ArticlePDF Available

Review on the medicinal properties of some aromatic hydrosols


Abstract and Figures

Essential oils that derive from aromatic plants are typically obtained by steam distillation known as important sources of novel therapeutic molecules. Also, during distillation, part of these essential oil components become dissolved in and remain in the distillation water . and giving a ‘product’ called as hydrosol, which is also known as the distillate water. Hydrosol possess various applications in health, cosmetic and food industries selectively contains polar volatile components. Also, it finds application in aromatherapy that has been steadily gaining popularity in today’s society as a form of complementary and alternative medicine. This review discusses bio-active properties of some important hydrosol and their medicinal potential.
Content may be subject to copyright.
v:2 n:1 p:1-19
Review on the medicinal properties of some aromatic hydrosols
• Ph.D. Medicinal and Aromatic Crops, College of Horticulture, Bengaluru, Karnataka
Essential oils that derive from aromatic plants are typically obtained by steam distillation
known as important sources of novel therapeutic molecules. Also, during distillation, part of
these essential oil components become dissolved in and remain in the distillation water and
giving a ‘product’ called as hydrosol, which is also known as the distillate water. Hydrosol
possess various applications in health, cosmetic and food industries selectively contains polar
volatile components. Also, it finds application in aromatherapy that has been steadily gaining
popularity in today’s society as a form of complementary and alternative medicine. This review
discusses bioactive properties of some important hydrosol and their medicinal potential.
Keywords: Hydrosol, Essential oil, Aromatherapy, Medicinal proprieties
One of the large interests by human through various civilization is the development of natural
products from traditional plants. Herbs and spices are derived from medicinal plants rich in
minerals and organic matter remain the mainstay of about 85% of the world's population for
health care and gaining popularity in developed and developing countries (Sumit et al.,2012).
Nowadays because of the emergence of drug resistant strains of pathogens from one side and
increasing the prices of medicine due to war and sanctions in some countries such as Syria on
other side (Roula, 2020) people have motivated to use the complementary and alternative
therapies such as aromatherapy.
Aromatherapy makes use of pure oil essences from plants and flowers that act as hormone-like
stimulants to improve a patient's health balance (Leger et al.,1986), Essential oils that derive
from aromatic plants are typically obtained by steam distillation (Simon, 1990). Also,during
distillation, part of the essential oil components become dissolved in and remain in the
distillation water and the ‘product’ is called hydrosol or Aromatic waters (Azadeh et al., 2017)
Hydrosols find application in aromatherapy for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic,
astringent, analgesic, ant infectious, antioxidant, cicatrizing, aphrodisiac, digestive, healing and
calming properties (Rose, 1999; Catty,200L; Plotto et al., 2001; Price & Price, 2004; Paolini
et., 2008). Also, it has implications in food, cosmetic and phytotherapeutic industries to find
natural preservative alternatives (Tornuk et al., 2011; Hamedi et al., 2017; Labadie et al., 2015).
They are with odor imparting Polar, oxygenated, hydro philic, volatile oil components that can
form hydrogen bonds with water, get disproportionately partitioned into the distillation water
phase (Rajeswara Rao et al., 2002).
The biological activities of hydrosols are attributed to the major compounds and their functional
groups by some researchers (Inouye, 2009). It is largely dominated by oxygenated lightly water-
soluble compounds (Śmigielski et al., 2013)
Traditionally floral and herbal waters are employed for medicinal purpose. Nowadays, Aroma
therapists and aromatherapy companies are aggressively advertising and trading hydrosols of
diverse aromatic plant species (Catty, 2001). The economic value of the hydrophilic essential
oil fractions of aromatic oils that escape into the hydrosols gaining interest (Pangarkar, 2008),
swept their way into global markets as flavoring, perfumery ingredients (Rajeswara Rao, 2012;
Verma, 2012), and caught the attention of global consumers, aromatherapy practioners,
beauticians and scientists.
The current researches focuses on biological activities of essential oils and hydrosol driven
from medicinal plants for potential use in complementary medicine, food systems, cosmetic
and fragrance formulations. This review highlights on different implications for some of these
aromatic hydrosols.
I. Thyme hydrosol:
The genus Thymus is a permanent, herbaceous shrub belonging to the family Lamiaceae, It is
growing up to 15-30 cm tall by 40 cm wide (Christopher, 2008) commonly grown wild
throughout the Mediterranean region. Thyme has been used medicinally for thousands of years,
well known for its antimicrobial, antitussive, spasmolytic and antioxidant activity (Ethan,2004),
and it was considered to the ancient Greeks, as a symbol of love, honor and happiness.
It has long been used as a source of the essential oil (thyme oil) that showed according to
(Maher et al.,2011) a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes (56.53%) and low contents of
monoterpene hydrocarbons (28.69%), sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (5.04%) and oxygenated
sesquiterpenes (1.84%) while thymol and carvacrol, are considered the main phenolic
monoterpenes of it. Also, phenolic acid (rosmarinic acid) and flavonoids (quercetin, eriocitrin,
luteolin and apigenin) are proposed to be the polyphenolic compounds responsible for the
antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts (Kulisic et al., 2007). Figure 1. Showed the structure of
the most important constitutes of thyme essential oil.
Figure 1. Chemical structure of the main compounds of Thyme
Different research confirms the potential effect of thyme hydrosol as possible means to treat
different disease, having multi-implication of for medical use as:
1. Antibacterial affect:
In recent years, the resistance of pathogens to biocides has led to the search and development
of safe and natural antimicrobial agents, such as plant essential oils and hydrosol. Foteini et al.,
2016 highlighted the significant antimicrobial action of Thymus capitata hydrosol against both
planktonic and biofilm cells of a common foodborne pathogen Salmonella which is
recognized as one of the most significant enteric foodborne bacterial pathogens. Also, the two
thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. and Thymus serpyllum L.) were tested by (Sasdig, 2003) for their
inhibitory effects against four pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, E. coli
O157:H7 ATCC 33150, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 2392 and Yersinia enterocolitica ATCC
1501). And these hydrosols appeared to have bactericidal effects at concentrations above 50
mL/100 ml. The most sensitive of the bacteria against the spice hydrosols was S. aureus.
Thymol (a major constituent of thyme) has been used for various bacterial infections.
2. Antifungal Effect:
Thyme hydrosol as antimicrobial agents can be used as an antifungal agent for food industry
such as dairy and meat. It can help prevent fungi growing on the surface of foods. Terpenes are
the most important volatile compounds found in thyme hydrosol, and it was found that it is
responsible of the antifungal activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) hydrosol and propolis
extract (PE) (PE) against natural mycobiota on the surface of sucuk (Ismet,2014).
3. Inflammatory Response:
The anti-inflammatory effects of the main constitutes of thyme oil and hydrosol “thymol and
cavacrol (CVL)” were studied by (Fernanda et al.,2012) and it has showed inhibition of
inflammatory edema and leukocyte migration.
4. Food manufacturing:
Using of synthetic additives in foods in recent years, has been suspected due to their proven
and potential negative effects on health. So that, the interest in natural additives and their use
in food systems have been increased. Sagdic et al., 2017 investigated the effect of brine
solutions containing thyme and garlic extracts on physicochemical, and it was found that
addition of thyme hydrosol (TH) and garlic aromatic water (GAW) into the brine caused higher
acidity and lower pH values while increase in salt level resulted in higher dry matter (DM) of
Turkish white cheese made from raw milk. In general, TH, GAW or their mixture increased
hardness, gumminess and chewiness of the cheese at the 1st day. Also (Hayaloglu and Fox,
2008) has proved the effect of used Thymus hydrosol on the biochemical and microbiological
characteristics of the cheeses.
5. Controlling Asthma
Bronchial asthma is a complex syndrome characterized by airway hyper responsiveness (AHR)
and reversible airflow obstruction associated with airway inflammation and remodeling and
occasional high serum level of IgE (Cohn et al., 2004). Maha (2013) confirms the potential
effect of thymol as possible means to treat asthma, the study indicates that thyme and thymol
increased the rates of antioxidants in the body, and the ability to get rid of oxidative agent and
free radicals that are generated inside the body, or due pollution environment.
6. Blood pressure control:
Hypertension is a common problem facing many peoples in this modern world due to the
stressful daily retinue. Research has found a variety of alternative therapies such as
aromatherapy to be successful in reducing high blood pressure. Chemical principles from
natural sources may contribute significantly to reducing blood pressure. Such as phenol and
flavonoid contents of aqueous extract obtained from Thymus serpyllum L. (wild thyme, TE), it
has antioxidant capacity, free radical scavenging activity and potential antihypertensive effect,
that (Mihailovic et al., 2013) studied the effect of aqueous extract obtained from Thymus
serpyllum L. (wild thyme, TE) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in normotensive
Wistar rats. It was found that the bolus injection of TE (100 mg/kg body weight i.v.) induced
significant decrease of systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
II. Lavander hydrosol:
Lavender is a plant from the Lamiaceae family, it grows in Mediterranean region, and
commercially grown around the world (e.g., in Bulgaria, France, Spain, Portugal, the United
Kingdom, China, Australia, and the United States), primarily for their essential oils (Ziaee et
al., 2015). Traditionally, lavender as an herbal remedy has been associated with anxiolytic
properties. lavender is chemically made of over 100 constituents, and the major constituents are
linalool, linalyl acetate, geraniol, β-caryophyllene, lavandulyl acetate, 1,8-cineole, limonene,
trans-β-ocimene, cis-β- ocimene, 3-octanone (Krzysztof et al., 2013). Linalool is considered the
primary active constituent responsible for the pharmacological effects of lavender, including its
supposed calming and sedative activity (Basch et al., 2004). Figure 2. Showed the structure of
the most important constitutes of lavender essential oil.
Figure 2. Chemical structure of the main compounds of lavender oil (Cavanagh and
Wilkinson 2002)
Lavender hydrosol is among the popular hydrosols used in aromatherapy. It is very useful for
beauty, health and wellness. It also been shown to be rich in phytochemicals and possess
biological activity. Although most volatile constituents found in lavenders are present in the
essential oils, numerous terpenes, phenolic and lactone compounds are left in the hydrosol. In
the following some of its biological proprieties:
1. Preservative activity:
Lavender hydrosols used as a replacement for water phase in cosmetics may contribute to
maintaining microbiological stability of cosmetic formulations.
Kunicka et al., (2015) indicated the usefulness of lavender hydrosols as a natural, ecologically
friendly component of cosmetics with potential preservative activity in formulations, the use of
lavender hydrosols in the cosmetic industry as a replacement for water phase in cosmetics may
not only result in expenses reduction for chemical stabilizers and preservatives but also in
substantial decrease in sewage disposal. L. angustifolia hydrolate may also be used as a food
additive (Catty, 2001).
2. Controlling Anxiety:
Anxiety is one of the uprising psychiatric disorders of the last decades (Bandelow and
Michaelis, 2015), Lavender aromatherapy reduced preoperative anxiety in ambulatory surgery
patients (Michael et al., 2017). Lavandula angustifolia hydrosol exhibits also revitalizing and
relaxing properties when consumed in the form of an additive to water or food (Rose, 1999)
3. Antioxidant properties:
Lavender hydrosols generated by the distillation industry could utilized as a natural source of
antioxidants. It has been shown that it is rich in phytochemicals and possess biological activity,
and numerous terpenes, phenolic and lactone compounds which left in the it after distillation
and could be responsible of its antioxidant properties (Lesage-Meessen et al.,2015), (Torras-
Claveria et al., 2007) also has been reported that there is strong linkage between the strength of
antioxidant activity and content of phenolic compounds present in the lavender hydrosol. On
the other hand (Blazeković et al.,2010) had indicated that lavender antioxidant properties is due
to the presence of rosmarinic acid.
4. Antimicrobial activity
The application of hydrosols as a raw material in the cosmetic industry results in both reducing
expenses and maintenance the environment (Kunicka et al., 2015) proved antimicrobial activity
of hydrosols obtained from fresh or dried Lavandula angustifolia herbs or flowers in
moisturizing body gel, Lavender hydrosols seem to be promising cosmetic components and
may contribute to maintaining their microbiological stability.
5. Protective Effect
Due to having active antioxidant ingredient in Lavender, the protective effect of the extract of
this plant in gentamicin-induced renal toxicity checked out by (Kalantar et al.,2016), he
indicated that the hydro extract of Lavandula officinalis reduces biochemical indices and
oxidative stress parameters against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.
6. Antifungal activity
Dermatophytes cause infections of the skin, hair and nails as they use the keratin within these
tissues to obtain nutrients (Weitzman and Richard,1995), antifungal drugs which treat
infections often have side effects, also increasing resistance to them encouraged the interest in
of complementary and alternative medicine, such as Lavander oil and its extract that showed
wide-spectrum antifungal activity and is highly potent (Huff and Writer, 2011)
III. Rosa Damascena hydrosol:
Rosa damascena mill L. commonly known as Damask rose belong to Rosaceae family. it has
been referred to as the king of flowers (Cai et al.,2005). This plant is cultivated in all over the
world including Syria, Iran, Europe, Bulgaria, Turkey and India, for using in perfume, medicine
and food industry (Mohammad et al.,2011). Rosa damascena Mill. is an important aromatic
plant for commercial production of rose oil, water, concrete and absolute (Verma, 2011).
Essential oil of R. damascena is prepared by hydro distillation, its percentage varied between
(0.032% and 0.040%) and major constitutes are geraniol, nerol, and phenylethyl alcohol
(Baydar et al., 2005), and the other major product of its distillation is rose water, two to three
kg of rose water is produced per kg of flower. A study in Iran showed that the quality of rose
water is higher in the traditional method compared with the industrial method. It is probably
because of shorter interval between harvesting and distillation (Malek, 2001) and the main
components of it are phenyl ethyl alcohol, beta-citronellol and geraniol, having a lot of
pharmacological effects (Yassa et al.,2009). Figure 3. Showed the structure of the most
important constitutes of R. damascena essential oil.
Figure 3. The major components of Rosa damascena oil (Verma,2011)
Several Pharmacological studies have been performed on R. damascena extracts, and its
medicinal functions are attributed to their components such as terpenes, glycosides, flavonoids,
and anthocyanin that have beneficial effects on human health, on the following some of them:
1. Diabetes mellitus:
Diabetes mellitus is a multisystemic metabolic disorder that may affect the eyes, kidneys,
vessels, and heart happened to high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period (Marina and
Maria, 2012). According to study of (İlker et al., 2019) on rose hydrosol, it exerts significant
protective properties in diabetes mellitus and has no toxic effect on all studied systems in
healthy test groups. Rose hydrosol components significantly increased the lens enzymatic
activities of glutathione peroxidase and decreased the activity of aldose reductive to prevent
cataract genesis.
2. Hypnotic Effect
Rosa damascena (Rosaceae) has been found to act on central nervous system including the
brain. Rakhshandah et al. (2004) indicated that ethanolic and aqueous extracts in doses of 500
and 1000 mg/kg (mice) significantly increased the pentobarbital induced sleeping time, which
was comparable to diazepam.
3. The anti-inflammatory effect
Inflammation is a pathophysiological response of mammalian tissues to a variety of hostile
agents including infectious organisms, toxic chemical substances, physical injury or tumor
growth leading to local accumulation of plasma fluid and blood cell (Sobota et al.,2000).
According to (Hajhashemi et al.,2010) R. damascena extract has a potent analgesic effect in
acetic acid and formalin tests and also showed anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan model
and these results provided enough credit for the plant use as a remedy against painful and
inflammatory conditions. Hydroalcoholic extract of R. damascena on rat paw edema induced
by carrageenan was demonstrated. the extract could significantly reduce edema which maybe
acted by inhibiting the mediators of acute inflammation, this could be to the presence of
phenolic compound and vitamin C which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects
(Maleev et al., 1972).
4. Antioxidant effects
The presence of phenolic compound in R. damascena extract has been shown by Kumar et al
(2009), which is responsible of its antioxidant properties. Also, the effects of rose-flower extract
on antioxidant enzymes were studied, the activities of catalase “CAT” and glutathione
peroxidase “GPx” in SAM mice treated with rose-flower extract showed a marked increase in
whole blood and liver (Ng et al.,2005). Also (Özkan et al.,2004) indicated that fresh (F) and
spent (S) Rosa damascena flower extracts have antioxidant activities. However, the antioxidant
activity of FF extract was higher than that of SF extract.
5. Anti-aging effects
The petal extract of R. damascena was recently found to decrease Drosophila melanogaster
mortality without impairing reproductive fitness or metabolic rate. According to Samuel et al.,
2012 R. damascena extends lifespan by protecting against iron, which concomitantly leads to
decreased HSP expression and compromising heat tolerance. Also, the effects of a rose-flower
extract on the mortality rate of Drosophila melanogaster were evaluated by (Jafari et al.,2008)
It has been showed that supplementing Drosophila with the plant extract resulted in a
statistically significant decrease in mortality rate in male and female flies.
6. Effect on respiratory system
Several recent observations suggest that tachykinins, such as substance P and neurokinin A,
might be involved in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary alterations (Advenier and Emonds,
1996). The exact mechanism of antitussive effect of R. damascena might be due to its possible
tachykinin inhibitory substance content mediating both bronchodilatory and antitussive effects
according to (Advenier et al., 1997).
IIII. Rosemary hydrosol:
Rosmarinus officinalis L., commonly known as rosemary, belongs to the Lamiaceae family is
a perennial shrub, which is originated in the Mediterranean area. The plant is also cultivated in
Spain, Morocco, Tunisia, and the southeast of Europe (Wicht, 2009).
The essential oil from rosemary is commonly gained by hydro distillation (HD) or steam
distillation (SD) with a maximum extraction yield of 1.0-2.5%. The colorless or slightly yellow
oil contains 1,8-cineole, camphor, a-pinene, and borneol (Alexander et al., 2016). Rosemary
contains an abundance of secondary metabolites, such as phenolic compounds (diterpenoids
and flavonoids) and volatile compounds (Mena et al.,2011) Figure 4. Showed the structure of
the most important constitutes of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil.
Fig. 4. Chemical structures of the main compounds present in rosemary oil
Several medicinal applications for R. officinalis hydrosol have been identified due to its various
biomolecules, in the following some of these biological effects:
1. Antimicrobial activity:
A new approach to prevent the proliferation of microorganisms or protect food from oxidation
is the use of essential oils hydrosol as natural additives in food. Listeria monocytogenes is a
Gram-positive, short, motile, psychrotropic rod that can cause serious illness such as septicemia
and meningitis in humans (Emrullah et al., 2006). Tanja and Barbara, 2009 indicated the
antimicrobial activity of rosemary extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) against different species
of Listeria and different strains of L. monocytogenes depended on the selected strain.
2. Antioxidant activity:
Rosemary is one of the major resources for natural antioxidants. The most important
compounds are the phenolic diterpene carnosic acid (CAc) and the phenolic rosmarinic acid
(RAc). Carnosol (CA) and rosmanol. Alexander et al. (2016) determined by DPPH assays the
antioxidant activity of hydro distillation water residues from Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaves.
It is shown that after 2.5 h of hydro distillation the amount of rosmarinic acid and the antioxidant
activity in the water residue reaches a maximum value. R. officinalis extract has strong
antioxidant activity, which is mainly attributed to its phenolic compounds
3. Antifungal effect:
The main chemical classifications of hydrosols are oxygenated monoterpenes. Nuh and Musa
(2005) indicated the anti-fungicidal activity of rosemary herb hydrosols were against
Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tulipae, Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria citri.
Also (Inouye et al.,2007) indicated Inhibitory activity of rosemary hydrosols against filament
formation and the growth of Candida albicans
4. Stimulating the nervous system:
Hydrosol mainly consists of water with some aroma components, whereas essential oil consists
of highly concentrated volatile components. Camphor and borneol were found both in rosemary
essential oil and hydrosol. These facts indicate the possibility of utilizing hydrosol for
stimulating the central nervous system (Kenichi et al.,2016)
5. Promotion of Hair Growth
Rosemary Hydrosols consist entirely of cellular botanical water, which includes unique water-
soluble compounds that provide it with distinct characteristics and benefits. According to
(Kazuya et al., 2013) Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract showed an anti-androgenic effect and
hair growth promoting activity in each of the corresponding in vivo assays.
6. Skin care
The skin is the largest organ in the human body; sensation, regulation, and protection are among
its most critical function (Kolarsick et al., 2011). The biological activities of secondary
metabolites Carnosic acid and extracts of R. officinalis has been studied by (Park et al., 2014)
it showed that it inhibited the proliferation and adhesion of B16F10 melanoma cells in a dose-
dependent manner through the inhibition of the expression of cell migration markers (MMP-
9,TIMP-1, uPA, and VCAM-1) and phosphorylation of signaling molecules (Akt, FAK, and
Sr), It was demonstrated by (Martin et al., 2008) that rosemary extract inhibits UV-induced
metalloproteinase-1, indicating that it may reduce the skin damage caused by sunlight
V. Laurel hydrosol:
Bay tree or laurel (Laurus nobilis L) belongs to the Lauraceae family, which comprises 2.500-
3.500 species grouped in around 50 genera, is a large shrub with aromatic evergreen leaves (bay
leaf), widely distributed in the Mediterranean area and Europe (Ross, 2001) contains about
1.3% essential oils and basic components are 1.8-cineole, linalool and a-terpinyl acetate)
Santos et al., 2014). Figure 5. Showed the structure of the most important constitutes of Laurus
nobilis essential oil.
Fig. 5. Chemical structures of the main compounds present in Laurus nobilis oil
The aqueous extract of Laurel tree has been used since ancient times, it possesses significant
pharmacological potential for the treatment of different ailments and diseases and found to be
safe. in the following covering of some of the more important biological activities of laurel
1. Antibacterial Activity:
Due to these resistance properties of microorganism against antibiotic, the seeking to alternative
way for treatment or for preventing diseases has been increased. The presence of phenolic
compounds the essential oil and hydrosol of Laurus nobilis such as 1,8-cineol has been gaining
attention due to its antibacterial function (Belgin et al.,2018). A study conducted by (Ghadiri et
al.,2014) indicated the antibacterial use of the Laurus nobilis extract for the treatment of
Staphylococcus aureus infection.
2. Antioxidant Activity:
Results obtained by (Biljana et al.,2010) concluded that the L. nobilis leaf extracts exhibited a
certain protective effect, which is more pronounced on the liver than on blood-hemolysate
parameters. Also, the results obtained after oral administration of L. nobilis leaf extracts are in
good agreement with their antioxidant capacity, confirming the relationship between
pharmacological efficacy and antiradical activity (Ester et al.,2011).
3. Hygienic Behavior:
The presence of phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids and the antioxidant capacity of hydro-
extract of L. nobilis could be responsible of its hygienic behavioral effects and colony strength,
according to (Natalia et al., 2019) it was added as supplementary diet to bees in field conditions,
and able to inhibit the bacterial growth of all P. larvae strains.
4. Gastro protective Effect:
Histological evidences confirm the results evaluated by (Ester et al.,2011) and The gastric
damage was significantly reduced by L. nobilis extracts administered.
5. Antidiabetic Effect:
Diabetes is a chronic disease that is characterized by high blood glucose (hyperglycemia) due
to a total or partial insulin deficiency (Alfonso et al.,2017). Dearlove et al. observed that a
hydroethanolic extract of L. nobilis inhibited fructose-mediated protein glycation due to its
concentration of phenolics, also according to (Yanardag et al.,1994) the L. nobilis extract
produced a significant decrease in blood glucose levels in diabetic rabbits.
6. Anticancer Effect:
L. nobilis extract has anticancer activities (Berrington and Lall, 2012), and the Sesquiterpenoids
that have been isolated from a hot water extract of laurel leaves has been indicated as the active
compounds (Komiya et al.,2004) induce cell death and morphological change indicative of
apoptotic chromatin condensation in leukemia cell.
VI. Ginger hydrosol:
Zingiber officinale commonly known as ginger, a member of Zingiberaceae family is a spice
widely used for culinary and traditional medicines Since thousands of years ago (Mbaveng,
2017). It is grown in areas as diverse as China, India [Cochin], Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka,
Vietnam, Australia and Jamaica (Corrigan,1997). The yield of its essential oil varying from 1.0
to 3%. its chemical compositions Zingiberol, zingiberene, phellandrene and linalool, that differ
with the source of rhizome, freshness or dryness and extraction methods (Mohaddese, 2019).
Fig. 6. Chemical structures of the main compounds present in Zingiber officinale oil
The hydrosol of Zingiber officinale could be used for various commodities of medicinal and
pharmacological attributes, in the following highlight on some of its therapeutic properties:
1. Antioxidant activity:
The aqueous extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome and their oxidative stability was
examined by (Kumari et al., 2016) Oxidative stability test revealed that, the ginger hydrosol
acted against lipid oxidation. The anti -oxidative capacity of the ginger extract could be
attributed to the presence of polar phenolic as they were found in the extract at low
2. Anti-inflammatory effects:
The ginger rhizome extracts have been used in Malay traditional culture to treat various types
of ailments such as inflammatory- and pain-mediated diseases (Mehdi et al., 2017). According
to Grzannar et al. (2005) indicated that ginger extract inhibits the induction of several genes
involved in the inflammatory response due to a specific substance called α-zingiberene.
3. Antimicrobial Activity
The health benefits of ginger are mainly attributed to its phenolic compounds, such as gingerols
and shogaol, it has been developed into natural effective antimicrobial agents against many
pathogenic microorganisms (Qian et al., 2019).
Hepatitis C is a major global health burden. Clinical trial was designed by (Adel et al., 2013)
to evaluate the beneficial therapeutic effects of ethanolic extracts of Zingiber officinale in HCV
patients. Clinical response and incidence of adverse drug reactions were assessed initially,
periodically, and at the end of the study. It was found that ginger extracts significantly
ameliorated the altered viral load, alpha fetoprotein, liver function parameters.
4. Protective effect:
Decreasing the side effects of chemotherapy has been the goal of many studies, the protective
effects of Zingiber officinale extract on rat testis were investigated by after chemotherapy.
Using ginger extract the antioxidant and testosterone levels in serum were increased and an
obvious improved histological change has been reported (Mohammadi et al., 2014).
5. Mood booster:
Studies have revealed that anti-inflammatory agents could provide beneficial effect in lowering
the incidence/progression of neurological diseases (Ayodele and Philip, 2018). According to
Oboh et al. the extract of ginger rhizomes inhibits acetyl cholinesterase activity (key regulatory
enzyme involved in neurodegeneration) in vitro resulting in boosting the mood.
6. Reducing xerostomia
Xerostomia, which literally means dry mouth, is defined as decrease in salivation and it is one
of the common complaints among diabetic patients (Antonio et al., 2009) ginger herbal spray
could act as a new, cheap, and available treatment for diabetic patients with dry mouth, resulting
in an increase in salivating (Homeira et al.,2017) similarly, Alaei et al. (2009) demonstrated
that ginger is effective in improving dry mouth in patients after head and neck irradiation.
For ages, aromatic plants have been used for the treatment of various ailments in traditional and
folklore medicine, it processed by different distillation techniques and yield distinct products
such as essential oil and hydrosol. Nowadays, people have motivated to use the complementary
and alternative therapies such as aromatherapy. Due to their mild nature, hydrosols are finding
extensive application in aromatherapy industry, and they possess biological activities and have
potential as medical products.
This review highlights on biological effects of some aromatic hydrosol. These products need
the attention of the researchers as they release volatile substances with varied effects. Likewise,
farmers/producers need to be trained in collecting, processing and trading hydrosols to solve
the problems of lacking medicines due to some issues such as war and sanctions.
1. Abdel-Moneim, A.; Morsy, B.M.; Mahmoud, A.M.; Abo-Seif, M.A.; Zanaty, M.I.
Beneficial therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale in HCV patients in
Egypt. Excli J. 2013, 12, 943–955.
2. Adel Abdel-Moneim, Basant M., Ayman M., Mohamed A., Mohamed Z., 2013. Beneficial
therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale in HCV patients in Egypt.,
EXCLI J., 11 (9):43-55.
3. Advenier C, Lagente V, Boichot E. The role of tachykinin receptor antagonists in the
prevention of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation and cough. Eur Respir J.
4. Advenier,C., and Emonds,A.,1996. Tachykinin receptor antagonists and cough.Pulm
Pharmacol;9 (5-6):329-33.
5. Alaei A.,2009. Systemic effects of ginger on the improvement of xerostomia in patients
after radiotherapy for head and neck.Nove. Proceedings of Second Congress of Dentistry
Residents; Tehran,Iran.
6. Alexander Wollingera, Elodie Perrina, Jamal Chahbounb, Valerie Jeannotb,Didier
Tourauda and Werner Kunz,2016. Antioxidant activity of hydro distillation water residues
fromRosmarinus officinalisL. leaves determined by DPPH assays, C. R. Chimie; 19 (1)
7. Alfonso Alejo-Armijo, Joaquín Altarejos and Sofía Salido,2017. Phytochemicals and
Biological Activities of Laurel Tree (Laurus nobilis). Natural Product Communications; 12 (5):
743 - 757
8. Antonio N, Kate T.,2009. Oral Histology: Development, Structure and Functions. Noor-e
Danesh Publication; 329 pp.
9. Aprotosoaie, A.C., Gille, E., Trifan, A., 2017. Essential oils of Lavandula genus: a
systematic review of their chemistry. Phytochem Rev 16, 761–799.
10. Ayodele Jacob Akinyemi and Philip Adeyemi Adeniyi,2018. Effect of Essential Oils from
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and Turmeric (Curcuma longa) Rhizomes on Some Inflammatory
Biomarkers in Cadmium Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats. Journal of Toxicology, 1:1-7.
11. Azadeh H.S., Mahmoud M., Amirhossein S.AND Hamed E.,2017. An Overview on
Indications and Chemical Composition of Aromatic Waters (Hydrosols) as Functional
Beverages in Persian Nutrition Culture and Folk Medicine for Hyperlipidemia and
Cardiovascular Conditions. journal of Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative
Medicine, 22 (3):1-18.
12. Bandelow and Michaelis, 2015 Epidemiology of anxiety disorders in the 21st century
Dialogues Clin. Neurosci., 17 (2015), pp. 327-335.
13. Basch et al., E. Basch, I. Foppa, R. Liebowitz, J. Nelson, M. Smith, D. Sollars, C.
Ulbricht,2004.Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Miller)J. Herb. Pharmacother, 4 (2004), pp.
14. Baydar H, Baydar NG. The effects of harvest date, fermentation duration and Tween 20
treatment on essential oil content and composition of industrial oil rose (Rosa damascena Mill.)
Ind Crop Prod. 2005;21:251–255
15. Belgin Sırıken, Ceren Yavuz, Ayhan Güler,2018. Antibacterial Activity of Laurus nobilis:
A review of literature. Medical Science and Discovery; 5 (11):374-379.
16. Biljana Kaurinovic, Mira Popovic, Sanja Vlaisavljevic, 2010. In vitro and in vivo effects
of Laurus nobilis L. leaf extracts. 2010. Molecules. 7;15 (5):3378-90.
17. Blazeković B, Vladimir-Knezević S, Brantner A, Stefan MB. (2010) Evaluation of
antioxidant potential of Lavandula x intermedia emeric ex loisel.“Budrovka”: a comparative
study with l. angustifolia mill. Molecules, 15, 5971–5987.
18. Cai YZ, Xing J, Sun M, Zhan ZQ, Corke H. Phenolic antioxidants (hydrolyzable tannins,
flavonols, and anthocyanins) identified by LC-ESI-MS and MALDI-QIT-TOF MS from Rosa
chinensis flowers. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:9940–9948.
19. Catty, S., (2001). Hydrosols: the next aromatherapy. Healing Art Press, Rochester, pp 9–
10, 12, 28,
20. Cavanagh, H.M.A. and J.M. Wilkinson, 2002. Chemical composition of lavender
(Lavandula officinallis L.) extraction extracted by two solvent concentrations Phytother Res.,
16: 301.
21. Christopher Brickell (2008) RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. DorlingKindersley,
United Kingdom
22. Cohn L, Elias JA.& Chupp GL (2004): Asthma: mechanisms of disease persistence and
progression. Ann. Rev. Immunol, 22:789-815.
23. Corrigan D. (1997) Zingiber Officinale. In: De Smet P.A.G.M., Keller K., Hänsel R.,
Chandler R.F. (eds) Adverse Effects of Herbal Drugs. Adverse Effects of Herbal Drugs, vol 3.
Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
24. Dearlove R,Greenspan P, Hartle D, Swanson R, Hargrove J. (2008) Inhibition of protein
glycation by extracts of culinary herbs and spices. Journal of Medicinal Food, 11, 275-281.
25. Emrullah Sagun, Hisamettin Durmaz, Zekai Tarakci & Osman Sagdic (2006).Antibacterial
Activities of the Extracts of Some Herbs Used in Turkish Herby Cheese Against listeria.
Monocytogenes Serovars, International Journal of Food Properties, 9:2, 255-260
26. Ester Speroni, Rinaldo Cervellati, Stefano Dall'Acqua, Maria Clelia Guerra, Emanuela
Greco, Paolo Govoni and Gabbriella Innocenti,2011. Gastroprotective effect and antioxidant
properties of different Laurus nobilis L. leaf extracts., J Med Food.;14 (5):499-504.
27. Ethan Basch,2004. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), Thymol. Journal Of Herbal
Pharmacotherapy, 4 (1):49-66.
28. Fernanda, C., Fachini-Q., Raquel K., Camila F. E.-Silva, Maria D., Joice M., Renata G.,
Ciomar A., Bersani-A., Roberto Kenji N. C., 2012,"Effects of Thymol and Carvacrol,
Constituents of Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil, on the Inflammatory Response", Evidence-
Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 10:1- 10 pages
29. Foteini K.,Efstathios, G., Julien D, Agapi,D., 2016. Hydrosol of Thymbra capitata is a
highly efficient biocide against biofilms of Salmonella Typhimurium: real-time visualization
of bacterial inactivation by CLSM. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 82 (17):
30. Ghadiri, E., Ahmadi, R., Moridikyia, A., Mahdavi, E., & Tavakoli, P. (2014). Laurus
nobilis has Antibacterial Activity against Staphylococcus aureus. In International Conference
on Food, Biological and Medical Sciences, Jan (pp. 28-29).
31. Grzannar R, Lindmark L, Frondoza GG. Ginger -An herbal medicinal product with broad
anti-inflammatory actions. J Med Food. 2005; 8:125-32.
32. Hajhashemi V, Ghannadi A, Hajiloo M. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Rosa
damascena hydroalcoholic extract and its essential oil in animal models. Iran J Pharm Res.
33. Hamedi A, Afifi M, Etemadfard H (2017) Investigating chemical composition and
indications of hydrosol soft drinks (aromatic waters) used in Persian folk medicine for women's
hormonal and reproductive health conditions. JEvid Based Complementary Altern Med 22 (4):
34. Hayaloglu, A.A., Fox, P.F. Cheeses of Turkey: 3. Varieties containing herbs or spices.
Dairy Sci. Technol. 88, 245–256 (2008).
35. Homeira Mardani, Alireza Ghannadi, Bahareh Rashnavadi, Razieh Kamali, 2017. The
Effect of ginger herbal spray on reducing xerostomia in patients with type II diabetes. Avicenna
J Phytomed.; 7 (4): 308–316.
36. Huff, E. A. and Writer, S.,2011. “Lavender oil is a powerful antifungal that fights skin
conditions, Candida,”
37. İlker D., Cansu E., Fadime N., Murat K., Pelin Y., Melin Ö., 2019. Effects of Orally
Consumed Rosa damascena Mill. Hydrosol on Hematology, Clinical Chemistry, Lens
Enzymatic Activity, and Lens Pathology in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats, Molecules.
10;24 (22):4069.
38. Inouye S, Takahashi M, Abe S. Inhibitory activity of hydrosols,herbal teas and related
essential oils against filament formationand the growth of Candida albicans. Jpn. J. Med.
39. Ismet Ozturk,2014. Antifungal Activity of Propolis, Thyme Essential Oil and Hydrosol on
Natural Mycobiota of Sucuk, a Turkish Fermented Sausage: Monitoring of Their Effects on
Microbiological, Color and Aroma Properties. Journal of food processing, 39 (6): 1148-1158
40. Jafari M, Zarban A, Pham S, Wang T. Rosa damascena decreased mortality in adult
Drosophila. J Med Food. 2008;11:9–13.
41. Kalantar M, Houshmand Gh, Kalantar H, Asadi M, Goudarzi M. Protective Effect of
Hydroalcoholic Extract of Lavandula Officinalis L. on Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity in
Rats. J Babol Univ Med Sci. 2016;18 (7):62-7.
42. Kazuya Murata, Kazuma Noguchi, Masato Kondo, Mariko Onishi, Naoko
Watanabe,Katsumasa Okamura and Hideaki Matsuda,2013. Promotion of Hair Growth by
Rosmarinus officinalis Leaf Extract, Phytother. Res. 27: 212–217
43. Kenichi Tomi,, Makiko Kitao, Norihiro Konishi, Hiroshi Murakami3, Yasuki Matsumura
andTakahiro Hayashi,2016. Enantioselective GC–MS analysis of volatile components from
rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oils and hydrosols. Bioscience, Biotechnology,
and Biochemistry,80 (5): 840–847
44. Kolarsick, P.A.J.; Kolarsick, M.A.; Goodwin, C. Anatomy and Physiology of the Skin. J.
Dermatol. Nurses’ Assoc.2011, 3, 203–213.
45. Komiya T, Yamada Y, Moteki H, Katsuzaki H, Imai K, Hibasami H. (2004) Hot water
soluble sesquiterpenes [anhydroperoxy-costunolide and3-oxoeudesma-1,4 (15),11 (13)triene-
12,6α-olide] isolated from laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) induce cell death and morphological
change indicative of apoptotic chromatin condensation in leukemia cells. Oncology Reports, 11
46. Kraijak Kaewprom,Yu-Hsin Chen,a Chuen-Fu Lin,Ming-Tang Chiou,2017. antiviral
activity of Thymus vulgaris and Nepeta catariahydrosols against porcine reproductive and
respiratorysyndrome virus., Thai J Vet Med. 47 (1): 25-33.
47. Krzysztof Ś., Anna R., Krzysztof K., Radoslaw M. G., 2013. Chemical Composition of the
Essential Oil of Lavandula angustifolia Cultivated in Poland., Journal of essential oil-bearing
plants JEOP., 12 (3):338-347
48. Kulisic T, Krisko A, Dragovic-Uzelac V, Milos M, Pifat G (2007)The effects of essential
oils and aqueous tea infusions of oregano (Origanum vulgare L. spp. hirtum), thyme (Thymus
vulgaris L.) andwild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.) on the copper-induced oxidation of human
low-density lipoproteins. Int J Food Sci Nutr 58 (2):87–93.
49. Kumar N, Bhandari P, Shamsher S, Bari B. Antioxidant activity and ultra-performance LC-
electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for phenolics-based
fingerprinting of Rose species: Rosa damascena, Rosa bourboniana and Rosa brunonii. Food
Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:361–367
50. Kumari AJ, Venkateshwarlu G, Choukse MK, Anandan R (2014) Effectof Essential Oil
and Aqueous Extract of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) on Oxidative Stability of Fish oil-in-Water
Emulsion. J Food Process Technol 6: 412-418.
51. Kunicka-Styczyńska A, Śmigielski K, Prusinowska R, Rajkowska K, Kuśmider B, Sikora
M. Preservative activity of lavender hydrosols in moisturizing body gels. Lett Appl Microbiol.
2015 Jan;60 (1):27-32.
52. Labadie, C., C. Ginies, M. H. Guinebretiere, C. M. G. C. Renard, C. Cerutti, F.
Carlin,Hydrosols of orange blossom (Citrus aurantium), and roseflower (Rosa damascena and
Rosacentifolia) support the growth of a heterogeneous spoilage microbiota. Food Research
International, 76, 576–586 (2015).
53. Leger J. Aromatherapy in dentistry. Chir Dent Fr. 1986; 56 (343):43-7
54. Lesage-Meessen L, Bou M, Sigoillot JC, Faulds CB, Lomascolo A. (2015) Essential oils
and distilled straws of lavender and lavandin: A review of current use and potential application
in white biotechnology. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 99, 3375–3385.
55. Maha I. Al-Khalaf,2013. Thyme and Thymol Effects on Induced Bronchial Asthma in
Mice; Life Science Journal 10 (2):693-699.
56. Maher Ali Ahmed Al.Maqtari, Saeed Mohammed Alghalibi, Ebtesam HasanAlhamzy
(2011) Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Thymus vulgaris
from Yemen. Turk J Biochem 36: 342-349.
57. Maleev A, Neshtev G, Stoianov S, Sheikov N. The ulcer protective and antiinflamatory
effect of Bulgarian rose oil. Eksp Med Morfol. 1972;11:55–60
58. Malek, S. 2001. An investigation on traditional and industrial production of rose waterfrom
Rosa damascena in Kashan area. Proceeding of the first festival of rose and rosewater. 26 May,
Kashan, Iran
59. Manish Agrawal, Nandini, D., Vikas Sharma and Chauhan, N. S.,2010. Herbal remedies
for treatment of hypertension, IJPSR, 1 (5):1-21.
60. Marina Kosti and Maria,2012. Education and diabetes mellitus. Health Science Journal, 6
61. Mbaveng, A.T., 2017. Zingiber officinale, Medicinal Spices and Vegetables from Africa
Pages 645-673
62. Mehdi Sharifi-Rad, Elena Maria Varoni, Bahare Salehi 3,, Javad Sharifi-Rad, Karl R.
Matthews, Seyed Abdulmajid Ayatollahi, Farzad Kobarfard, Salam A. Ibrahim, Dima Mnayer,
Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria, Majid Sharifi-Rad, Zubaida Yousaf, Marcello Iriti,, Adriana Basile
and Daniela Rigano,2017. Plants of the Genus Zingiber as a Source of
BioactivePhytochemicals: From Tradition to Pharmacy., Molecules 22 (1): 21-45.
63. Mena, P.; Cirlini, M.; Tassotti, M.; Herrlinger, K.; Dall’Asta, C.; Del Rio, D.
Phytochemical Profiling of Flavonoids, Phenolic Acids, Terpenoids, and Volatile Fraction of a
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract.Molecules, 2016, 21, 1576
64. Michael Wotman, BA; Joshua Levinger, MD; Lillian Leung, PAC; Aron Kallush, BA;
Elizabeth Mauer, MS; Ashutosh Kacker, MD,2017. The Efficacy of Lavender Aromatherapy
in Reducing Preoperative Anxiety in Ambulatory Surgery Patients Undergoing Procedures in
General Otolaryngology, Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology 2 (1):437-441.
65. Mihailovic-Stanojevic, N.; Bel ščak-Cvitanović, A. ; Grujić-Milanović, J.; Ivanov, M.;
Bugarski, D. & Miloradović, Z.,2013. Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Activity of Extract
from Thymus serpyllum L. in Experimental Hypertension., Plant Foods Hum Nutr; 68:235–
66. Mohaddese,M., 2019. Zingiber officinale Rosc. essential oil, a review on its composition
and bioactivity. Clinical Phytoscience 5:6 Page 1 of 12.
67. Mohammad Hossein Boskabady, Mohammad Naser Shafei, Zahra Saberi,and Somayeh
Amini,2011. Pharmacological Effects of Rosa Damascena, Iran J Basic Med Sci.; 14 (4): 295–
68. Mohammadi F, Nikzad H, Taghizadeh M, Taherian A, Azami-Tameh A, Hosseini SM,
Moravveji A.,2014. Protective effect of Zingiber officinale extract on rat testis after
cyclophosphamide treatment. Andrologia., 46 (6):680-686.
69. Natalia Jorgelina Fernández, Natalia Damiani Enrique Arturo Podaza, Josefa Fabiana
Martucci, Diana Fasce, Federico Quiroz, Pablo Ezequiel Meretta, Silvina Quintana, Martín
Javier Eguaras and Liesel Brenda Gende.2019. Laurus nobilis L. Extracts against Paenibacillus
larvae: Antimicrobial activity, antioxidant capacity, hygienic behavior and colony strength.,
Saudi J Biol Sci.;26 (5):906-912.
70. Ng, T B, Gao, W., L Li, S., 2005. Rose (Rosa rugosa)-flower extract increases the activities
of antioxidant enzymes and their gene expression and reduces lipid peroxidation., Biochem Cell
Biol., 83 (1):78-85.
71. Nuh Boyraza and MusaÖzcan,2005. Antifungal effect of some spice hydrosols. Fitoterapia,
76 (7–8):661-665
72. Oboh, G., Ademiluyi, A. O. and Akinyemi, A. J.,2012.“Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase
activities and some pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain by two varieties of ginger
(Zingiber officinale),” Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, 64 (4): 315–319
73. özkan G, Sagdiç O, Baydar H. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Rosa Damascena
flower extracts. Int J Food Sci Technol. 2004;10:277–281.
74. Park, S.Y.; Song, H.; Sung, M.-K.; Kang, Y.-H.; Lee, K.W.; Park, J.H.Y. Carnosic acid
inhibits the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in B16F10 melanoma cells: A possible
mechanism for the inhibition of cell migration. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 12698–12713.
75. Qian-Qian Mao, Xiao-Yu Xu, Shi-Yu Cao, Ren-You Gan,, Harold Corke, Trust Beta and
Hua-Bin Li, 2019. Bioactive Compounds and Bioactivities of Ginger (Zingiber officinale
Roscoe) Foods 8 (185):1-21.
76. Rakhshandah H, Hosseini M, Dolati K. Hypnotic effect of Rosa damascena in Mice. Iran
J Pharmac Res. 2004;3:181–185.
77. Rose, J. (1999) 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols. pp. 163–164. Berkeley, CA: Frog, Ltd
78. Ross IA. (2001) Medicinal Plants of the World. Chemical Constituents, Traditional and
Modern Medicinal Uses. Humana Press, Totowa, USA, Vol. 2, 261-270.
79. Roula ALI-ADEEB,2020. Roses for Syria: Hydrolats and essential oils to support the lack
of medicines due to war and sanctions. Botanica 2020: An international celebration of plant
therapeutics and clinical aromatherapy
80. Sa$dig, O., (2003). Sensitivity of four pathogenic bacteria to Turkish thyme and oregano
hydrosols. LWT Food Sci. Technol., 36: 467-473.
81. Sagdic,O., Hasan C., Fatih T. and Muhammet A., 2017. Effect of Thyme and Garlic
Aromatic Waters on Microbiological Properties ofRaw Milk Cheese., Journal of Tekirdag
Agricultural Faculty, 14 (02):22-33
82. Samuel E., Niki, S., Kevin, Q. P., Maral, G., Asghar Z., Mahtab J.,2012. Extension of
Drosophila lifespan by Rosa damascena associated with an increased sensitivity to heat.
Biogerontology;13 (2):105-17
83. Santos AF, Brotto DF, Favarin LRV, Cabeza NA, Andrade GR,Batistote M, et al. Study of
the antimicrobial activity of metalcomplexes and their ligands through bioassays applied to
plant extracts. Rev Bras Farmacogn 2014. 24 (3): 309-15.
84. Śmigielski, K. B., Prusinowska, R., Krosowiak, K., Sikora, M., 2013. Comparison of
qualitative and quantitative chemical composition of hydrolate and essential oils of lavender
(Lavandula angustifolia). Journal of Essential Oil Research, 25, 291–299
85. Sobota R, Szwed M, Kasza A, Bugno M, Kordula T. Parthenolide inhibits activation of
signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) induced by cytokines of the IL-6
family. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2000;267:329–33.
86. Tanja Rožman's and Barbara Jeršek,2009. Antimicrobial activity of rosemary extracts
(Rosmarinus officinalis L.) against different species of Listeria. Acta agriculturae Slovenica;
93 (1):51-58.
87. Tornuk F, Cankurt H, Ozturk I, Sagdic O, Bayram O, Yetim H (2011) Efficacy of various
plant hydrosols as natural food sanitizers in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella
typhimurium on fresh cut carrots and apples. Int J Food Microbiol 148: 30–35
88. Torras-Claveria L, Jauregui O, Bastida J, Codina C, Viladomat F. (2007) Antioxidant
activity and phenolic composition of lavandin (lavandula x intermedia emeric ex loiseleur)
waste. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55, 8436–8443.
89. Verma RS,2011. Volatile constituents of essential oil and rose water of damask rose (Rosa
damascena Mill.) cultivars from North Indian hills. Nat Prod Res.
90. Weitzman, I and Richard,S., 1995. The Dermatophytes. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 8
91. Wichtl, M.,2009. Teedrogen und Phytopharmaka, Vol. 5, Wiss. Verl.-Ges., Stuttgart.
92. Yanardag R, Can S. (1994) Effect of Laurus nobilis L. leaves on blood glucose levels in
normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits. Chimica Acta Turcica,22, 169-175
93. Yassa N, Masoomi F, Hadjiakhoondi A. Correspondence chemical composition and
antioxidant activity of the extract and essential oil of Rosa damascena from Iran, Population of
Guilan. Daru. 2009;17:175–180.
94. Ziaee M, Khorrami A, Ebrahimi M, Nourafcan H, Amiraslanzadeh M, Rameshrad M,
Garjani M, Garjani A. (2015) Cardioprotective effects of essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia
on isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction in rat. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical
Research, 14, 279289.
... Ticari adı LASEA olan Silexan, anksiyeteye bağlı huzursuzluğun tedavisi için onaylanmıştır (4). Lavanta hidrosolü ise bilinen antioksidan ve antimikrobiyal özellikleri nedeniyle kozmetik ürünlerde kullanılmaktadır (5). ...
Amaç: Lavandula intermedia, esansiyel yağ olarak birçok alanda kullanılmakta ve araştırılmaktadır. Üretimi sırasında elde edilen hidrosolü de benzer amaçlar doğrultusunda kullanılmak üzere araştırılmaya elverişli bir kimyasaldır. Zebra balığı (Danio rerio), son yıllarda deney hayvanı olarak kullanımı artan omurgalı bir model organizmadır. Bu model organizma, sağladığı birçok avantajdan dolayı toksisite çalışmalarında da tercih edilmektedir. Bu çalışmada, lavanta intermedia hidrosolünün lethaliteye etkisinin araştırılması amaçlanmıştır. Materyal ve Metotlar: Çalışmada beş günlük zebra balığı larvaları 24 kuyucuklu plaklara yerleştirilmiş ve %50’den %6.25’e (v/v) ardışık dilüsyonel konsantrasyondaki L. İntermedia hidrosolü uygulanmıştır. Bir saat boyunca sağkalımları değerlendirilmiştir. Sonuç: Lavandula intermedia hidrosolü %50 v/v konsantrasyonunda larvalarda %100 lethaliteye neden olmuştur. Ardışık dilüsyonel dozlarda ise sağkalım %100 tespit edilmiştir. Lavandula intermedia hidrosolünün kozmetik ve sağlık alanında kullanımının etki ve toksisite açısından farklı doz ve sürelerde değerlendirilmesi uygundur.
... Using lavender hydrosols in the cosmetic industry as a replacement for the water phase in cosmetics could result in not only cost savings for chemical stabilizers and preservatives but also a significant reduction in sewage disposal. Lavender hydrosols may contribute to maintaining microbiological stability and appear to be promising cosmetic components, which can be proved by the formation of moisturizing body gels obtained from fresh or dried Lavandula angustifolia herbs or flowers (35). In addition, Lante and Tinello (28) also stated that aromatherapeutic and cosmetic uses for hydrosols are prevalent. ...
Full-text available
Context: Hydrosol is a residual product from the steam or hydro distillation process of abundant types of plants. It can be separated from the essential oil mixture by the liquid-liquid extraction process. Hydrosols from a variety of plants are becoming increasingly popular in cosmetology, aromatherapy, traditional pharmacy, and food sector; thus, their prospective applications should be further explored. Evidence Acquisition: Hydrosol may generally contain chemicals such as alcohol, ketone, and ester. Based on the previous studies using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis, linalool, carvacrol, and α-terpineol are the major chemicals present in plant hydrosol. Results: The chemical composition is either showing antimicrobial or antioxidant properties. The antioxidant properties are important in cosmeceutical products to prevent oxidation of the cosmetic ingredients, while the antimicrobial properties maintain the quality of the cosmetics. Hitherto, hydrosol usage is still unfamiliar in the market, but several cosmetic products have been formulated using hydrosol, such as shampoo, soap, and conditioner. Conclusions: This work will review the hydrosol compound from plants, extraction methods, chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and the potential of hydrosol in cosmeceutical application.
Lavender (Lavandula sp.), thyme (Thymus sp. and Thymbra sp.), oregano (Origanum sp.), savory (Satureja sp.), mints (Mentha sp.), sage (Salvia officinalis and S. sclarea), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), rose (Rosa sp.), citrus (Citrus sp.), and bay laurel (Laurus nobilis) are species widely used as medicinal and aromatic plants. Their essential oils are a well-known resource of biological activities, applicable in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries, as well as in agriculture. Due to developments in ecology and sustainability during the past two decades, hydrolates, which were considered waste material for a long time, are viewed as by-products with promising activity and applications. This chapter provides a review of these ten hydrolates, their chemical composition, and potential use.
The objective of this study was to obtain cellulosic fabric with mosquito-repellent properties and/or fragrance finish by using essential oils from natural plants (cinnamon oil, peppermint oil. Lavender oil, and fragrance oil combination of a variety of plants from woods, flowers, etc.). Oil was encapsulated in silica mesoporous microcapsules, by using the solvent evaporation method. Different solutions were prepared to treat the fabric by them as follows: Natural pecten polymer with each kind of oil in different concentrations (10, 15, 20%) with or without a crosslinker. Natural pectin polymer with encapsulated oil in silica mesoporous for each kind, different concentration was used (10, 15, 20%) with or without crosslinker. Natural chitosan polymer with each kind of oil with or without crosslinker. Natural chitosan polymer with encapsulated oil in silica mesoporous for each kind. The fabric was treated by the pad-dry-cure method. The formed silica mesoporous micro capsuled and the treated fabric were investigated by using different techniques.
Full-text available
Abstract Zingiber officinale Rosc. is widely used as spice and medicinal plant in folk and traditional medicines. The aim of this study was to review the chemical composition and biological activities of Z. officinale (ginger) essential oil. Ginger oil is extracted from Z. officinale rhizomes, which its chemical composition influences from geographical region, extraction methods, freshness or dryness of rhizomes. The antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, immunomodulatory, relaxant, and warming effects of ginger oil have been confirmed in experimental and preclinical studies. The safety issues of ginger oils are well documented and are generally regarded as safe. Due to wide pharmacological effects of ginger oil, attention to ginger oil as an ingredient of natural formulations in management of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases is valuable.
Full-text available
The aim of this work was to compare the antimicrobial activity against Paenibacillus larvae and the antioxidant capacity of two Laurus nobilis L. extracts obtained by different extraction methods. The hydroalcoholic extract was moreover added as supplementary diet to bees in field conditions to test behavioural effects and colony strength. Both laurel extracts were subjected to different phytochemical analysis to identify their bioactive compounds. Antimicrobial activity was analyzed by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination by means the agar dilution method. The hydroalcoholic extract (HE) was able to inhibit the bacterial growth of all P. larvae strains, with 580 µg/mL mean value. This better antibacterial activity in relation to the essential oil (EO) could be explained by the presence of some phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids, evidenced by characteristic bands resulting from the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The HE showed the highest antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH, with IC50 values of 257 ± 12 μg/mL. The FRAP assay method showed that the HE was 3-fold more effective reducing agent than the EO. When the bee colonies were supplied with laurel HE in sugar paste an improvement in their general condition was noticed, although neither the hygienic behavior nor the proportions of the breeding cells varied statistically due to the treatment. In conclusion, the inhibition power against P. larvae attributable to the phenolic compounds, the antioxidant capacity of the HE, and the non-lethal effects on adult honey bees on field trials suggest the HE of laurel as a promising substance for control American foulbrood disease.
Full-text available
Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of ginger herbal spray on reducing dry mouth in patients with Type II diabetes. Materials and methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 20 patients with Type II diabetes suffering from dry mouth. The control individual for each patient was the same patient himself/herself. Each patient filled out his/her questionnaire at three different times, (before treatment, after treatment with placebo, and after taking the drug). Furthermore, the Schirmer test was performed to measure the flow of saliva in the patients. The drug and the placebo were prepared as oral sprays containing herbal extracts of ginger. Results: The mean amount of saliva after using the ginger plant spray increased significantly (p<0.001). The mean amount of saliva after treatment with medication was considerably different from the mean amount of saliva after treatment with the placebo (p<0.001). Our study included patients aged between 49 and 69 years old, (mean age 58.6 years old, and the standard deviation 5.3). The minimum and the maximum periods of type II diabetes were 2 and 21 years, the mean and the standard deviation of which were 8.8 and 5.8, respectively. Conclusion: With regard to the effectiveness of ginger herbal spray in rapidly increasing the patients' saliva and satisfaction as well as the acceptability of this type of medicine to treat dry mouths, ginger herbal spray could act as a new, cheap, and available treatment for diabetic patients with dry mouth.
Full-text available
Hydrosol soft drinks in Persian nutrition culture are produced as side products of the essential oil industry to be used as safe remedies for treatment of some ailments. This study investigated hydrosols for women's hormonal health conditions. Detailed information was gathered by questionnaires. Chemical constituents of these mono- or poly-herbal hydrosols were identified after liquid/liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Hierarchical cluster and K-means analysis (SPSS software) were used to find their relevance. A literature survey was also performed. In most cases, thymol, carvacrol, and carvone were the major constituents except for dill, white horehound, willow, Moderr, and yarrow hydrosols, whose their major components were dill ether, menthol, phenethyl alcohol, linalool, or camphor. Based on clustering methods, some similarities could be found in their constituents with some exceptions. None of them have been studied scientifically before. These investigations may lead to the development of some functional drinks or even new lead components.
Full-text available
Lavandula species are one of the most useful aromatic and medicinal plants with a great economic value for pharmaceutical, food and flavor industries, cosmetics, perfumery, and aromatherapy. The pleasant fragrance, physiological effects, and commercial significance are due to the their essential oils, with a highly variable composition dependent on the genetic, environmental and processing factors. This paper provides a systematic view on the chemistry of lavender essential oils especially considering the studies in the last 15 years. The review presents the characteristic chemical constituents and chemotypes of seventeen Lavandula species. The intra- and interspecific variability is primarily discussed dependent on the geographic area, onto-and morphogenetic factors, and extraction methods. In addition, biosynthesis of lavender terpenes is presented.
Full-text available
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is characterized by reproductive failure of sows and respiratory problems of nursery and growing pigs. Current management strategies mainly focus on preventing PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection through vaccination. However, the currently available modified live vaccines are not sufficient to eradicate the virus and do not provide complete immunity from infection. In search of agents that may be proven clinically effective against North American PRRSV (NA-PRRSV or US-PRRSV) infection, 42 natural herb hydrosols were purified and subjected to screening of their antiviral activity against two US-PRRSV strains in MARC-145 cells. Based on results obtained from cell viability test, the highest concentration showing less than 10% cytotoxicity in MARC-145 cells was chosen for each of the plant hydrosols. Antiviral activity assay indicated that both Thymus vulgaris and Nepeta cataria hydrosols reduced the PRRSV load in vitro significantly (p < 0.05). Moreover, the anti-PRRSV mechanisms of both T. vulgaris and N. cataria hydrosols were in both pre-entry and post-entry steps. These results suggest that both T. vulgaris and N. cataria hydrosols have therapeutic potential in the prophylaxis and treatment of US-PRRSV infection.
Full-text available
Hydrosol beverages in Persian nutrition culture and ethnomedicine are the side products of essential oil industry that are used as delicious drinks or safe remedies. To investigate indications and chemical composition of hydrosol beverages for hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular conditions, Fars province was selected as the field of study. Ethnomedical data were gathered by questionnaires. The constituents of hydrosols were extracted with liquid/liquid extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis were used to cluster their constituents and find the relevance of their composition. A literature survey was also performed on plants used to prepare them. Thymol was the major or second major component of these beverages, except for wormwood and olive leaf hydrosols. Based on clustering methods, although some similarities could be found, composition of barberry, will fumitory, dill, and aloe hydrosols have more differences than others. These studies may help in developing some functional beverages or new therapeutics.
In the present study, it was aimed to investigate the effect of brine solutions containing thyme and garlic extracts on physicochemical, microbiological and textural properties of Turkish white cheese made from raw milk during ripening. For this aim, garlic aromatic water (GAW), thyme hydrosol (TH) or their mixture (1:1 v/v) were incorporated into the brine with different salt concentrations (10%, 13% and 16%) at the ratio of 10% and used in the cheese ripening for 90 days. Addition of TH and GAW into the brine caused higher acidity and lower pH values while increase in salt level resulted in higher dry matter (DM) of cheese. Counts of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB), yeast-mold (YM), lactoccocci and lactobacilli were fluctuatingly influenced from brine combinations while coagulase positive staphylococci was completely inhibited during the ripening. In general, TH, GAW or their mixture increased hardness, gumminess and chewiness of the cheese at the 1st day while cohesiveness, resilience and springiness values were not significantly (P>0.05) affected. © 2017 Namik Kemal University - Agricultural Faculty. All Rights Reserved.
This review summarizes the chemical composition reported up to date on Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae), an evergreen shrub or tree cultivated for its aromatic leaves and ornamental interest. It has been focused on non-volatile phytochemicals such as sesquiterpene lactones, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, among others. Moreover, biological activities of laurel extracts and pure compounds have also been reviewed.