Conference PaperPDF Available

On the Use of Dependabot Security Pull Requests


Abstract and Figures

Vulnerable dependencies are a major problem in modern software development. As software projects depend on multiple external dependencies, developers struggle to constantly track and check for corresponding security vulnerabilities that affect their project dependencies. To help mitigate this issue, Dependabot has been created, a bot that issues pull-requests to automatically update vulnerable dependencies. However, little is known about the degree to which developers adopt Dependabot to help them update vulnerable dependencies. In this paper, we investigate 2,904 JavaScript open-source GitHub projects that subscribed to Dependabot. Our results show that the vast majority (65.42%) of the created security-related pull-requests are accepted, often merged within a day. Through manual analysis, we identify 7 main reasons for Dependabot security pull-requests being not merged, mostly related to concurrent modifications of the affected dependencies rather than Dependabot failures. Interestingly, only 3.2% of the manually examined pull-requests suffered from build breakages. Finally, we model the time it takes to merge a Dependabot security pull-request using characteristics from projects, the fixed vulnerabilities and issued pull requests. Our model reveals 5 significant features to explain merge times, e.g., projects that have relevant experience with Dependabot security pull-requests are most likely to be associated with rapid merges. Surprisingly, the severity of the dependency vulnerability and the potential risk of breaking changes are not strongly associated with the merge time. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate how developers receive Dependabot's security contributions. Our findings indicate that Dependabot provides an effective platform for increasing awareness of dependency vulnerabilities and help developers mitigate vulnerability threats in JavaScript projects.
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On the Use of Dependabot Security Pull Requests
Mahmoud Alfadel, Diego Elias Costa, Emad Shihab, Mouafak Mkhallalati
Data-driven Analysis of Software (DAS) Lab
Concordia University
Montreal, Canada
{mahmoud.alfadel, diego.costa, emad.shihab, mouafak.mkhallalati}
Abstract—Vulnerable dependencies are a major problem in
modern software development. As software projects depend on
multiple external dependencies, developers struggle to constantly
track and check for corresponding security vulnerabilities that
affect their project dependencies. To help mitigate this issue,
Dependabot has been created, a bot that issues pull-requests to
automatically update vulnerable dependencies. However, little is
known about the degree to which developers adopt Dependabot
to help them update vulnerable dependencies.
In this paper, we investigate 2,904 JavaScript open-source
GitHub projects that subscribed to Dependabot. Our results
show that the vast majority (65.42%) of the created security-
related pull-requests are accepted, often merged within a day.
Through manual analysis, we identify 7 main reasons for
Dependabot security pull-requests being not merged, mostly
related to concurrent modifications of the affected dependencies
rather than Dependabot failures. Interestingly, only 3.2% of the
manually examined pull-requests suffered from build breakages.
Finally, we model the time it takes to merge a Dependabot
security pull-request using characteristics from projects, the fixed
vulnerabilities and issued pull requests. Our model reveals 5
significant features to explain merge times, e.g., projects that have
relevant experience with Dependabot security pull-requests are
most likely to be associated with rapid merges. Surprisingly, the
severity of the dependency vulnerability and the potential risk of
breaking changes are not strongly associated with the merge time.
To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate
how developers receive Dependabot’s security contributions. Our
findings indicate that Dependabot provides an effective platform
for increasing awareness of dependency vulnerabilities and help
developers mitigate vulnerability threats in JavaScript projects.
Index Terms—Dependabot, pull request, dependency, security
Modern software systems are increasingly depending on
the reuse of code from external dependencies (i.e., packages).
While the use of dependencies boosts productivity [1] and
software quality [2], it also increases the impact of security
vulnerabilities [3]. A security vulnerability in a highly-used
dependency may directly impact hundreds of applications,
leading to significant financial costs and reputation loss. An in-
famous example is the Equifax cybersecurity incident in 2017,
caused by a web-server vulnerability in the Apache Struts
package, which led to illegal access to sensitive information
of almost half of the US population (143 million citizens) [4].
The open source community has taken active measures
to deal with security vulnerabilities in dependencies. For
example, Dependabot is a very popular GitHub bot that
creates pull-requests (PRs) to help developers automatically
integrate dependency updates and vulnerability fixes into their
projects [5]. Dependabot monitors the GitHub Vulnerability
Advisories dataset to identify the vulnerable dependencies of
the target project. As soon as a dependency vulnerability is
identified, Dependabot sends a notification through a PR that
updates the vulnerable dependency version to non-vulnerable
version that has fixed the security issue, and developers can
simply merge the PR to adopt the suggested update. Currently,
more than 6 million security and non-security related PRs
have been merged in projects from 15 languages supported
by Dependabot [6].
Previous work [7] investigated to which extent dependency
management tools can convince developers to upgrade out-of-
date dependencies, showing that such tools are not yet widely
adopted by developers. However, they focus on the general
problem of outdated dependencies and do not pay particular
attention to security vulnerabilities in dependencies. Given
that dependency updates for vulnerability fixes have a critical
impact, we specifically focus on studying a very popular
dependency tool (e.g., Dependabot) at coping with security
vulnerabilities in dependencies. To our best knowledge, little
is known about the receptivity and level of adoption of De-
pendabot security PRs in real open-source software projects.
Therefore, our main goal is to understand the degree to
which developers adopt Dependabot security PRs that tackle
dependency vulnerabilities in open source projects. To achieve
our goal, we perform an empirical study involving data from
15,243 Dependabot security PRs that belong to 2,904 active
open-source JavaScript projects from GitHub. In the first stage
of our study, we examine how often Dependabot security
PRs are accepted (merged) and how long it takes to merge
them (RQ1), in order to determine to what extent developers
of open-source projects adopt and respond to Dependabot
security PRs. We observe that the majority (65.42%) of the
Dependabot security PRs in our dataset are merged, often
within a day. Still, a significant minority (34.58%) of PRs
are not merged.
As such, to understand the motives that led developers to not
merge Dependabot security PRs, we qualitatively examine the
reasons for Dependabot security PRs being not merged (RQ2).
Our manual analysis identifies 7 main reasons, showing that,
by in large, the majority of non-merged PRs are turned-over
by Dependabot itself. For example, in 50.8% of the manually
studied PRs, Dependabot closes a former security PR in favor
of a newer PR that updates to a newer version.
Although the majority of the PRs are merged within a day
(RQ1), we observe a non-negligible proportion of PRs that
took longer to be merged. Hence, to understand what would
lead open source developers to take a longer time to respond
to Dependabot security PRs, we examine the features that
influence the time to merge a Dependabot security PR, given
that the time is crucial and that the longer a package remains
affected, the longer the application that uses it will remain
vulnerable to malicious users (RQ3). We observe, using our
mixed-effects regression model, five highly important features
to explain merge time durations of Dependabot security PRs.
While some common wisdom features (e.g., the project ac-
tivity and the past experience with Dependabot security PRs)
are strongly associated with the timespan of the merged PRs,
the severity of dependency vulnerability and the level of patch
update are not.
To summarize, this paper makes the following contributions:
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to pro-
vide an empirical evidence for understanding developers
adoption of Dependabot security automated PRs in open
source projects, while also discussing the implications of
our findings to practitioners and Dependabot maintainers.
We qualitatively uncover the possible issues developers
could face when adopting Dependabot PRs. Such evalu-
ation can advance the future work, i.e., researchers can
direct their efforts to identify the cause of the issues and
propose solutions to overcome the limitations.
We build a logistic regression model that could identify
relative importance of various factors explaining merge
times of Dependabot security PRs.
We publish our dataset to help foment further empirical
investigations on the related fields [8].
Paper organization. The rest of the paper is organized as
follows. Section II describes our study design. Section III
presents the results of our study. Section IV discusses how
our findings lead to implications to practitioners and future
research directions. Section V presents the related work. Sec-
tion VI presents the threats to validity. Section VII concludes
our paper.
Dependabot aims to help developers automatically update
their dependencies through PRs. There are numerous reasons
to update a dependency, such as making the use of new
features, accessing bug fix patches, etc., which led to the cre-
ation of millions of Dependabot PRs in open-source projects.
Updates that include security issues fixes are among the most
critical reasons developers should update their dependencies,
as applications frequently depend on packages containing vul-
nerabilities [9]. Therefore, we focus in our work on studying
Dependabot security PRs, i.e., to what extent open source
developers adopt Dependabot security PRs to help them keep
their dependencies secure. Hence, we first need to identify and
collect the dataset of Dependabot security PRs, and use this
data to answer the following research questions:
Fig. 1: An example of Dependabot security PR [13].
RQ1: How often and how fast are Dependabot security
pull requests merged?
RQ2: What are the reasons for Dependabot security pull
requests being not merged?
RQ3: What factors are associated with rapid merge times?
Our study examines security PRs created by Dependabot
in JavaScript projects. We chose to focus on JavaScript due
to its wide popularity amongst the development community
[10]. In addition, considering the dynamic nature of JavaScript
and the rapidly growing environment (with more than 1.3M
packages [11]), the problem of maintaining and updating
dependencies is especially challenging, as evidenced by a
recent survey of Node.js developers [12]. Hence, dependency
management in JavaScript is challenging, which makes De-
pendabot effectiveness even more crucial.
To perform our study, we leverage the GitHub API to collect
security PRs that were created by Dependabot for the purpose
of fixing a vulnerable dependency in a JavaScript project.
Obtaining Dependabot security PRs. Dependabot distin-
guishes minor bug fixes and feature enhancements from se-
curity fixes, i.e., whether the dependency update contains a
security fix or not. Security PRs submitted by Dependabot
contain information related to the vulnerability of the affected
dependency, such as the list of vulnerabilities in the security
fix. We show an example of a Dependabor security PR in
Figure 1. Using the GitHub API, we are able to obtain security
PRs by collecting PRs that are: (i) created by Dependabot;
(ii) submitted to JavaScript projects in GitHub, and (iii) for
the purpose of fixing a security vulnerability (i.e., the PR
body refers to a security update). In total, we obtained 36,561
Dependabot security PRs from 6,853 JavaScript projects.
Projects selection. It is known that GitHub contains some
toy projects [14], which are not representative of the software
projects we aim to investigate. Therefore, once the dataset of
Dependabot security PRs is collected, we apply some filtering
TABLE I: Statistics of the 2,904 studied JavaScript projects.
Metric Min. Median (¯x) Mean (µ) Max.
Commits 20 153 465.7 28,486
Age (in days) 146 652 808.3 3,828
Security PRs 1 6 7.3 48
criteria for selecting a set of higher-quality projects. We only
include JavaScript projects that are starred, non-forked, and
contain more than 20 commits, as recommended by prior
studies [7], [14]. After applying these refinement criteria,
we end up with 15,243 PRs, which belong to 2,904 open-
source JavaScript projects that have at least one vulnerable
dependency identified by Dependabot and a security PR was
already created for the purpose of fixing it. The affected
dependencies contain a set of 167 distinct vulnerable packages.
This set contains some popular packages, such as lodash,
eslint-utils, jquery, debug, and merge.
Table I shows the descriptive statistics on the selected
JavaScript projects in our dataset. Overall, the projects in our
dataset have a rich development history and are long-lived
projects (median of 153 commits and 652 days of development
lifespan), and have received a median of 6 security PRs from
Dependabot. Finally, our dataset contains Dependabot security
PRs for the period between June 2017 and April 2020. Note
that Dependabot launching was on May 26, 2017 [15].
In this section, for each RQ, we present our motivation,
describe the approach used, and discuss our findings.
RQ1: How often and how fast are Dependabot security
pull requests merged?
In this RQ, we examine the degree to which open source
developers are responsive to Dependabot security PRs in the
studied projects. Our examination contemplates two main
aspects, namely: how many Dependabot security PRs are
merged (accepted)? (Section III-A), and how long does it take
for these security PRs to be merged? (Section III-B).
A. Acceptance of Dependabot security PRs
Motivation. Given the critical problem of vulnerable
dependencies in the current JavaScript landscape, we want
to understand how receptive to Dependabot security PRs the
open-source projects are. A high adoption rate of Dependabot
security PRs indicates that developers value Dependabot
contributions and agree with its assessment on the importance
of updating their dependencies due to security concerns.
Also, given that updating dependencies comes at the risk of
breaking the project’s own code, the adoption rate shows how
often developers are willing to risk breaking their code to use
a dependency that is free of vulnerabilities.
Approach. To examine the number of merged PRs, we need
first to find the state of each PR in our dataset. PRs have
three different states in GitHub: open, merged and closed
(i.e., not merged). Open PRs indicate that the PR is not yet
TABLE II: Analysis of the merged and not merged Dependabot
security PRs.
Dependabot security PRs # %
Total 13,003 100.00%
Merged 8,506 65.42%
Not Merged 4,497 34.58%
processed by developers and the decision about such PRs is
not yet taken, hence they are not meaningful for this analysis
and have been excluded. To identify whether the PR status
is merged (accepted) or not, we extract the value of the key
merged_at timestamp that is returned from the GitHub API
for each PR. For the closed (not merged) PRs, this timestamp
is null, while for the merged PRs the merged_at timestamp
carries an actual date-time value. After that, we count the
frequency of each PR state.
Results. The total number of Dependabot security PRs in our
dataset after excluding the ones with open state is 13,003.
Of the 13,003 examined Dependabot security PRs in our
dataset, 65.42% are merged. Table II shows the proportion
of each state of the Dependabot security PRs in our dataset.
We observe that the majority of security PRs are merged,
indicating that developers are highly receptive to Dependabot
security PRs in their projects.
B. Lifecycle of Dependabot security PRs
Motivation. The time needed to process (merge or close)
Dependabot security PRs is an important property, as the
longer an application remains depending on vulnerable
versions of packages, the higher the likelihood of having
the vulnerability exploited by attackers. So, to advance our
insights, we study whether developers are responsive at
merging Dependabot security PRs, i.e., if the time that these
security PRs take to be processed is as short as possible.
Therefore, we investigate 1) how long does it take to merge a
security PR since it was first created? and 2) how long does
it take to close a security PR since it was first created?
Approach. To measure the amount of time it takes for
Dependabot security PRs to be processed (merged or closed),
we calculate the time difference (in days) between the
creation date and the merge date for merged PRs, and the
time difference between the creation date and the close date
for closed PRs.
Results. Figure 2 presents a violin-plot containing the dis-
tribution of the amount of time for the merged and not
merged (closed) security PRs, measured in days. From the
Figure, we can observe that the vast majority of the merged
Dependabot security PRs are processed within one day
(median = 1 day).
Figure 2 also shows that the closed security PRs tend to
take longer time to process than the merged ones, i.e., on
median, the closed security PRs took 8 days before being
closed. Comparing the merged and closed security PRs using
Merged Not Merged
1 10 100 1000
Time (in days)
Fig. 2: Violin-plot showing the distribution of the amount of time for
Dependabot security PRs to be processed (merged and not merged).
Note the logarithmic scale on the x-axis.
the unpaired Mann Whitney test [16] shows that this difference
is statistically significant (p-value = 2.2e-16), with an effect
size (Cliff’s: 0.48) for the differences between merged and
closed PRs, which is a large size of the effect. This ensures that
Dependabot security PRs are either processed and merged fast
or left to linger before they are closed without being merged.
The majority (65.42%) of Dependabot security PRs
are merged and integrated in the projects, often within
a day. Non-merged Dependabot security PRs take, on
median, 8 days to be closed.
RQ2: What are the reasons for Dependabot security pull
requests being not merged?
Motivation. While most PRs are merged (as shown in RQ1),
a non-negligible share (34.58%) of the PRs are closed (not
merged) in the studied projects. It is crucial to understand
why such PRs are not merged, to grasp the motives that led
developers to dismiss them, especially because such security-
related PRs are meant to free open-source projects from
known vulnerabilities. In turn, this can be used to motivate
improvements at Dependabot, with the aim of increasing its
effectiveness. Therefore, we examine why some PRs are not
merged, by performing an in-depth manual analysis.
Approach. To find out why Dependabot security PRs are not
merged in our dataset, we qualitatively examine them based
on the discussion and reviews associated with these PRs. We
collect the discussion and review comments related to each
closed PR. Out of overall closed PRs (4,497), 1.27% have no
discussion or review comments on them, hence, we exclude
them from our analysis since it is very hard to judge such
PRs without any extra information. The first author manually
inspected all remaining closed PRs (4,440) by looking at
the discussion and review comments to determine the reason
for the closing, and (if possible) summarize the reason for
not merging the PR into one sentence. Through this manual
analysis, we identified 7 different groups of reasons for the
PRs not being merged.
To alleviate the potential bias due to our manual classifica-
Fig. 3: Example of Dependabot PR closed for being superseded by
another Dependabot PR (R1).
Fig. 4: Example of Dependabot PR closed because the dependency
was already updated (R2).
tion for these PRs, we obtain a statistically significant sample
of 354 PRs (of the 4,440 PRs) with 95% confidence level and
5% confidence interval. Then, another author independently
examined the 354 PRs. Note that the number of comments
that span over the discussion of the closed PRs is two, on
median, which makes the manual inspection indeed feasible.
To evaluate the agreement between the two authors, we
used Cohen’s Kappa coefficient [17], which is a well-known
statistic that measures the inter-rater agreement level for
categorical scales, and takes into consideration the possibility
of the agreement occurring by chance. In our categorization
of the manually extracted reasons, the level of agreement
between the two authors was of +0.96, which is considered
to be an excellent agreement [18].
Results. Table III summarizes why Dependabot security PRs
are not merged, identified by our manual analysis. Below, we
provide more details about each reason.
R1. PR is superseded by another newer PR (50.8%): This
is the most common reason for not merging a Dependabot
security PR. In this case, the PR is closed because another
Dependabot security PR updates the affected dependency to
even a newer version that contains fixes to other problems
but not necessarily a new vulnerability. In such cases,
Dependabot itself closes the former PR in favor of the new
and more up-to-date PR. Figure 3 shows an example of
R1 [19]. A few cases (1.06%) of superseded PRs are closed
by project maintainers where they close a set of PRs and
create a single PR that combines all of the changes [20].
R2. PR is not merged because the update was applied
manually on the dependency file (30.1%): Dependabot
detects that the fixed version has been applied on the depen-
dency file, hence, it closes the corresponding PR. Figure 4
shows an example of R2 where Dependabot closed the PR
that fixes the vulnerable version of the dependency eslint-
utils. We manually searched for the commit that applied the
same fix suggested by Dependabot. In this commit [21], we
observe that the same fix version, suggested by Dependabot,
was manually added through the commit that also has the
TABLE III: The manually extracted reasons for not merging Dependabot security PRs.
ID Reason Description % % Closed by
Dependabot Others
R1 Superseded A newer PR contains a newer fix version of the affected dependency 50.8% 49.74% 1.06%
R2 Up to date The affected dependency is already updated 30.1% 30.1% -
R3 No longer a dependency The affected dependency is removed 6.6% 6.6% -
R4 No longer updatable The affected dependency has a peer requirement on another dependency 6.4% 6.4% -
R5 Tests Tests run failed 3.2% - 3.2%
R6 Errors Incorrect implementation for handling the dependency fix in the PR 1.4% 1.4% -
R7 Quality Requirement The PR does not comply to the project standards for handling the PRs 1.1% - 1.1%
R8 Unknown The PR could not be classified due to lack of information in the discussion 0.4% - 0.4%
same date as the closed PR date [22].
R3. PR is not merged because the affected dependency
is removed and no longer exists in the project (6.6%):
Dependabot will close a PR once the corresponding vulner-
able dependency is removed from the project, and hence,
the PR is no longer needed [23].
R4. PR is not merged due to a peer dependency
requirement (6.4%). Another reason Dependabot closes a
PR is when there is a peer requirement between the affected
dependency and another dependency. Peer dependencies are
a way of specifying dependencies among external packages,
when such packages are compatible with specific depen-
dency versions. Hence, to update/fix an affected dependency,
its peer dependency should also be updated, which may lead
to version conflicts [24]. For example, if the dependency
eslint-config-airbnb@16.1.0 have a peer requirement on
eslint@^4.9.0, so it is required to update this (eslint) until
eslint-config-airbnb is updated. In such cases, Dependabot
opens a PR to update eslint-config-airbnb but later it closes
the PR due to having the peer dependency. We found a
Github issue in Dependabot repository itself about this
problem [25], however, the problem seems not yet properly
resolved by Dependabot according to the issue discussion.
R5. PR is not merged due to test failures (3.2%). In
such cases, the PR is closed after automated tests have
failed during the CI pipeline run [26]. For example, after
the Travis tests have failed in this PR [27], the project
maintainer closed the PR. When the project maintainer
closes the PR, Dependabot will stop notifying the project
about the current affected dependency version, however, it
opens a new PR when a new fix version of the affected
dependency is available.
R6. Error in Dependabot (1.4%). We found cases where
the submitted PRs were opened, however, they do not per-
form the correct fix update, and hence, Dependabot closed
such PRs [28]. For example, in Figure 5 we can notice
from the PR title that the affected dependency cryptiles
should be updated from the vulnerable version 3.1.3 to the
fixed version 4.1.3. However, Dependabot was not able to
resolve the dependency to the fixed version, i.e., the PR
commit changes show a different version update than the
one should be. This issue is caused by the challenge of
resolving dependency conflicts of transitive dependencies.
Consider an application that depends on package A, and
package A (transitively) depends on package B. Package A
has a version constraint for depending on package B (^1.0.0)
which contains a vulnerability, and the vulnerability was
only fixed in another major version (e.g., 2.0.1) of package
B. In this case, Dependabot cannot find a version of package
B that complies with the requirement of package A and is
not vulnerable. This type of issues render the R6 reason.
The has now been fixed by Dependabot maintainers [29].
R7. PR does not comply with the project standards
for handling PRs (1.1%). A small share of open-source
projects specifies what is called Contributor License Agree-
ment (CLA) that should be signed by the contributor before
merging the corresponding PR. In such projects, developers
tend to close the Dependabot security PR after it is submit-
ted. To gain more insights about whether such PRs may be
still useful for the projects (e.g., project maintainers may
manually adopt and apply the dependency fix suggested
by the Dependabot PR), we manually analyze a sample
of such PRs. In particular, we perform our analysis on 15
PRs of a popular and very active project namely box/box-
ui-elements [30]. We could find 8 Dependabot PRs that
are manually applied to the dependency file by a project
maintainer even after closing the Dependabot PRs. For
example, in this PR [31], Dependabot suggests updating
the vulnerable dependency atob from version 2.0.3 to 2.1.2.
Although the project maintainer closed the PR, we find
that the same dependency update was actually applied as
shown in this commit [32], probably to circumvent the
licensing issue. One way to overcome the issue of legal
side of contributions (i.e., CLA requirements) is to white-list
Dependabot in the CLA checker. Some CLA providers (e.g.,
cla-assistant [33]) allow to white-list specific contributions
to a repository.
R8. Unknown (0.4%). In a small minority of cases (0.4%),
we could not identify the reason of not merging a De-
pendabot PR because its discussion and comments provided
insufficient information relevant to closing the PR [34].
Overall, the vast majority of the examined PRs (93.9%) are
not merged due to four primary reasons related to concurrent
modifications of dependencies: R1 (superseded), R2 (already
up-to-date), R3 (no longer a dependency), R4 (no longer
updatable). Approximately 4% of the PRs are not merged
by project maintainers due to factors related to the project
process and quality specifications (testing, license agreement).
Only 1.4% of the PRs are not merged due to technical errors
Fig. 5: Example of a Dependabot PR closed due to Dependabot’s error in the resolved version (R6). As the PR title shows, the affected
dependency Cryptiles should be updated from 3.1.2 to 4.1.3, while the diff change shows a different version update from 3.1.2 to 3.1.3.
in Dependabot. Finally, note that the reasons mentioned above
are not strictly related to security-related Dependabot PRs.
The large majority of the closed Dependabot security
PRs (93.9%) are turned over by Dependabot due to
concurrent modifications of the affected dependencies.
Approximately 4.3% of the non-merged PRs are closed
by developers due to a specific project’s process. Only
1.4% are not merged due to technical issues with
RQ3: What factors are associated with rapid merge times?
Motivation. While most of the merged Dependabot PRs
are accepted and integrated within one day (RQ1), there is
a sizeable proportion (32.82%) of the merged PRs which
took much longer time to be merged. The time taken to
handle a Dependabot security PR is crucial given that a
quick fix is the only weapon at developers disposal for
minimising the risk of the application being affected by
external vulnerable dependencies. For example, Heartbleed,
a security vulnerability in OpenSSL package, is perhaps
the most infamous example. It was introduced in 2012 and
remained uncovered until April 2014. After its disclosure,
researchers found more than 692 different sources of attacks
attempting to exploit the vulnerability in applications that
used the OpenSSL package [35], [36]. Hence, in this RQ
we aim to study the features that are highly important and
associated with the merge time of a Dependabot security
PR. Doing so is important to gain understanding of why
developers take so long to merge a Dependabot PR that fixes
some publicly discovered vulnerabilities.
Approach. Our goal is to study the most important features
associated with the merge time of a Dependabot security
PR. In particular, we aim to understand the features that
are associated with rapid merge times. To that aim, we
perform a logistics regression analysis that can discriminate
whether a Dependabot security PR is merged rapidly or not.
Therefore, we first classify merge times into rapid vs. not-
rapid. We determine a threshold that discriminates the PRs
merge times in our dataset into rapid vs. not-rapid merge
times, by evaluating the merge time distribution of the PRs.
We find the third quantile (4 days) to be an appropriate
threshold. Note that, influenced by prior studies [37], [38],
we perform several scenarios for choosing our threshold,
i.e., we experimented with different segmentation thresholds
(lower quantile, median, upper quantile). For each scenario,
we measure the logistics model performance using R-squared
(R2) metric [39]. We use the threshold obtained by the top
performing modelling scenario (i.e., the upper quantile). That
said, 6,546 PRs belong to the lower 75% of the data points
(i.e., those are rapid PR merge times), whereas 1,960 PRs
belong to the upper 25% of the data point (i.e., those are not-
rapid PR merge times).
To conduct our logistic regression model we first collect a
set of features by reviewing the related research on the pull-
based software development modelling. Then, we conduct cor-
relation and redundancy analyses to remove highly correlated
features because the existence of correlated and redundant
features can affect regression models [40]. Finally, we fit a
generalized mixed-effects model for logistic regression. These
steps are detailed in the following paragraphs.
(i) Features Selection. To determine our set of features,
we consult the related literature on the field of pull-based
development model, e.g., areas of patch submission and ac-
ceptance [41], [42], code reviewing [43], and also dependency
vulnerability analysis [44], [45]. The initial list of computed
features (described in Table IV) comprises features that span
TABLE IV: The 15 features selected to model the time to merge Dependabot security PRs.
Feature Name Data Type Description
PR Features
changed_lines Numeric Number of lines changed (added + deleted) in the dependency file by Dependabot PR
auto_merge Category Status of auto-merge method for Dependabot PR. Binary value: True or False
Project Features
sloc Numeric Number of executable source lines of code in the project at Dependabot PR creation time
team_size Numeric Number of the active team members in the project at the PR creation time
num_submitted_PRs Numeric Number of submitted Dependabot security PRs to the project at the PR creation time
num_accepted_PRsNumeric Number of accepted Dependabot security PRs in the project at the PR creation time
perc_accepted_PRs Numeric Percentage of merged Dependabot security PRs in the project at the PR creation time
num_dependencies Numeric Number of total proejct dependencies at the PR creation time
num_recent_commits Numeric Number of commits in the project during the last month prior to the PR creation time
age (days) Numeric Project age at Dependabot PR creation time (i.e., the time interval between project creation time
and Dependabot PR creation time)
total_commitsNumeric Number of total project commits at the PR creation time
num_issues Numeric Number of total project issues at the PR creation time
num_PRs Numeric Number of total project PRs at the PR creation time
Vulnerability Patch Features
severity Category Severity of the vulnerability in the affected dependency (Critical, High, Moderate, Low) associated
with the Dependabot PR
patch_level Category Patch level of the dependency update (Major, Minor, Patch) associated with the Dependabot PR
*Features removed after further step-wise feature selection (e.g., correlation).
over three main dimensions as follows:
PR features. These features attempt to capture the influence
of Dependabot security PR characteristics on the merge time.
For example, the size of the patch in the PR could affect
the merge time [41], [42], i.e., the time needed to examine
an external contribution could vary depending on the size of
the contribution. Dependabot security PRs have varying size
depending on the updated dependencies, such as the number
of lines being changed (chanegd_lines) in the dependency
file, which may affect the time it takes for developers to review
and validate the applied changes. In fact, Dependabot triggers
one security PR for each direct vulnerable dependency, by
default. However, if the direct vulnerable dependency requires
transitive dependencies that are also vulnerable, Dependabot
applies additional changes in the same PR, increasing the
impact of the changes, e.g., there is more risk in breaking
changes when transitive dependencies are vulnerable. Another
PR feature is the auto-merge. Dependabot provides an
auto-merge feature, which automatically merges Depend-
abot PRs. A project can enable this feature in case it uses a
Continuous Configuration (CI) infrastructure to prevent pos-
sible breaking changes. By default, no PRs are auto-merged.
Note that we assign the auto_merge as a PR feature, as
it can be enabled/disabled during the project lifecycle. Also,
enabling the auto-merge feature does not assure that the PR
will be merged instantly, given that Dependabot will only
merge the PR if the CI tests pass without issues.
Project features. Project features quantify how responsive
to Dependabot security PRs the project is. Essentially, such
features capture how open the project is to accepting such
PRs and its past experience with Dependabot security PRs,
by quantifying past Dependabot merged security PRs (e.g.,
perc_accepted_PRs). Other common wisdom features that
can explain the merge time are related to the project size (e.g.,
sloc,team_size) and maturity of the project (e.g., age).
We obtain the project features from previous studies in the
field of PR acceptance, as the majority of these features have
been successfully used in prior studies [41], [43], [46]–[48] to
explain the merge time of a PR.
Vulnerability patch features. The vulnerability patch fea-
tures quantify the characteristic of the suggested dependency
update in the Dependabot PR. There are three main levels
of dependency update: 1) patch release indicates backward
compatible bug fixes, 2) minor release indicates backwards
compatible new features and 3) major release informs develop-
ers of backwards incompatible changes in the package release.
Therefore, dependency updates that happens at the patch and
minor levels are most likely to have minimal impact on the
project and can be merged faster by developers. The opposite
will happen in updates that bump the dependency to a major
release, which have a higher risk of breaking changes and thus
may take longer to be merged [44], [45]. Additionally, the
severity of the dependency vulnerability is another feature to
explain the project response to a security PR [49]. Dependabot
builds upon GitHub Advisory dataset [50] to provide a sever-
ity level of a dependency vulnerability (i.e., Critical, High,
Moderate, and Low).
(ii) Correlation and Redundancy Analysis. The initial list
of features included 15 features, shown in Table IV. To make
sure that our selected features are not correlated, which could
distort their importance in the model, we conduct a pairwise
correlation analysis. Specifically, we use the Spearman rank
correlation |ρ|metric [51]. A pair of features that have a
correlation of |ρ| 0.7 should have one of the features
removed. We remove 2 features using that cut-off, namely,
Furthermore, we perform RDA (redundancy analysis) on
the remaining 13 non-correlated features. A feature can be
redundant if it can be modelled using the other independent
features. That said, we should eliminate independent features
TABLE V: Results of the mixed-effects logistic model - sorted by
χ2in descending order.
Feature Coef. χ2p-value Sign.+
perc_accepted_PRs 0.63 88.46 <0.001 ***
auto_merge (TRUE) 1.32 64.57 <0.001 ***
num_recent_commits 0.71 32.20 <0.001 ***
num_dependencies -0.23 7.83 0.005 **
age 0.17 4.32 0.037 *
sloc -0.09 2.94 0.086
severity - 1.49 0.683
patch_level - 1.06 0.588
num_PRs -0.11 0.55 0.459
num_submitted_PRs 0.03 0.25 0.617
changed_lines 0.02 0.17 0.681
num_issues -0.05 0.12 0.733
team_size 0.04 0.09 0.765
+Significance codes: 0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05
that can be estimated with an R2>= 0.9[52]. We observe
no redundant features found in the remaining 13 features.
Table IV shows the final 13 selected features (the features
without sign) along with their data type and description.
Since the original distributions for most of the features were
on different scales, we decided to re-scale the data (standard-
ization scaler) before using them in the model.
(iii) Statistical Analysis. Since our dataset contains PRs from
different projects (i.e., PRs merging times vary from one
project to the next), we use the generalized mixed-effects lo-
gistic model to control the variation between projects. Mixed-
effects logistic model, unlike the traditional logistic model,
can model the individual differences between the projects by
assigning (and estimating) a different intercept value for each
project [53], [54]. This allows to capture a project-to-project
variability in the dependent feature (PR merge time). We use
the glmer function in the lme4 R package to conduct a mixed-
effects logistic model.
To evaluate the fitness of our model, we use the R-squared
metric for generalized mixed-effects models [39], which
describes the proportion of variance considering the project
variable effect. Also, to measure the explanatory power of the
features in the model, and influenced by prior studies [37],
[55], we use χ2(Chi-Squared). The value of χ2indicates
whether the model is statistically different from the same
model in the absence of a given independent variable
according to the degrees of freedom in the model. The higher
the χ2value, the greater the explanatory power of the feature
in distinguishing rapid PR merge times.
Results. Our mixed-effects logistic model achieves a good
performance of discriminating the rapid PR merge times of
Dependabot security PRs using our determined threshold.
The model fits the data well; it explains 67% of the variability
in the data (PR merge times) when considering the project
variable (R2= 0.67); and 22% when only considering the
independent features without the project variable, showing that
the mixed-effect model is more effective at modelling time to
merge PRs across different projects.
Table V presents the findings of the features importance
derived from the mixed-effects model. All the independent
features are ordered on the basis of their explanatory power
(χ2). With each independent feature, we report its estimated
coefficient, its explanatory power (χ2), its p-value, and its
statistical significance code (using asterisks) to model the rapid
PR merge times. Our results reveal 5 important features to
have a strong association with the time to merge a Dependabot
security PR. The top three features are: (1) the percentage
of past accepted Dependabot security PRs in the project,
(2) the adoption of the auto-merge feature, (3) the level
of project activity prior to the PR creation time. Next, we
explain the important features derived from our model.
As shown in Table V, we observe several features that led
to merge the Dependabot security PRs fast. For example, the
past experience of the project with Dependabot is a major
feature that have a strong association with the PR merge
time. Projects that have had success in accepting and merging
security Dependabot PRs in the past are more likely to merge
Dependabot PRs faster in the future, as indicated by the
positive coefficient of the perc_accepted_PRs in Table V.
This also shows that projects that have experienced issues in
the past are less inclined to merge the PRs without its due
investigation, which may explain the long PR processing time.
Also, enabling the auto-merge feature is strongly asso-
ciated with merging the PRs rapidly. Other highly important
features are related to the project activity. For example, the
level of project activity, denoted by num_recent_commits,
has a strong association with rapid merges, i.e., the model
indicates that the more active the project, the more likely
a Dependabot security PR will be merged within 4 days.
Moreover, our model shows that the project age is another
important feature that explains the rapid PR merges, although
to a lower degree. Projects that have been in development for
years are more likely to merge Dependabot PRs within 4 days,
as opposed to more recent projects.
Furthermore, we observe that the number of project de-
pendencies (num_dependencies) is a feature that correlates
with Dependabot security PRs being merged in more than 4
days. This indicates that projects with a high number of depen-
dencies tend to take longer to merge a Dependabot security
PR. Projects with many dependencies are more susceptible
to dependency vulnerabilities [56], which may lead to an
overwhelmingly high number of Dependabot security PRs,
taking much longer for developers to address all updates.
Finally, it is also surprising to note that some observed
features, such as the vulnerability severity and the dependency
patch-level, do not play a significant role in how rapid a
Dependabot security PR will be merged. This shows that
developers do not necessarily prioritize Dependabot security
PRs depending on the severity of the vulnerability or the
likelihood of a breaking change (patch_level).
The rapid merge time of Dependabot security PRs
is directly associated with the project activity level,
the project past experience with Dependabot security
PRs and the adoption of the auto-merge feature. In
contrast, a project with a high number of dependencies
is more likely to take longer to process the merges.
Surprisingly, neither the severity of the vulnerability
nor the risk of breaking changes (patch level) seems
to significantly influence the PR merge time.
In this section, we discuss implications of our findings to
practitioners (Section IV-A) and Dependabot (Section IV-B).
A. Implications to practitioners
Open-source projects are highly receptive to Dependabot
security PRs. Our results (RQ1& RQ2) show that a large
proportion (65.42%) of the Dependabot security PRs are
accepted, and 50.8% of the closed (not merged) security PRs
are not triggered by developers, but rather by Dependabot
itself in favor of more updated dependency versions. The high
level of acceptance of Dependabot security PRs indicates
that developers are willing to trust external automated
tools for important preventive tasks (security dependency
updates), given that the tool provides sufficient information
for developers to decide. That said, developers should use
Dependabot not just to make their dependencies up-to-date but
also to keep them secure and vulnerability-free. Dependabot
can be seen as a success case to be replicated by tools that
assist developers on a variety of tasks like security updates
through PRs.
Developers are encouraged to enable the auto-merge
feature for improving the merging time of Dependabot
security PRs. Our results (RQ2) show that more than half
(50.8%) of the non-merged PRs in our dataset are superseded
for not being merged on time. Therefore, we recommend
maintainers to review and respond to security updates as
quickly as possible to avoid being affected by publicly known
vulnerabilities. One way to achieve that is by using the auto-
merge feature. Our model (RQ3) shows the importance of
the auto-merge feature. Additionally, our results show that the
security dependency updates of Dependabot rarely break the
tests in the CI pipeline (3.2%), given the fact that Dependabot
issues a PR bumping the current vulnerable version of the
dependency to the closest (minimum) non-vulnerable version
(to reduce the likelihood of build breakage) [57]. In fact,
projects can configure the auto-merge feature to be only
enabled for security PRs [58]. That said, developers are better
off setting a CI pipeline to automatically merge Dependabot
security PRs, particularly in projects that are not in active
development or suffer from lack of resources.
B. Implications to Dependabot maintainers
Dependabot needs to properly handle peer dependencies.
Our results (RQ2) show that 6.4% of the closed security
PRs are accidentally closed by Dependabot when there is a
peer dependency. If a vulnerable dependency A has a peer
dependency to B (i.e., the semantic version of the dependency
A allows only specific versions to be compatible with the
dependency B), creating a PR to update the dependency
A would produce version conflicts, effectively leading
Dependabot to close the PR after opening it. In such cases,
to avoid version conflicts for the peer dependency, the
dependency B in the previous example should be updated
prior, to be compatible with the new version update of the
vulnerable dependency A. At current stage, Dependabot is
not fully able to handle such peer dependency updates [25].
Therefore, and given that security updates are essential,
Dependabot should find a mechanism to be able to resolve
the version conflicts among the peer dependencies in the
target project, by updating them to compatible versions.
Dependabot needs to be more efficient for projects with a
high number of dependencies. Our model (RQ3) pinpoints
the num_dependencies as one of the significant factors
for taking a long time to merge a security Dependabot PR.
In fact, we have seen several cases (e.g., [59], [60]) where
developers have manually consolidated multiple Dependabot
PRs into a single PR, to only then update the dependencies
all at once. Dependabot can be more efficient by providing
ways of grouping PRs to reduce security notification fatigue
in large projects. Also, such feature would be more essential
in case multiple dependencies need to be updated at the same
time or they can break the application.
Dependabot needs to prioritize security updates by more
fine-grained analysis of dependency vulnerabilities. Cur-
rently, Dependabot provides the maintainers with a way
to prioritize receiving notifications for Dependabot security
PRs [61]. This is done by using the vulnerability severity level
of the suggested security updates. Our model (RQ3) shows that
the security PRs are treated independently of the severity level,
indicating a need for a better way of prioritization. A potential
improvement to Dependabot is to give priority to updates
where the vulnerability part of the dependency is actively used
by the project’s code. This is admitedly difficult, particularly
in dynamically typed languages such as JavaScript, but a
conservative approximation can be used to hint developers they
need to act fast. Techniques discussed in the literature might
be used to achieve this fine-grained prioritization, e.g., SAP
organization had recently created a tool that applies static and
dynamic analyses to detect and mitigate the use of vulnerable
dependencies at the code-level [62], [63].
The works most related to ours are studies that propose or
discuss dependency management tools for security vulnerabili-
ties. Previous studies (e.g., [64], [65]) have shown that projects
are slow in terms of responding to security vulnerabilities
that are publicly announced, which is sometimes due to
factors related to resources and process management. The
software development community has proposed several tools
that help developers be aware of dependency updates and
vulnerabilities. For example, Cadariu [66] developed a Vulner-
ability Alert Service (VAS), which scans Maven dependencies
against vulnerabilities using the Common Vulnerabilities and
Exposures (CVE) database. Apiwave [67] is another tool that
tracks API migrations in order to help developers be aware
of their project dependency updates. One limitation of these
tools is that they only send alerts to notify developers about the
vulnerable dependencies without being able to automatically
fix them or suggest a fix version.
Other works focused on identifying dependency vulnerabil-
ities at a more fine-grain level. For example, Ponta et al. [68]
proposed a code-centric tool to detect and mitigate dependency
vulnerabilities for Java and Python industry applications. Also,
a study by Bodin et al. [63], using extracted methods, show
that the code-centric detection tool is viable, although there
are challenges related to the JavaScript language and the
complexity of the application dependencies. Pashchenko et
al. [69], [70] proposed an approach that addresses the over-
estimation problem of techniques that report vulnerable de-
pendencies in the Java ecosystem. The authors highlighted
that many of the vulnerable dependencies were actually not
deployed, and hence, their impact was neglected. Zerouali et
al. [71] proposed a tool to analyze vulnerabilities that affect
npm dependencies in Docker containers. Di Penta et al. [72]
assessed three static analysis tools for detecting source code
vulnerabilities in three open-source network systems, and did
not find much overlap between the tools’ results, suggesting
no “silver bullet” vulnerability detection tool.
More specifically, some tools (e.g., [73], [74]) aim to
help project maintainers automatically track and update their
dependencies. For example, David-DM [73] is a tool that
uses what is called "coloured (badges)". The tool checks for
outdated dependencies and colours a dependency badge with
red, indicating that an outdated dependency version is used.
Greenkeeper [74], an automated PRs bot, is another tool that
helps developers keep their project dependencies up-to-date by
creating PRs that make the required changes for the depen-
dency version update. The work that is most close to ours is the
study by Mirhosseini and Parnin [7]. Their work investigated
the use of pull requests and badges in the tools David-DM
(badges) and Greenkeeper (PRs) to understand whether such
tools help developers upgrade outdated dependencies. They
analyzed more than 6K GitHub projects that used these tools,
and found that projects using the PR tool (i.e., Greenkeeper)
tend to upgrade more often than projects that use the Badge
tool (David-DM). Nevertheless, the Greenkeeper tool could
convince developers of the examined projects to accept only a
third of the submitted PRs with a relativity high rate of build
breakages (i.e., 25%), indicating the need for better automated
dependency tools to convince developers respond to these PRs.
The analysis in the study focused on only seven npm packages
in the studied projects.
Gousios et al. [41] studied the use of pull-request in the
general software development. For example, they found that
80% of typical pull requests are merged within 3 days. Our
paper differs from Gousios et al.’s study since we study
Dependabot-generated security PRs specially for dependency
updates, whereas that study focuses on PRs for software
development in general. While we found some overlapping
reasons for not merging a PR with the studied from Gousious
et al. [41], most of our findings are unique and applicable only
to the context of automatic dependency updates.
Our study complements previous works since we specif-
ically focus on studying security updates, i.e., we study a
large dataset of Dependabot security pull requests. Moreover,
we examine the reasons for Dependabot security PRs being
not-merged. Our case study shows that developers make a
good use of dependency tools such as Dependabot, responding
quickly to the majority of Dependabot security pull requests
(less than a day), suffering from a low rate of build breakages.
Additionally, our paper adds to the literature through, for
example, understanding what factors influence the merge time
of a Dependabot security PR.
Internal validity: Threats to internal validity concern factors
that might affect the casual relationship and experimental bias.
In RQ2, we manually analyze the non-merged PRs to identify
the reasons of their apparent rejection by developers. This
analysis is subjected to the author bias, as every investigator
has a subjective method when classifying a PR. We mitigate
this threat by asking a second author to independently classify
the reasons for not merging and calculate the inter-rater agree-
ment in our methodology (Cohen’s Kappa coefficient [17]).
The level agreement (+0.96) indicates that our results are more
likely to hold.
Another concern is related to the conclusion drawn from
the built model by studying the association between the inde-
pendent and dependent variables. In our work, we study the
features that influence the time it takes to merge a Dependabot
security PR. To achieve that, we built our model using 13
features that span over three dimensions. However, our set of
features are not exhaustive, and other features can be added
and show influence for the PR merge times. Still, our model
is able to explain 67% of the data variation, which for our
purposes is a good initial model for understanding the factors
that correlate with the merge time.
External validity: Threats to external validity concern the
generalizability of our findings. Our study analyses only
JavaScript projects that subscribe to Dependabot. Therefore,
our results cannot be generalized to projects of different
languages and other ecosystems. Still, given that JavaScript
was the first major language supported by Dependabot, it
has had a more widespread adoption, which enable us to
assess its use on a larger dataset of projects. Furthermore,
our methodology can be applied to investigate Dependabot in
projects from other programming languages.
This paper conducts an empirical study to investigate
the use of Dependabot security pull requests, by examining
15,243 pull requests submitted to 2,904 JavaScript open source
GitHub projects. Our results show that a large proportion
(65.42%) of Dependabot security PRs are merged, often in
one day. Furthermore, our manual analysis leads us to identify
that most of the non-merged security PRs (93.9%) are actually
closed by Dependabot itself, mostly related to concurrent
modifications on the affected dependencies, rather than De-
pendabot failures. Finally, we build a mixed-effects regression
model to understand why some of the pull requests take longer
to be merged. Our results reveal 5 important features, e.g., the
project past experience with Dependabot security PRs is the
most influential feature. We note, however, that the severity
of the vulnerability and the risk of breaking changes are
not significantly associated with rapid merges. Our findings
indicate that Dependabot provides an effective platform to help
developers secure their dependencies. Leveraging our findings,
we provide a series of implications that is of interest for
practitioners and Dependabot maintainers alike.
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... Both solutions have been implemented by Dependabot, but it is still unclear whether the specific configuration options and notification strategies taken by Dependabot are really effective in practice. Alfadel et al. [35] study security PRs opened by Dependabot Preview and find that developers receive security PRs well: 65.42% of PRs are merged and most are merged within a day. However, security PRs only constitute a small portion of PRs opened by Dependabot (6.9% in our dataset) and security updates are generally perceived as highly relevant [70]. ...
... Alfadel et al. [35] observe that GitHub projects are highly receptive and responsive to Dependabot security updates. However, this may not be the case for automated dependency updates (Section 2.3). ...
... The first surprising fact we notice is that the technical lag of approximately one-third (216/613) of projects is already decreasing between 0 − 90 and 0 , even if technical lag generally increases over time [44,88]. This indicates that these projects are already taking a proactive dependency update strategy even before adopting Dependabot The former three are also used by Alfadel et al. [35] and the last one is inspired by Wyrich et al. [84]. We use merge rate to measure receptiveness and the latter three to measure responsiveness. ...
Dependency update bots automatically open pull requests to update software dependencies on behalf of developers. Early research shows that developers are suspicious of updates performed by bots and feel tired of overwhelming notifications from these bots. Despite this, dependency update bots are becoming increasingly popular. Such contrast motivates us to investigate Dependabot, currently the most visible bot in GitHub, to reveal the effectiveness and limitations of the state-of-art dependency update bots. We use exploratory data analysis and developer survey to evaluate the effectiveness of Dependabot in keeping dependencies up-to-date, reducing update suspicion, and reducing notification fatigue. We obtain mixed findings. On the positive side, Dependabot is effective in reducing technical lag and developers are highly receptive to its pull requests. On the negative side, its compatibility scores are too scarce to be effective in reducing update suspicion; developers tend to configure Dependabot toward reducing the number of notifications; and 11.3\% of projects have deprecated Dependabot in favor of other alternatives. Our findings reveal a large room for improvement in dependency update bots which calls for effort from both bot designers and software engineering researchers.
... The aim of these bots is to reduce the workload of repetitive tasks faced by practitioners (e.g., updating the client's dependency constraints when a provider releases a new version) and to notify client packages about dependency updates that break their build (e.g., automatically testing new dependency releases that satisfy the client's accepted dependency version range). In fact, studies have shown that dependency management bots can help with encouraging developers to keep their dependencies up-to-date [3,38], and detecting and reporting build failures [34,50,52]. ...
... Wessel et al. [52] showed that bots are primarily used for reporting build failures, decreasing code review time, and automating CI pipelines. Bots are especially prevalent in the area of dependency management [3,22,32,38,51,53]. ...
... Bots and other third-party tools like repository badges that aim to ease the task of dependency management for developers have previously been studied. Alfadel et al. [3] examine the use of Dependabot for automatically creating PRs to fix dependency vulnerabilities in a client's project. They found that approximately 65% of Dependabot security PRs are merged and integrated in the projects, usually within a day of being opened, and that 94% of PRs that are not merged are closed by Dependabot itself. ...
Full-text available
Dependency management bots are increasingly being used to support the software development process, for example to automatically update a dependency when a new version is available. Yet, human intervention is often required to either accept or reject any action or recommendation the bot creates. In this paper, our objective is to study the extent to which dependency management bots create additional, and sometimes unnecessary, work for their users. To accomplish this, we analyze 93,196 issue reports opened by Greenkeeper, a popular dependency management bot used in open source software projects in the npm ecosystem. We find that Greenkeeper is responsible for half of all issues reported in client projects, inducing a significant amount of overhead that must be addressed by clients, since many of these issues were created as a result of Greenkeeper taking incorrect action on a dependency update (i.e., false alarms). Reverting a broken dependency update to an older version, which is a potential solution that requires the least overhead and is automatically attempted by Greenkeeper, turns out to not be an effective mechanism. Finally, we observe that 56% of the commits referenced by Greenkeeper issue reports only change the client's dependency specification file to resolve the issue. Based on our findings, we argue that dependency management bots should (i) be configurable to allow clients to reduce the amount of generated activity by the bots, (ii) take into consideration more sources of information than only the pass/fail status of the client's build pipeline to help eliminate false alarms, and (iii) provide more effective incentives to encourage clients to resolve dependency issues.
... In their survey, 69% of the respondents were unaware their project depended on vulnerable library. To account for this widespread problem of software vulnerabilities, the open source community has also proposed a few solutions [4]. Approaches such as Dependabot [4] have been well-received by the community as they help developers keep their dependencies up-to-date and raise awareness for the occurrence of software vulnerabilities. ...
... To account for this widespread problem of software vulnerabilities, the open source community has also proposed a few solutions [4]. Approaches such as Dependabot [4] have been well-received by the community as they help developers keep their dependencies up-to-date and raise awareness for the occurrence of software vulnerabilities. ...
The Open Source Software movement has been growing exponentially for a number of years with no signs of slowing. Driving this growth is the widespread availability of libraries and frameworks that provide many functionalities. Developers are saving time and money incorporating this functionality into their applications resulting in faster more feature-rich releases. Despite the growing success and the advantages that open source software provides, there is a dark side. Due to its community construction and largely unregulated distribution, the majority of open source software contains bugs, vulnerabilities and other issues making it highly susceptible to exploits. The lack of oversight, in general, hinders the quality of this software resulting in a trickle-down effect in the applications that use it. Additionally, developers who use open source tend to arbitrarily download the software into their build systems but rarely keep track of what they have downloaded resulting in an excessive amount of open source software in their applications and in their ecosystem. This paper discusses processes and practices that users of open source software can implement into their environments that can safely track and control the introduction and usage of open source software into their applications, and report on some preliminary results obtained in an industrial context. We conclude by discussing governance issues related to the disciplined use and reuse of open source and areas for further improvements.
... However, the above works, while studying fix availability, did not distinguish between the code changes that fix the vulnerability, a workaround, or the release of a new version of the affected product. In the case of open source packages, client projects typically adopt the security fix by upgrading to a version where the vulnerability has been fixed [7], [40]. However, there can be a time lag between a vulnerability fix and the subsequent release of a new version. ...
Vulnerabilities in open source packages can be a security risk for the client projects that use these packages as dependencies. When a new vulnerability is discovered in a package, the package should quickly release a fix in a new version, referred to as security release in this study. The security release should be well-documented and require minimal migration effort to facilitate fast adoption by the client projects. However, to what extent the open source packages follow these recommendations is not known. The goal of this study is to aid software practitioners and researchers in understanding the current practice of releasing security fixes by open source packages and identifying areas for improvement through an empirical study of security releases. Specifically, in this paper, we study (1) the time lag between fix and release; (2) how security fixes are documented in the release notes; (3) code change characteristics (size and semantic versioning) of the release; and (4) the time lag between the release and an advisory publication on Snyk or NVD (two popular vulnerability databases) for security releases over a dataset of 4,377 security advisories across seven package ecosystems. We find that the median security release is available in under 4 days of the corresponding fix and contains 134 lines of code (LOC) change. Further, we find that 61.5% of the security releases come with a release note that documents the corresponding security fix. However, Snyk and NVD may take a median of 25 days (from the release) to publish an advisory for these security releases, possibly resulting in delayed notification to the client projects. Based on our findings, we make four recommendations for the package maintainers and the ecosystem administrators, such as using private fork for security fixes and standardizing the practice for announcing security releases.
Conference Paper
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Software ecosystems play an important role in modern software development, providing an open platform of reusable packages that speed up and facilitate development tasks. However, this level of code reusability supported by software ecosystems also makes the discovery of security vulnerabilities much more difficult, as software systems depend on an increasingly high number of packages. Recently, security vulnerabilities in the npm ecosystem, the ecosystem of Node.js packages, have been studied in the literature. As different software ecosystems embodied different programming languages and particularities, we argue that it is also important to study other popular programming languages to build stronger empirical evidence about vulnerabilities in software ecosystems. In this paper, we present an empirical study of 550 vulnerability reports affecting 252 Python packages in the Python ecosystem (PyPi). In particular, we study the propagation and life span of security vulnerabilities, accounting for how long they take to be discovered and fixed. Our findings show that the discovered vulnerabilities in Python packages are increasing over time, and they take more than 3 years to be discovered. The majority of these vulnerabilities (50.55%) are only fixed after being publicly announced, giving ample time for attackers exploitation. We find similarities in some characteristics of vulnerabilities in PyPi and npm and divergences that can be attributed to specific PyPi policies. By leveraging our findings, we provide a series of implications that can help the security of software ecosystems by improving the process of discovering, fixing and managing package vulnerabilities.
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Open source software (OSS) libraries are widely used in the industry to speed up the development of software products. However, these libraries are subject to an ever-increasing number of vulnerabilities that are publicly disclosed. It is thus crucial for application developers to detect dependencies on vulnerable libraries in a timely manner, to precisely assess their impact, and to mitigate any potential risk. This paper presents a novel method to detect, assess and mitigate OSS vulnerabilities. Differently from state-of-the-art approaches that depend on metadata to identify vulnerable OSS dependencies, our solution is code-centric, and combines static and dynamic analyses to determine the reachability of the vulnerable portion of libraries, in the context of a given application. Our approach also supports developers in choosing among the existing non-vulnerable library versions, with the goal to determine and minimize incompatibilities. Eclipse Steady, the open source implementation of our code-centric and usage-based approach is the tool recommended to scan Java software products at SAP; it has been successfully used to perform more than one million scans of about 1500 applications. In this paper we report on the lessons learned when maturing the tool from a research prototype to an industrial-grade solution. To evaluate Eclipse Steady, we conducted an empirical study to compare its detection capabilities with those of OWASP Dependency Check (OWASP DC), scanning 300 large enterprise applications under development with a total of 78165 dependencies. Reviewing a sample of the findings reported only by one of the two tools revealed that all Steady findings are true positives, while 88.8% of the findings of OWASP DC for vulnerabilities covered by our code-centric approach are false positives. For vulnerabilities not caused by code but due, e.g., to erroneous configuration, 63.3% of OWASP DC findings are true positives.
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Continuous Integration (CI) is a set of software development practices that allow software development teams to generate software builds more quickly and periodically (e.g., daily or even hourly). CI brings many advantages, such as the early identification of errors when integrating code. When builds are generated frequently, a long build duration may hold developers from performing other important tasks. Recent research has shown that a considerable amount of development time is invested on optimizing the generation of builds. However, the reasons behind long build durations are still vague and need an in-depth study. Our initial investigation shows that many projects have build durations that far exceed the acceptable build duration (i.e., 10 minutes) as reported by recent studies. In this paper, we study several characteristics of CI builds that may be associated with the long duration of CI builds. We perform an empirical study on 104,442 CI builds from 67 GitHub projects. We use mixed-effects logistic models to model long build durations across projects. Our results reveal that, in addition to common wisdom factors (e.g., project size, team size, build configuration size, and test density), there are other highly important factors to explain long build durations. We observe that rerunning failed commands multiple times is most likely to be associated with long build durations. We also find that builds may run faster if they are configured (a) to cache content that does not change often or (b) to finish as soon as all the required jobs finish. However, we observe that about 40% of the studied projects do not use or misuse such configurations in their builds. In addition, we observe that triggering builds on weekdays or at daytime is most likely to have a direct relationship with long build durations. Our results suggest that developers should use proper CI build configurations to maintain successful builds and to avoid long build durations. Tool builders should supply development teams with tools to identify cacheable spots of the project in order to accelerate the generation of CI builds.
Conference Paper
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Background: Vulnerable dependencies are a known problem in today's open-source software ecosystems because OSS libraries are highly interconnected and developers do not always update their dependencies. Aim: Our paper addresses the over-inflation problem of academic and industrial approaches for reporting vulnerable dependencies in OSS software, and therefore, caters to the needs of industrial practice for correct allocation of development and audit resources. Method: Careful analysis of deployed dependencies, aggregation of dependencies by their projects, and distinction of halted dependencies allow us to obtain a counting method that avoids over-inflation. To understand the industrial impact of a more precise approach, we considered the 200 most popular OSS Java libraries used by SAP in its own software. Our analysis included 10905 distinct GAVs (group, artifact, version) in Maven when considering all the library versions. Results: We found that about 20% of the dependencies affected by a known vulnerability are not deployed, and therefore, they do not represent a danger to the analyzed library because they cannot be exploited in practice. Developers of the analyzed libraries are able to fix (and actually responsible for) 82% of the deployed vulnerable dependencies. The vast majority (81%) of vulnerable dependencies may be fixed by simply updating to a new version, while 1% of the vulnerable dependencies in our sample are halted, and therefore, potentially require a costly mitigation strategy. Conclusions: Our case study shows that the correct counting allows software development companies to receive actionable information about their library dependencies, and therefore, correctly allocate costly development and audit resources, which is spent inefficiently in case of distorted measurements.
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Modern Code Review (MCR) plays a key role in software quality practices. In MCR process, a new patch (i.e., a set of code changes) is encouraged to be examined by reviewers in order to identify weaknesses in source code prior to an integration into main software repositories. To mitigate the risk of having future defects, prior work suggests that MCR should be performed with sufficient review participation. Indeed, recent work shows that a low number of participated reviewers is associated with poor software quality. However, there is a likely case that a new patch still suffers from poor review participation even though reviewers were invited. Hence, in this paper, we set out to investigate the factors that are associated with the participation decision of an invited reviewer. Through a case study of 230,090 patches spread across the Android, LibreOffice, OpenStack and Qt systems, we find that (1) 16%-66% of patches have at least one invited reviewer who did not respond to the review invitation; (2) human factors play an important role in predicting whether or not an invited reviewer will participate in a review; (3) a review participation rate of an invited reviewers and code authoring experience of an invited reviewer are highly associated with the participation decision of an invited reviewer. These results can help practitioners better understand about how human factors associate with the participation decision of reviewers and serve as guidelines for inviting reviewers, leading to a better inviting decision and a better reviewer participation.
Conference Paper
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Software library packages are constantly evolving and increasing in number. Not updating to the latest available release of dependent libraries may negatively affect software development by not benefiting from new functionality, vulnerability and bug fixes available in more recent versions. On the other hand, automatically updating to the latest release may introduce incompatibility issues. We introduce a technical lag metric for dependencies in package networks, in order to assess how outdated a software package is compared to the latest available releases of its dependencies. We empirically analyse the package update practices and technical lag for the npm distribution of JavaScript packages. Our results show a strong presence of technical lag caused by the specific use of dependency constraints, indicating a reluctance to update dependencies to avoid backward incompatible changes.
Software reuse is a widely adopted practice among both researchers and practitioners. The relation between security and reuse can go both ways: a system can become more secure by relying on mature dependencies, or more insecure by exposing a larger attack surface via exploitable dependencies. To follow up on a previous study and shed more light on this subject, we further examine the association between software reuse and security threats. In particular, we empirically investigate 1244 open-source projects in a multiple-case study to explore and discuss the distribution of security vulnerabilities between the code created by a development team and the code reused through dependencies. For that, we consider both potential vulnerabilities, as assessed through static analysis, and disclosed vulnerabilities, reported in public databases. The results suggest that larger projects in size are associated with an increase on the amount of potential vulnerabilities in both native and reused code. Moreover, we found a strong correlation between a higher number of dependencies and vulnerabilities. Based on our empirical investigation, it appears that source code reuse is neither a silver bullet to combat vulnerabilities nor a frightening werewolf that entail an excessive number of them.