], and
β-sitosterol [38], which were detected in M. oleifera seed extract. Other bioactive
compounds reported are niazirin [27], 4-(40-O-methyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl
nitrile, and p-cymene [40]inM. peregrina seeds.Seeds of M. oleifera also contain
moringyne and vanillin [24,34].
2.3 Bioactive Compounds in Roots
Bioactive compounds found in the roots of Moringa species are shown in Table 2.
M. oleifera root extract showed the presence of avonoid compounds, that is,
procyanidins [42]. Alkaloids and sterols like aurantiamide acetate, 1, 3-dibenzyl
urea [43], and N-benzyl, S-ethylthioformate [44] have been present in the roots of
M. oleifera. Root extract from M. stenopetala contained the stated compounds:
glucoconringiin [45], cholest-5-en-3-ol [47], 1,3-dioleoyl-2-linolein, and
1,3-dilinoleoyl-2-olein [47].
2.4 Bioactive Compounds in the Seed Oil of Moringa Species
Oil from various Moringa species contains high oleic acid content and is highly
stable which can be used for edible, cosmetic, biodiesel, lubrication for machinery
and some other purposes [48]. Bioactive compounds like oleic acid, linoleic acid,
myristic acid, stearic acid, palmitoleic acid [26,4951], palmitic acid, arachidic acid
[26,49,51,52], linolenic acid, behenic acid, and paullinic acid [49,51] were
reported in oil of M. oleifera, M. ovalifolia, M. drouhardii, M. peregrina,
M. concanensis, M. stenopetala, and M. hildebrandtii.
8 N. Kumar et al.
3 Methods for Extraction of Bioactive Compounds
in Moringa
Besides traditional approaches, new methods for extracting various bioactive com-
pounds have also been investigated. The efcacy of traditional and experimental
methods of extraction largely depends upon several primary factors, including the
plant matrix understanding and the structure and stability of target bioactive com-
pounds [53]. Several methods and techniques for removal have been used for
releasing Moringa plant bioactive compounds. Unconventional or new technologies
include methods that offer high quality, high-yield plant extract, numerous technical
or environmental benets, such as quick processing times and its use of green
solvents, during the extraction procedure. Green solvents were found to be ideal
for extracting different phytochemicals from Moringa oleifera leaves [54]. If meth-
anol is used as a removal solvent using pressurized hot water and aqueous two-side
extraction systems, the authors have reported that the composition of phenolic
substances can be identical. They emphasized the possibility of using green solvents
to extract bioactive phytochemicals from Moringa plants by clear and environmen-
tally friendly methods. Furthermore, specialist machinery was used to extract effec-
tive bioactive compounds. The overall phenolic content in leaves of Moringa
oleifera, based on ultrasound-assisted extraction, was higher compared to the tradi-
tional method (maceration) irrespective of extractive dissolvent and concentration.
This resulted in less than 45 min in the extraction process to damage the cell walls
with an increase in solvent penetration corresponding to a better phenolic com-
pounds yield. Nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and nutritional products from
Moringa plant extracts may be produced by the food industry using this technique
[55]. Alongside, a recent study reported microwave assisted extraction process to be
more efcient than conventional extraction methods in producing polyphenolic
compounds from various plants, including leaves of Moringa. Reasons for this
enhanced extraction efciency can be high shear, high-velocity impaction, higher
frequency vibrations, and cavitation caused while extraction [56]. In addition, high
temperatures and microwave energy can break through the cell wall and help release
bioactive to the solvent, which follows the theory of disruption.
Rodríguez-Pérez et al. [57] optimized a three-step downstream process which
included supercritical uid extraction, followed by carbon dioxide-expanded ethanol
extraction and lastly, pressurized hot water extraction for the extraction of organic
acids, phenolic compounds, fatty and amino acids from Moringa oleifera leaves.
This indicated towards successful use of green extraction technique to extract
different bioactive compounds from Moringa oleifera leaves for food applications.
As mentioned above, many emerging extraction technologies have been reported;
however, conventional techniques are most widely used and produce good results in
extracting bioactive compounds from plant parts of Moringa. Polarity and the
chemical character of a solvent during the recovery of bioactive products are
important factors to be considered as they are essential for deciding the extract
yield and functional characteristics [58]. The yield of phenolic compounds increased
with increase in polarity of extracting solvent; this is connected with polarity
Bioactive Compounds of Moringa (Moringa Species) 9
provided by the hydroxyl groups. Extracts from M. oleifera using water and ethanol
(50:50) show greater antimicrobial activity against Alternaria alternata,
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and Lasiodiplodia theobromae (fungal species
responsible for postharvest diseases in avocado) than water and methanol (50:50)
extract [59]. The antimicrobial nature of extracts from Moringa species can be due to
the presence of bioactive compounds (avonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids) as
reported by Al-Owaisi et al. [60]. Nonpolar solvents like hexane and petroleum
ether extract hydrocarbons, oils, esters, and fatty acids, whereas polar solvents such
as methanol and ethanol extract organic acids and phenolic compounds from various
tissues of Moringa species [2,61,62]. Therefore, the type of solvent and extraction
technique and other extraction conditions plays a substantial part in determining the
nature and functionality of extract from Moringa species.
Table 3 Functional applications of Moringa in food products
product Food product Key functions References
Leaves Food bar for nursing
Improved nutritional properties [63]
Moringa tea, Moringa
soup, Moringa
All the macro- and micronutrients,
anticancerous, antioxidant, control blood
sugar level in diabetes
Tortillas Improved protein and lipid content,
increased total phenolic content, good
texture of dough important for handling
and processing
Soup for pregnant
Rich in protein and micronutrients [65]
Pasta Improved nutritional and functional
Noodle Improved nutritional properties [67]
Chapatti Improved nutritional and antioxidant
Cookies Improved nutritional characteristics [69]
Green banana cake Improved nutritional and organoleptic
Seeds Gruels Improved nutritional properties, reduced
viscosity, bulk density, and swelling index
which improves water absorption capacity
and helps in easy preparation of slurry
Cookies Improved nutritional characteristics [69]
Cookies Improve the nutritional properties with
acceptable heological and sensory
Bread Improve the nutritional quality keeping
sensory attributes
10 N. Kumar et al.
4 Functional Applications of Moringa in Novel Food
Novel products are produced in the food industry with a strategic position.
Consumers are increasingly demanding high nutritional value food items. Moringa
plant offers countless possibilities for use as an ingredient in preparations and
processing of food products because of bioactive compounds present in
it. Recently many researchers have used leaves and powdered seeds of Moringa in
the development and formulation of fortied or functional food products (Table 3).
Consumer acceptability of a food product is primarily affected by organoleptic and
visual characters such as color, texture, avor, taste, and overall appearance.
Páramo-Calderón et al. [18] reported that addition of 5% Moringa leaves our
improved protein and lipid content of the tortillas without changing the textural
properties of the dough [18]. During the handling, processing, and production of
industrial products, textural properties play an important role. Further, adding
Moringa leaves our increased the total phenolic content of tortillas imparting
antioxidant and anticancerous properties.
Pregnancy is a nutritionally demanding physiological condition that requires all
the nutrients for the growth of the fetus and the infant, and the smooth running of the
pregnancy [74]. No single food can fulll all the nutritional needs so a combination
of foods from different groups can potentially provide optimal dietary balance.
Moringa leaves contain iron, calcium, β-carotene, zinc, magnesium, thiamin, ribo-
avin, niacin, phosphorous, and vitamin C along with other bioactive compounds
[75]. Because of such high nutritional value, Moringa leaves have been used in the
development of food products such as soup [65] and food bars [63], especially for
pregnant mother. Food bar showed a high carbohydrate, protein, and ber content
making it suitable as heavy food replacement for nursing mother. Soup fortied with
Moringa leaves powder exhibited a high protein content of 27.1 g/100 g dry matter
and micronutrients such as iron (28.5 mg/100 g dry matter), zinc, selenium, and
iodine are essential for growth and development. Getachew and Admassu [66]
reported that pasta made with incorporation of powder from Moringa leaves and
oats nearly 25% in wheat our showed improved physicochemical characteristics
with good sensory attributes. Pasta produced greenish color due to the presence of
Moringa leaves as compared to normal yellow-white color. Further, a higher protein
content (20.57%), ber (3.67%), and fat content (4.92%) were reported [69]. Rabie
et al. [69] produced cookies by incorporating powdered Moringa leaves (MLP),
powdered Moringa seeds (MSP), and Moringa leaves + seeds powder (MLP+ MSP).
Incorporation of leaves, seeds, and leaves + seeds powder enhanced the dietary
bers, protein, essential and nonessential amino acids, lipids, and minerals but
reduced carbohydrate content. There was no improvement on physical properties
rather cookies weight increased and a reduction in specic volume was
reported [69].
Moringa plants therapeutic effects are due to the high phytochemicals concen-
trations. Moringa is often used for medicinal purposes in different places around the
world. It is most commonly used for diabetes and hypertension patients.
Bioactive Compounds of Moringa (Moringa Species) 11
The phenolic compounds of Moringa are also important, and they are a strong source
of antioxidants. It is also an antiperoxidative and myocardial preservative and is used
therapeutically against cardiovascular disorders. Mushtaq et al. [68] explored the
antioxidant properties of Moringa leaves in chapattis. Results showed that 20%
replacement of our with Moringa leaves powder greatly enhanced the total pheno-
lics (8.38 mg gallic acid equivalent/g), total avonoids (3.66 mg catechin equivalent/
g) and antioxidant activity DPPH (80.52%) as compared to wheat our chapatti with
the total phenolics (0.75 mg GAE/g), total avonoids (0.38 mg catechin equivalent/
g), and antioxidant activity DPPH (64.32%) [68].
Table 4 Medicinal properties of Moringa species
Species Part Traditional uses References
M. Pterygosperma Leaves,
Medicinal use in Ayurveda, unani and
M. concanensis Bark Reduce pain, abortifacient [77]
Leaves External tumors [78]
M. drouhardii Bark Colds and coughs [79]
M. peregrina Leaves Skin rashes, paralysis [80]
Bark Disinfectant to speed up wound healing [81]
Pods Infantile paralysis or convulsions [82]
Leaves Malaria, expel retained placenta, asthma,
Roots hypertension, stomach disorder, diabetes [83]
M. rivae Gum Arthritis, eye and throat infections, tsetse y
bites, livestock diseases, abdominal pains
M. stenopetala Leaves Flu, diabetes, malaria, hypertension, expel
retained placenta, stomach pain
Root Malaria, stomach pain, diabetes [85]
Bark Cough [84]
Root Epilepsy, help during labor [84]
M. oleifera Leaves Cardiac stimulants, malaria, arthritis, diseases
of the skin, hypertension, typhoid fevers,
swellings, parasitic diseases, diabetes, cuts,
contraceptive remedy, genio-urinary ailments,
boost immune system
Gum Fevers, dysentery, asthma, dental decay [88]
Seeds Warts [88]
Oil Gout, acute rheumatism [86]
Flowers Tumor, inammation, hysteria, enlargement of
spleen, muscle diseases, aphrodisiac substances
Roots Toothache, anthelmintic, antiparalytic [5,89]
Bark Aiding digestion, stomach pain, poor vision,
ulcer, hypertension, joint pain, anemia, diabetes
12 N. Kumar et al.
5 Medicinal Properties of Moringa Species
Moringa oleifera also has several medicinal applications in the Ayurvedic and Unani
systems [70].Table 4summarizes the medicinal and pharmacological properties
associated with many parts of Moringa.
5.1 Anticancerous Property
During in vitro tests, antitumor activity has been shown by various leaves extracts
and ethanolic extracts of Moringa oleifera seeds. Inhibition of tumor promoter
teleocidin B-4-induced Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) activation in Raji cells was
shown by thiocarbamate and compounds similar to isothiocyanate [9093]. Moringa
leaves, bark, and seed extracts have been tested for anticancer activity against human
cell lines of breasts (MDA-MB-231) and colorectal (HCT-8). Moringa leaf and bark
extract therapy decreased development of the colony and cell mortality and demon-
strated low cell viability, high apoptosis, and G2/M enrichment. Nevertheless, no
effect on the breast and colorectal cell line of Moringa seed [35]. Another research
reported that Moringa leaves aqueous extract was successful in inhibiting the growth
and spread of cancer in human lung cells (A549) by causing apoptosis, fragmenta-
tion of DNA, and increase in oxidative stress [94]. Potential of Moringa leaves
aqueous extract to reduce proliferation and invasion of cancer cells was indicated by
its ability to hinder the growth of tumor cells, promote apoptosis, and reduce the
reactive oxygen species levels in cancer and other types of cells in the lungs [29].
5.2 Cardiovascular Property
Antihypertensive or hypotensive activity was demonstrated by the extract of differ-
ent parts of Moringa. This hypotensive activity is linked to thiocarbamate and
isothiocyanate glycosides. The antioxidant properties, hyperlipidemic and anti-
atherosclerotic activity of the Moringa oleifera leaves water extract were carried
out in vitro [95]. Randriamboavonjy et al. [96] studied the cardiac effects of Moringa
oleifera seed powder in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) upon oral administra-
tion. SHR were given standard food or food containing the seed powder (750 mg/
day, 8 weeks) and measurement of hemodynamic parameters was performed in vivo.
The ndings revealed that feeding with Moringa oleifera seed powder did not
change the blood pressure in SHR but decreased the nocturnal heart rate and
increased cardiac diastolic activity [96]. Thickness of left ventricular (LV) anterior
wall, inter-septal on diastole, and relative wall thickness continued to reduce even
after treatment. SHR treated with Moringa oleifera seed powder also showed
a reduction of brosis in the LV.
Bioactive Compounds of Moringa (Moringa Species) 13
5.3 Antiasthmatic Property
Moringa oleifera seed alcoholic extracts were found to be spasmolytic in Acetyl-
choline, BaCl
, histamine, and 5HT induced bronchospasm. In the same analysis,
treatment with Moringa oleifera seed alcoholic extracts showed a reduction in
carrageenan induced paw edema, with defense against egg albumin and the caused
48/80 induced mast cell degranulation [97]. Mahajan et al. [98] studied the success
of n-butanol Moringa oleifera seed extract (MONB) towards ovalbumin-induced
inammation in the airway of guinea pigs. Tests of the MONB therapies revealed
that they prevented acetocholine-induced bronchoconstriction and inammation in
the airway by an improved tidal volume and breathing rate and overall and differ-
ential blood and bronchoalveolar uid cell counts. They suggested that MONBs
antiasthmatic actions were carried out by modulating Th1/Th2 cytokine
imbalance [98].
5.4 Antidiabetic Property
The aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera leaves have demonstrated antidiabetic
action in the goto-kakizaki and wistar rats for glucose tolerance [90]. Similarly,
Suzuki et al. [99] demonstrated antidiabetic control and glycemic control with
aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera leaves. Al-Malki and El Rabey [100] also
analyzed the two different doses (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight in diet) of
powdered Moringa oleifera seeds in male rats for streptozotocin-induced diabetes
(Type I). Signicant reduction in levels of lipid peroxide was reported in the rats with
diabetes in comparison to the positive control group, with a more pronounced
inuence of lower Moringa oleifera seed powder dose. The higher dose of Moringa
oleifera seed powder was more effective than the lower dose of all the criteria, with
the reduction in levels of IgA, IgG, hemoglobin A1c, and Interleukin (IL)-6.
Reduction in levels of fasting blood sugar was observed while still greater than the
negative control values. In fact, the higher dose (100 mg/kg body weight) anti-
diabetic action was shown to be more effective than the lower dose (50 mg/kg body
weight) [100].
5.5 Antimicrobial Property
Different parts (leaves, bark, roots, and seeds) of Moringa oleifera showed antimi-
crobial potential during in vitro analysis against bacteria (Bacillus cereus,Bacillus
subtilis,Candida albicans,Aspergillus niger,Streptococcus faecalis,E. coli,
Staphylococcus aureus,Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Staphylococcus epidermidis,
and Shigella shinga), yeast, helminthes, and dermatophytic in a technique of disk
diffusion. Moringa oleifera also has been conrmed to be antifungal in both dilution
14 N. Kumar et al.
and agar plate techniques for Epidermophyton xoccosum,Trichophyton rubrum,
Microsporum canis,Trichophyton mentagrophytes,Rhizopus solani, and Fusarium
solani [101109]. The chemicals responsible for its antibiotic activity are 4-(-L-
rhamnopyranosyloxy) benzyl isothiocyanate 4,4-(-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)
benzylglucosinolate, and pterygospermin [9092].
5.6 Anti-inflammatory Property
Methanolic extract of leaves, root, bark, and owers, aqueous extract of roots, and
ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera has been found to have anti-inam-
matory potential for carrageen inductive paw edema. The compounds responsible
for the anti-inammatory function of Moringa oleifera roots are aurantiamide acetate
and 1,3-dibenzyl urea [90,110]. Anti-inammatory activity of Moringa oleifera
seed extracts and lectins was evaluating using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated
murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro [111]. The two lectins have decreased NO
production by LPS-stimulated macrophages compared with only
lipopolysaccharide-exposed cells. This shows that the aqueous seed extract and
two lectins are at least partly responsible for in vitro anti-inammation function of
the control of NO development. The levels of TNF-αand IL-1βproduced by
LPS-stimulated macrophages were signicantly reduced by aqueous and diluted
extracts of Moringa oleifera seeds [111].
The anti-inammatory activity of Moringa oleifera seeds was studied on acetic
acid-induced colitis in rats by Minaiyan et al. [112]. The hydro-alcoholic extracts
(MSHE) and chloroform fractions of Moringa oleifera seeds in low doses showed
potential to reduce inammation and both were successful in treating experimental
colitis, owing to common main constituents, biophenols, and avonoids.
Researchers suggested that MSHE could be considered as an effective treatment
for the symptoms involved with irritable bowel disease and/or the avoidance of its
relapse, even with small doses. The anti-inammatory activity of Moringa oleifera
owers using the protein denaturation method was investigated by Alhakmani et al.
[113]. The standard medicine was diclofenac sodium, a potent, nonsteroid anti-
inammatory medicine. Flower extracts (100500 μg/mL) demonstrate dose-
dependent inhibitions of heat mediated protein denature, equivalent to the standard
drug (100500 μg/mL) in fresh egg albumin.
5.7 Antifertility Property
The extraction of different parts of Moringa oleifera in various solvent has been
shown antifertility activity [114]. Antifertility property was found to be independent
of presence and absence of progesterone and estradiol dipropionate and exhibiting
improved histoarchitecture of uterine. A new research investigated the antifertility
ability of Moringa oleifera leaves ethanolic extract in female wistar rats [115]. In
female wistar rats with articially induced decidualization, different concentration
Bioactive Compounds of Moringa (Moringa Species) 15
(100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) of ethanolic extract was used to study fertility,
decidualization, implantation, and local cytokine signaling. Intraluminal injections
were used to cause articial decidualization and ovary ectomisation in female rats.
Ethanolic extract at different concentrations (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg) was admin-
istered in three groups of rats (containing 6 in each group) and female rats of control
group were given 0.5% gum acacia for 59 days. At doses 250 and 500 mg/kg,
ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves resulted in faulty implantation in
contrast to the control group due to faulty decidualization. Further, a dose dependent
decrease in weight gain and levels of estradiol and progesterone were reported in
articial decidualization studies. As a result, expression of several local cytokines,
vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-II), leukemia
inhibitory factor (LIF), and IL-11 were reduced. Different aspects of implantation are
affected by these cytokines and their receptors in the uterus. In contrast with the
control group, study of uterine progesterone and estrogen levels revealed a dose-
dependent decrease in the treated group. Hence, it was concluded that Moringa
oleifera extracts caused antifertility activity, possibly by their antioestrogenic and
antiprogestogenic effect by interfering with the implantation and the decidualization
cycle. It was proposed that more work was required to evaluate the possible
contraceptive potential and to classify the active component responsible for anti-
implantation of Moringa oleifera [115].
6 Conclusion and Future Perspectives
This review reported various bioactive compounds extracted from different parts of
Moringa plant and the strategies for their practical applications and impact on the
functional characteristics of food products. Many food products such as Moringa tea,
soup, chocolate, pasta, noodles, chapatti, cookies, cake, bread have been prepared
from Moringa plant parts. Food products with appropriate sensory and nutritional
qualities based on Moringa can therefore be produced. Whereas emerging tech-
niques prove to be effective choices to retrieve and classify the bioactive compounds
of Moringa plant, traditional approaches remain constant. Further research should be
done on the use of these resources in the industrial sector for many promising
practical applications in food commodities.
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22 N. Kumar et al.
... Aerobic mesophilic bacteria were significantly reduced, the coatings with a particular concentration of the EO completely inhibited the mould and yeast growth on tomato surfaces without negatively affecting the consumer acceptance [129]. Tomato [96], bell pepper [97] and litchi [98] fruits' and vegetables' shelf life were extended using composite edible coating functionalised by chitosan: pullulan with pomegranate peel extract by maintaining sensory attributes, firmness, antioxidant property, lowest weight loss [117]. In addition, no mould growth was observed on the sliced cherry tomatoes that were in direct contact with the films during 7 days of storage, proving the promising application of the films as active food packaging materials [117]. ...
Edible materials intended for packaging purposes could be used as carriers of bioactive and nutraceutical substances, and consequently to provide an active role in packaging. Active compounds, including a variety of antioxidants, antimicrobials, probiotics, or other functional ingredients incorporated in edible films and coatings could protect foods against deterioration during storage, reducing undesirable effects, extend their shelf life, improve the quality, as well as provide certain health benefits to consumers. Micro- or nano-encapsulation of bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals or other forms of inclusions of bioactives into edible materials aim to increase the stability of bioactive compounds, utilisation and customise their delivery mechanisms from the packaging to food item or human body, but also to extend their usage in a variety of food categories. Proper active inclusions in edible packaging can serve also as indicators, making a smart type of packaging; they could act on humidity, food changes, or deterioration in a timely manner. Applications of active edible packaging for a variety of food items remain still an open field for further investigation; it is a sustainable method of food preservation with environmental concerns for a less polluted world.
... Gums are another group of polysaccharides that are produced naturally by some botanical (trees and shrubs, seeds and tubers), algae or microbial sources [70,93]. They have been used as film-forming materials and some examples are guar gum [121], Arabic gum [100], Persian gum [127], tragacanth gum [63], Moringa oleifera gum [9,69], etc. ...
Edible packaging obtained from natural biopolymers as an alternative to synthetic food packaging have become very attractive for food engineers, scientists and consumers due to their edibility, functionality, biodegradability and compostability. Development of edible films and coatings with improved physical, mechanical, functional, barrier and sensory properties is a key for applications in different food sectors as wrapping and packaging materials. Biobased and biodegradable materials are ideal candidates as components to edible packaging. In addition, bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals, especially compounds extracted from by-products, are ideal addition to edible materials in context of extending their role towards active and intelligent packaging options. In this context, nanotechnology tools enable proper inclusions of the bioactives and nutraceuticals into edible materials; increase the stability of bioactive compounds, utilisation and delivery mechanisms from the packaging to food item or human body, but also to extend their usage, improve the quality and safety of packed food items.
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The Kingdom of Plantae is considered the main source of human food, and includes several edible and medicinal plants, whereas mushrooms belong to the Kingdom of fungi. There are a lot of similar characteristics between mushrooms and higher plants, but there are also many differences among them, especially from the human health point of view. The absences of both chlorophyll content and the ability to form their own food are the main differences between mushrooms and higher plants. The main similar attributes found in both mushrooms and higher plants are represented in their nutritional and medicinal activities. The findings of this review have a number of practical implications. A lot of applications in different fields could be found also for both mushrooms and higher plants, especially in the bioenergy, biorefinery, soil restoration, and pharmaceutical fields, but this study is the first report on a comparative photographic review between them. An implication of the most important findings in this review is that both mushrooms and plants should be taken into account when integrated food and energy are needed. These findings will be of broad use to the scientific and biomedical communities. Further investigation and experimentation into the integration and production of food crops and mushrooms are strongly recommended under different environmental conditions, particularly climate change.
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The pregnant woman feeding is very important for the optimal embryonic development of the zygote. The present study suggests a formulation of food supplement in soup form. We were able to make a soup which is composed of vegetables and animal products. This product like food supplement can cover the pregnancy nutrients needs. In fact, the nutrients deficiencies during the first 1000 days lead to chronic malnutrition. Hence, preventive actions concerning this nutritional plague are necessary. Among that, the food supplement for pregnant manufacture can compensate the micronutrients and protein-energy deficiencies. This animal and plant-based food supplement contains various minerals such as Mg (368 mg/100g DM); Ca (2003 mg/100g DM); K (1324 mg/100g DM); P (204 mg/100g DM); Cu (0, 57 mg/100g DM); Fe (28, 2 mg/100g DM). Besides, the product is composed by carbohydrates (38, 2 g/100g DM), fats (2, 3 g/100g DM), and proteins (27, 1 g/100g DM) fibers (19, 3 g/100 g DM). It energetic value is 205 kCal per 100g.
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The objective of this study was to produce pasta from the composite flour of wheat, oat, and moringa leaves and to evaluate the effect of blending proportion of the individual flour on the physico-chemical properties and sensory qualities of pasta products. Pasta products were produced from 100% wheat flour (WF), which was used as control and composite flour in which wheat flour was substituted as BF1 (2.5% of oat and 2.5% moringa flour), BF2 (5% of oat and 5% moringa flour), BF3 (10% of oat and 10% moringa flour), BF4 (15% of oat and 15% moringa flour), and BF5 (25% of oat and 25% moringa flour). The proximate composition of the blended pasta extrudes, rheological properties of dough, water activity, and cooking quality were analyzed. The sensory attributes of pasta products like color, aroma, taste texture, appearance, and overall acceptability were evaluated by panelists. Increasing in the levels of moringa leaves powder showed in increasing of proximate composition (protein, fiber, fat, and ash), however, reduced in moisture content of pasta. The protein content progressively increased from 10.7% in 100%WF to 20.56% in pasta with 25% oat and moringa leaves flour (powder).
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Moringa leaf flour (Moringa olefera) and soybean flour (Glicine Max. L) is a food that has high nutrient content. The presence of these contents is good to be used as ingredients for making snack bar that are rich in nutrients .This study used a complete randomized trial (RAL) with five types of treatment and three replications. Data analysis used anova test with LSD and Duncan test. The treatment that used to the moringa leaf flour and soybean flour in snack bar are K1P1 (0:100%), K2P2 (25:75%), K3P3 (15:15%), K4P4 (75:25%), K5P5 (0:100%). The analysis carried out was an analysis of nutrient content. The results showed that the higher addition of soybean flour would affect the protein and fat content. The carbohydrate content is influenced by other components. Iron will be affected by the addition of moringa leaf flour. Key words: snack bar, moringa leaf flour, soybean flour, nutrient content ABSTRAK Tepung daun kelor (Moringa olefera) dan tepung kacang kedelai (Glicine Max. L) merupakan bahan pangan yang tinggi kandungan gizi. Terdapatnya kandungan tersebut baik digunakan sebagai bahan pembuatan snack bar yang kaya akan zat gizi.Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan lima jenis perlakuan dan tiga kali ulangan. Analisis data menggunakan uji Anova dengan uji lanjut LSD dan Ducan. Perlakuan pada snack bar tepung daun kelor dan tepung kacang kedelai yaitu K1P1 (0:100%), K2P2 (25:75%), K3P3 (15:15%), K4P4 (75:25%), K5P5 (0:100%). Analisis yang dilakukan adalah analisis kandungan zat gizi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semakin tingginya penambahan tepung kacang kedelai maka akan mempengaruhi kandungan protein dan lemak. Kandungan karbohidrat dipengaruhi oleh kandungan komponen yang lain. Kandungan zat besi akan dipengaruhi oleh penambahan tepung daun kelor. Kata kunci: snack bar, tepung daun kelor, tepung kacang kedelai, nilai gizi
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Traditionally, medicinal plants of family Moringaceae have been well-recognized due to their multipurpose utilization in various fields such as treatment of several diseases for they have a broad range of pharmacological activities, in wastewater treatment as well as food source. Fractionation of this medicinal plants and its bioactivity study discloses the presence of several phytoconstituents and secondary metabolites like terpenes, flavonoids, steroids, phenolic compounds, tannins, carohydrates, flavonoids, vitamins and minerals. The results of bioactivity study results revealed that different extracts such as aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic of Moringa oleifera showed notable therapeutic activities. Our present review explore and focus on the phytochemical composition and various pharmacological activities like immunomodulator, antidiabetic, antiulcer, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, antiepileptic, cardioprotective, lipid lowering, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, anti-nephrotoxicity and anti-microbial activities to arouse public consciousness about the nutritional and medicinal value of this “miracle tree - Moringa oleifera” in favor of humanity.
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p> Introducción y objetivos: Moringa oleifera, es un árbol cultivado en regiones tropicales y subtropicales. Valorado por sus múltiples usos ornamentales, alimenticios, forrajeros, medicinales e industriales, ha sido recientemente incluido en el Código Alimentario Argentino. El objetivo fue estudiar la anatomía e histoquímica foliar y caulinar de ejemplares de M. oleifera, cultivados en Tucumán, Argentina y señalar caracteres de valor diagnóstico para su identificación. M&M: Las muestras fueron procesadas mediante técnicas estándares para microscopía óptica y electrónica. Resultados: M. oleifera presenta hojas compuestas, pinnadas con folíolos de venación pinnada, camptódroma-broquidódroma. Lámina foliar con ceras epicuticulares, tricomas eglandulares, estomas actinocíticos y anomocíticos, mesofilo dorsiventral con proteínas y lípidos, y haces colaterales. Campos glandulares formados por nectarios extraflorales estipitados, tricomas glandulares y eglandulares. Peciólulo, raquis y pecíolo presentan contorno circular a sub-circular, con un haz o un anillo de haces colaterales, delimitados por esclerénquima. Médula del pecíolo con 1-2 conductos secretores, conteniendo proteínas, alcaloides, mucílagos y lípidos. Tallo con médula parenquimática con 1-2 conductos secretores e idioblastos cristalíferos (cristales solitarios de oxalato de calcio). Idioblastos con fenoles, taninos, saponinas, triterpenos, polisacáridos y proteínas, en foliólulo, peciólulo, raquis, pecíolo y tallo. Se describe por primera vez para M. oleifera, su arquitectura foliolar, la presencia de campos glandulares e histología del nectario y del pecíolo; así como, la histoquímica de sus órganos vegetativos aéreos. Los caracteres de valor diagnóstico para M. oleifera son: tricomas, presencia de campos glandulares, nectarios extraflorales, idioblastos y conductos secretores.</p
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Indonesian Statistics’ survey in February 2018 showed that the number of female labor force continues to increase every year. Currently, from 134 million (69.20%), 55.44% of them are female workers (72.25 million) with 25 million are of reproductive age. Based on Basic Health Research, the number of mothers who breastfeed their babies is only 42% far below the target of 80%. Mother can consider the amount of nutrition based on age during pregnancy and lactation. However, the food products as a substitute for heavy foods with sufficient nutrition and calories for breastfeeding mothers are currently not available. This study aimed to formulating food products for breastfeeding mothers based on the use of local raw materials such as Moringa leaves. The method used in this research was formulation using linear programming (Linear Programming Solver 1.9.4 software). A hedonic sensory test was employed to determine product acceptance with the rating scale of 1-5 in the range of very dislike to really like. The respondents consisted of 40 panelists. The results showed that the optimal formulation of food bar (in each 150 g of food bars) consisted of Moringa leaf powder (5 g), soy flour (5 g), banana flour (20 g), oat (75 g), ant sugar (22.5 g) and skim milk (22.5 g). The results from the hedonic test indicated a good acceptance from the respondents, with the following score: 3.68 on aroma, 3.59 on color, 4.00 on texture, 3.76 on taste and 3.73 on appearance, respectively.
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Biogenic synthesis of iron oxide nanorods (FeO-NRs) from FeCl3 capped with Moringa oleifera (MO) has been developed in this work. The facile, cost effective, and eco-friendly FeO-NRs formulated were characterized using various techniques. The change in the visible color which leads to the formulation of FeO-NRs was confirmed by the UV–visible spectroscopy analysis. The crystallinity of FeO-NRs was observed in the X-ray diffraction spectroscopy pattern indexed to the spinel cubic lattice in the tetrahedral hematite structure. A rod-like morphology of FeO-NRs with the average particle size of 15.01 ± 6.03 nm was determined by the scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis shows the various functional groups in the formulatedFeO-NRs. Vibrating sample magnetometer shows that the formulated FeO-NRs are superparamagnetic with good saturation magnetization. The formulated FeO-NRs inhibit the growth of six human pathogens with a higher activity at lower concentrations. It is noteworthy that the bacterial strains show strong and effective susceptibility to the formulated FeO-NRs at lower concentrations compared to the conventional antibacterial drugs. Hence, the formulated FeO-NRs proved to be a good, efficient, and promising antibacterial agent due to its cost-effectiveness, non-toxicity, and facile synthesis procedures in therapeutic biomedical fields.
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Pisang ijo is one of the traditional cakes in South Sulawesi which is very popular within the community. Pisang ijo is made from Moringa oleifera leaf flour and extract, wheat flour, plantain, sugar, and salt which is processed using steaming methods. Pisang ijo was served with vanilla sauce. The purpose of the study was to describe the process of making moringa leaf flour and extract, knowing how to process it and find out the results of organoleptic tests of green banana cake by using the substitution of moringa leaf extract (F1) and moringa leaf flour (F2). The research method used was an organoleptic test method using 30 investigators divided into three groups: 10 expert examiners, 10 trained investigators, and 10 untrained investigators. Laboratory tests using spectrophotometric were carried out to determine the nutritional content of moringa leaf flour and extract. The organoleptic test results show that from the aspect of color, the most preferred product by the panelists is the F1 product which produces a lighter green color. The F2 product is less bright. The hedonic test results of aroma, texture, and sense show that the product most preferred by the panelists is the F2 product. Proximate test results indicate a better nutritional content in F2 products, i.e., the protein and vitamin C content are higher, which are 3.38% and 153.2 μg g ⁻¹ , respectively than the F1 product.
1-O-(4-hydroxymethylphenyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (MPG) is a phenolic glycoside that exists in Moringa oleifera seeds with various health benefits, whereas its hepatoprotective effect is lacking clarification. Herein, MPG was isolated from Moringa oleifera seeds, and its hepatoprotection against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in L02 cells and ICR mice was investigated. Toxicity studies showed that MPG did not induce significant changes in organ coefficients and histological analysis, as well as exhibited no cytotoxicity. In vitro studies indicated that MPG substantially increased cell viability and intracellular SOD activities, and significantly inhibited LDH leakage in CCl4-treated cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that MPG significantly alleviated CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice, as indicated by diagnostic indicators of hepatic injury, as well as the histopathological analysis. Moreover, MPG reduced the lipid peroxidation levels and regulated the inflammatory cytokines. Notably, MPG substantially suppressed the significant elevation of ROS production in hepatocytes of mice intoxicated with CCl4. Moreover, TUNEL assay demonstrated that MPG obviously inhibited hepatic apoptosis induced by CCl4. Altogether, these results suggested that MPG has excellent liver-protecting effects against hepatocytotoxicity induced by CCl4 in mice and L02 cells, which can be further developed as a valuable functional food additive or drug for the treatment of hepatic injury.