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Sustainable Construction Literacy: A Study of the Kenyan Interior Design Market Segment of the Construction Industry

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Due to the widespread calls for the construction industry to adopt sustainable approaches, the various stakeholders are now engaging in the sustainability agenda more than before. This study investigated how the Kenyan construction industry is engaging the sustainability agenda. Specifically, this study sought to establish sustainable construction (SC) literacy levels, key sustainability considerations and SC literacy avenues in the interior design market segment of the Kenyan construction industry. Key project stakeholders in the interior design market segment of the Kenyan construction industry were the target population. A total of 60 (12 architects/interior designers, 12 electrical engineers, 12 mechanical engineers, 12 quantity surveyors and 12 contractors) structured questionnaires were distributed, out of which 46 (10 architects/interior designers, 9 electrical engineers, 9 mechanical engineers, 8 quantity surveyors and 10 contractors) were received back. Collected data was analysed using frequencies, percentages, mean item scores (MIS) and standard deviations (SD). The study revealed an average level of sustainability literacy with a composite mean score of 3.7102 and mismatch between SC literacy levels and key sustainability considerations in interior design projects. Additionally, the respondents rated standard SC approaches, legislation, policies and construction trade associations as the least effective contributors to their current SC literacy levels. On the other hand, informal learning, construction professional associations influence, collaboration amongst firms, and formal learning were largely attributed to the respondent's SC literacy levels. The implication of the findings was that there is need to fine-tune SC literacy drives to the peculiarities of the various industry market segments to ensure their effectiveness in informing practice. Additionally, there is the need to leverage standard SC approaches, legislation, policies and construction trade associations as avenues to improve the overall sustainability literacy levels.
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Sustainable Construction Literacy:
A Study of the Kenyan Interior Design Market Segment of the Construction
Industry
Samuel Kamau Joseph* and Anthony Oduor Ralwala
Received on 9th July, 2019; Received in revised form 7th October, 2020; Accepted on 19th October,
2020.
Abstract
Due to the widespread calls for the construction industry to adopt sustainable approaches, the various
stakeholders are now engaging in the sustainability agenda more than before. This study investigated
how the Kenyan construction industry is engaging the sustainability agenda. Specically, this study
sought to establish sustainable construction (SC) literacy levels, key sustainability considerations and SC
literacy avenues in the interior design market segment of the Kenyan construction industry. Key project
stakeholders in the interior design market segment of the Kenyan construction industry were the target
population. A total of 60 (12 architects/interior designers, 12 electrical engineers, 12 mechanical engineers,
12 quantity surveyors and 12 contractors) structured questionnaires were distributed, out of which 46 (10
architects/interior designers, 9 electrical engineers, 9 mechanical engineers, 8 quantity surveyors and 10
contractors) were received back. Collected data was analysed using frequencies, percentages, mean item
scores (MIS) and standard deviations (SD). The study revealed an average level of sustainability literacy
with a composite mean score of 3.7102 and mismatch between SC literacy levels and key sustainability
considerations in interior design projects. Additionally, the respondents rated standard SC approaches,
legislation, policies and construction trade associations as the least eective contributors to their current
SC literacy levels. On the other hand, informal learning, construction professional associations inuence,
collaboration amongst rms, and formal learning were largely attributed to the respondent’s SC literacy
levels. The implication of the ndings was that there is need to ne-tune SC literacy drives to the
peculiarities of the various industry market segments to ensure their eectiveness in informing practice.
Additionally, there is the need to leverage standard SC approaches, legislation, policies and construction
trade associations as avenues to improve the overall sustainability literacy levels.
Keywords:
Interior design, Kenya, Sustainability, Sustainable construction, Sustainability literacy.
INTRODUCTION
Du Plessis (2002), postulates that the construction
industry, with special reference to developing
countries as is the case for Kenya, has been
identied to result in vast negative sustainability
impacts. ese impacts are; of economic nature
such as cost of constructed facilities and proportion
of labour employed in the construction industry,
environmental nature such as demand for natural
resources, and energy consumption in processing
of construction products, and social nature
such as corruption and unfair labour practices
(Macozoma, 2002). e situation is further
complicated by the numerous direct and indirect
linkages between the construction industry and
other industries (Du Plessis, 2002).
Numerous scholars have pursued matters in
relation to aspects of sustainability literacy, uptake
and assessment- specically in the construction
industry- in various countries such as Turkey,
Nigeria, Australia, England and Cyprus (Usal,
2012; Ikediashi at al., 2013; Khalfan et al., 2015;
Higham & omson, 2015; Elmualim & Alp,
2016). ese eorts display global eorts towards
enriching the theory, and consequently the
practice, of sustainability within the construction
industry. In addition, analysis of previous
research in relation to sustainable construction
shows limited coverage of the interior design
market segment sustainability related endeavours
compared to general architectural ones (Jones,
2008; Keane, 2009; Hayles, 2015). Most of the
*
Corresponding author:
Samuel Kamau Joseph, Department of Construction Management and Quantity Surveying, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
Email: skksamwel@uonbi.ac.ke
ISSN: 2524-1354 (Online), ISSN: 2519-7851 (Print)
Africa Habitat Review Journal
Volume 14 Issue 3 (December 2020)
http://uonjournals.uonbi.ac.ke/ojs/index.php/ahr
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information, legislation and assessment tools have
been largely geared towards architectural projects,
though some aspects are still applicable to interior
design projects.
In the course of planning, designing, executing
and post-construction support in interior design
projects (t-outs and retro-ts), interior designers
require the input of other professionals. e main
ones are quantity surveyors, electrical engineers
and mechanical engineers. However, over time,
given the rising complexity in interior design
projects, additional professionals are required on
an ‘as and when required’ basis. ese include, but
are not limited to: lighting consultants/designers,
structural engineers (where structural alterations
are involved), security professionals, construction
project managers and construction project
administrators. e conduct of these professionals
in interior design projects in Kenya is largely
governed by consultancy agreements. However,
the general oversight of these professionals is
undertaken by the respective professional bodies
such as Engineers Board of Kenya (EBK) for
engineers, and the various Acts of Parliament and
parastatals that regulate various aspects of the
built environment.
Apart from consultants, there are other
stakeholders in interior design projects. Amongst
them are the project clients/employers who engage
the consultants/professionals (discussed above)
and the construction team. e construction team
is typically composed of contractors (domestic
and/or nominated) and can be ordinary t-out
contractors and/or specialists, sub-contractors
(domestic and/or nominated) and suppliers
(domestic and/or nominated). For contractors,
their conduct in interior design projects in Kenya
is largely governed by contract agreements;
for example, the Joint Building Council (JBC)
conditions of contract for building works, and sub-
contract agreements such as Kenya Association
of Building and Civil Engineering Contractors
Association (KABCEC). e general oversight
of these entities is undertaken by National
Construction Authority (NCA) and the respective
county governments (for the jurisdiction in which
the construction works are being undertaken).
e above imply a call for inclusion of the interior
design market segment in construction industry
sustainability related endeavours. Interior design
market segment in Kenya is yet to have an
oversight structure as in other countries such as
Britain, USA, Australia, China, Brazil, Nigeria
and South Africa (Mwanza, 2013). It is clear
that construction industry, if unchecked, has the
potential of compromising the ability of both the
current and future generations to meet their needs.
Additionally, as postulated by Lockhart (2016),
Target 4.7 of the sustainable development goals
(SDGs) aims at improving sustainability literacy
for all via all the available modalities (whether
formal, informal and/or non-formal, or any other
combination).
It is in line with these realizations that this
study explored the role of sustainability literacy
as a key contributor to SC compliance in the
Kenyan construction industry. is paper sought
to establish sustainability literacy levels, key
sustainability considerations and eectiveness
of the various sustainable literacy avenues in the
Kenyan interior design market segment of the
construction industry. is study focused on
professional interior design practice; where the
involved parties, as engaged by developers, are
professionals in their respective elds.
THEORY
Sustainability refers to the ability of the present
generation to meet their own needs (Intra-
generational equity) without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own
needs (Inter-generational equity). is denition
covers the associated economic, environmental
and social aspects in a given context (Brundtland,
1987; Carboni et al., 2018). Sustainability
endeavours in the construction industry
have been termed as sustainable construction
(SC). Du Plessis (2002), refers to sustainable
construction as the total process that ensures and
maintains balance between the built and natural
environments (environmental considerations)
while at the same time upholding human dignity
(social considerations) and ensuring economic
equity amongst the populace (economic
considerations).
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A number of measures have been put in place
towards achieving sustainability as an end product
of sustainable development practices. is has
been driven by the vast negative impacts associated
with human activities such as construction. ese
measures have been identied to range from
formal global recognition of the need to pursue
sustainable development (Brundtland, 1987),
global sustainability agendas such as Sustainable
Development Goals (SDGs) (United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP), 2017) and
localized sustainable development pursuits such
as Vision 2030 in Kenya (UNDP, 2012), matters
economics, local legislation such as Environmental
Management and Conservation Act (EMCA)
(1999) that is concerned with environmental
matters and Employment Act (2007), largely
concerned with social matters; to mention but a
fe w.
e construction industry is a major sector in any
economy. It is used by governments to regulate
the economy through monetary and scal actions
(Bosher et al., 2007). e industry is also labour
intensive, hence a major employer. e industry is
also characterized by many forward and backward
linkages with other industries (Construction
Products Association, 2007). Compliance with
the economic aspects of sustainability can help
investors to; avoid increased exposure to green
taxes, safeguard their reputation and avoid
resistance from pressure groups (Adetunji et al.,
2003). In addition, according to Kats (2003), the
benets of observing this principle of compliance
with economic sustainability include; rationalized
operating and maintenance costs and increased
revenue which can be realized through sale and/or
rent of constructed facilities.
According to Tam et al. (2006), construction
activities impact on the environment through
its activities, such as use of natural resources,
and through its waste products like dust and
gas emissions. Construction also impacts on the
environment through energy consumption. It is
estimated that construction uses 40% of the total
energy produced (Cheng et al., 2008). According
to Kats (2003), if observed, this principle of
compliance with environmental sustainability
can be associated with improved quality of the
surroundings and rationalized use of natural
resources and energy. e environment aspect of
sustainable construction is fairly well researched
and more advanced than the social and economic
aspects. is could explain the availability of well-
established environmental management systems
(UK Green Building Council, 2009).
According to Adetunji et al. (2003), social aspects
are concerned with the legal and moral obligations
of the construction industry to its stakeholders
such as employees, suppliers, and the community
in which it operates at large. Non-compliance
with the social concerns has seen the construction
industry being branded as dirty, disruptive,
dangerous, old fashioned and sometimes dishonest
(Addis & Talbot, 2001; Myers, 2005). Also, the
quality of spaces should not have negative eects
on the users such as poor indoor air quality leading
to diseases such as cancer (Baum, 2007; Kibert,
2008). According to Kats (2003), the benets
of observing this principle of compliance with
social sustainability include; enhanced wellbeing,
reducing absenteeism from work, reduced rate of
employee turnover and reduced liabilities.
Construction activities have been associated with
negative impacts of economic, environmental and/
or social nature as discussed in preceding sections.
To counter such negative impacts and to realize
the numerous benets associated with sustainable
development (SD), requisite skills and knowledge
are required to guide practice. is is meant to
facilitate a paradigm shi, as postulated by Murray
& Congrave (2007), amongst the construction
industry stakeholders towards a comparatively
sustainable construction industry. According to
Murray & Congrave (2007), there is increased
need for sustainability literate professionals in
eorts geared towards having a planet that meets
the needs of the current generation without
compromising the ability of future generations
to do so. Literacy is dened by Dale & Newman
(2005) as the mastery/prociency of skills and/or
subject matter in context.
As such, sustainability literacy has been dened
as mastery/prociency of sustainability skills
and knowledge aimed at fostering practices that
ensure the planet meets the needs of the current
generation without compromising the ability
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of future generations to do so (Joseph, 2019).
According to Lockhart (2016), learning can be
formal, informal and/or non-formal education, or
any other combination. Formal education/learning
involves well identied and assessable inputs,
for example tutors, processes such as teaching
methodologies, and outcomes like knowledge and
skills. Informal learning is done outside institutions
and is unstructured. It is basically acquisition of
knowledge and skills through experience. Non-
formal learning is a middle ground between
formal and informal learning with clear outcomes
and is semi-structured. However, formal avenues
of sustainability education have received more
scholarly attention compared to informal and
non-formal ones.
Construction professionals’ associations have
been seen to encourage sustainability literacy. is
has largely been through continuous professional
development (CPD) programmes and inuencing
incorporation of sustainability issues in degree
courses (Murray & Cotgrave, 2007). In lieu of
formal sustainability education, some professionals
adopt standard sustainability approaches such as
Building Research Establishment Environmental
Assessment Method (BREEAM) and/or engage
sustainability specialists (Schweber, 2013).
According to Gleeson & omson (2012),
promotion of sustainability literacy involves a
combination of developing required skills and
knowledge as well as changing practitioners’
mind-set and culture. Higham & omson (2015)
postulate that formal learning is insucient to
stimulate desired sustainability literacy levels.
As such, other available modalities of learning
should be explored in eorts geared toward a
sustainability compliant construction industry.
Gleeson & omson (2012) postulated that
collaboration, policies and legislation, formal
learning, informal learning and inuence of trade
and professional bodies are some of SC literacy
avenues. Sommerville & McCarney (2003)
explained that collaboration takes place when
large enterprises interact with smaller enterprises
to facilitate skills transfer. In this manner, smaller
rms with limited SC capacity can pursue
interactions with larger rms with requisite
sustainability expertise to facilitate trickling down
of sustainability skills and knowledge. Appropriate
legislation can also stimulate an improved uptake
of sustainability learning as has been done with
health and safety (Revell, 2007). Additionally,
Gleeson & omson (2012), call for ratication
of existing sustainability policies in a practical
manner to encourage increased sustainability
literacy.
On formal sustainability learning, Gleeson &
omson (2012), argue that as part of core
subjects related to construction, curriculum in
formal education should incorporate related
sustainability concerns. is has the potential of
producing graduates with appropriate skills and
knowledge to improve sustainability compliance
in the construction industry. Informal learning
such as apprenticeship and industrial attachment
are equally important. According to Gleeson &
omson (2012), this form of learning is more
suitable for those with cra and trade background
in construction. is is in light of the practical
involvement for the numerous construction
related cras and trades. Gleeson & omson
(2012), postulate that trade and professional
associations can help industry stakeholders
overcome sustainability resource constraints
through supporting acquisition of sustainability
related skills and knowledge. In addition,
through cooperation, these associations can act
as sustainable construction knowledge hubs. e
various SC literacy avenues, with their sources, are
as summarised in Tabl e 1.
RESEARCH METHODS
is study employed a quantitative research
approach using structured questionnaires to collect
sample attributes administered by the researcher
with help of research assistants. For purposes
of this study, key interior design stakeholders
were identied as interior designers/architects,
electrical engineers, mechanical engineers,
quantity surveyors and contractors. is was on
the basis that they are part of the basic project
team in a typical professionally executed interior
design project in Kenya. e target population
was these key project stakeholders in the Kenyan
construction industry. e sampling units were
interior designers/architects, electrical engineers,
mechanical engineers, quantity surveyors and
contractors in Kenya.
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TABLE 1: Sustainable Construction learning avenues
Source: Authors 2018
Sustainable Construction Learning Channels/Avenues Source
Construction professionals’ associations inuence through CPDs
and on degree courses
Murray & Cotgrave (2007)
Construction trade associations inuence Gleeson & omson (2012)
Adopting standard sustainability approaches such as BREEAM Schweber (2013)
Formal learning (Incorporation in formal curriculum) Murray & Cotgrave (2007)
Gleeson & omson (2012)
Higham & omson (2015)
Informal learning (For those with cra and trade background)
such as apprenticeship and industrial attachment
Gleeson & omson (2012)
Legislation Revell (2007)
Policies Gleeson & omson (2012)
Collaboration amongst rms Sommerville & McCarney (2003)
e sampling frame [source list] was dened as
the pool of these key project stakeholders drawn
from Nairobi City County, being a bigger economy
compared to other counties. Additionally, the key
project stakeholders were randomly picked from
completed and ongoing interior design projects
between the years 2016 to 2018. is ensured that
they were currently and actively practicing. e
choice of interior design projects was informed
by the limited scholarly coverage of sustainable
construction in interior design projects.
Trochim (2000), denes the unit of analysis as the
major unit being analysed in a given research study
and it is determined by the level at which data is
analysed. For this study, the data that goes into
analysis is the perspectives of key interior design
project professionals in terms of frequencies. It
can therefore be deduced that the individual,
key professional (interior designers/architect,
electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, quantity
surveyor and contractor), was the unit of analysis
for this study. is study targeted 60 respondents
in total as the sample size computed through
Yamane (1967) formula approach and adjusted for
non-response as postulated by Israel (2012).
is composed of 12 interior designers/architects,
12 electrical engineers, 12 mechanical engineers, 12
quantity surveyors and 12 t-out contractors. Out
of the 60 issued questionnaires, 50 were received
back, 4 were largely incompletely lled and were
thus dropped and the remaining 46 found valid
for analysis. is was now made up of 10 interior
designers/architects, 9 electrical engineers, 9
mechanical engineers, 8 quantity surveyors and
10 t-out contractors. is represented a 77%
response rate, which is a very good response rate
as postulated by Mugenda and Mugenda (2008).
e data collection instrument employed was
a structured questionnaire covering denitions
of key terms used to ensure uniformity in
interpretation, background data of the respondents
on their typical roles, years of experience, number
of projects that they were handling at the time of
this study and their highest levels of education
and questions on sustainability literacy levels,
key sustainability considerations in construction
projects and sustainability literacy avenues in the
Kenyan construction industry. On sustainability
literacy levels and key sustainability concerns
(economical, environmental and social), the
respondents were asked to rate them according to
their level of signicance. A 5-point Likert scale
was employed, with 5 being very good, 4 being
good, 3 being average, 2 being low and 1 being
very low. Lastly, the respondents were requested to
rate the contribution of the various sustainability
literacy learning avenues to their current SC
literacy levels on the same 5-point Likert scale.
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is study sought to ensure internal and external
validity as postulated by Kothari (2004). Internal
validity was ensured through critical review of
the questionnaire by professionals (1 interior
designers/architects, 1 electrical engineer, 1
mechanical engineer, 1 quantity surveyor and
1 t-out contractor) drawn from the Kenyan
construction industry to ensure its adequacy
in addressing the research questions. Out of the
resulting feedback, the main rectications eected
to the dra questionnaire included introducing
a section on denition of key terms used for
common understanding. Additionally, a question
on number of projects being handled by the
respondents was introduced to highlight their
respective potential project spheres of inuence.
On external validity, the extent of generalization
for the resulting ndings was set as: to key project
stakeholders as previously identied in the Kenyan
construction industry on sustainability literacy as
a key contributor to SC compliance.
On reliability, as postulated by Kothari (2004),
the study sought to enhance the stability and
equivalence aspects. Stability was achieved
through collection of data with a standard span
of time- before noon- to minimise the eect
of external factors such as fatigue. Equivalence
was realized through a standard procedure of
administering the questionnaires. e researcher
trained the research assistants on how to explain
the purpose, intended benets and beneciaries
of the study, including assuring the respondents of
anonymity and condentiality to enhance clarity
as to the nature of the study.
Data analysis was descriptive in nature using
frequencies, percentages, means and standard
deviations. e resulting data was presented
in form of tables and charts with a narrative to
explain the ndings.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Respondents’ Prole
Firstly, based on their typical roles in interior design
projects, the composition of the 46 respondents
was as illustrated in Figure 1. All the sub-groups
of the target population were represented.
Secondly, out of the 46 valid study respondents,
their experience in interior design projects was as
shown in Figure 2.
FIGURE 1
Respondents’ typical role in interior design projects
Source: Field survey 2019
FIGURE 2
Respondents’ experience in interior design projects
Source: Field survey 2019
From Figure 2, an overwhelming majority of
the respondents had over 5 years’ experience in
interior design projects. is implies that they
understand interior design projects and are in a
position to ensure that sustainability approaches
are context specic.
Additionally, as of December 2018, the number
of interior design projects that the respondents
were handling is illustrated in Figure 3. An
overwhelming majority of the respondents were
actively involved in 4-5 interior design projects.
is implies that they had ample opportunities
to ensure uptake of sustainable construction
practices in their projects.
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Lastly, the highest level of education achieved by
the respondents was as shown in Figure 4. An
overwhelming majority of the respondents had
their highest education level as university. is
implies that they are in a position to articulate and
comprehend sustainable construction practices.
Respondents’ Sustainability Literacy Levels
Respondents had an average (MIS=3.7102)
understanding of sustainable construction
practices: economic, environmental and social.
Specically, economic related construction
practices scored the highest level, socially related
construction practices ranked second and
environmental related construction practices
ranked third. is is as summarized in Tab l e 2 .
FIGURE 3
Number of interior design projects handled
Source: Field survey 2019
FIGURE 4
Highest level of education attained
Source: Field survey 2019
Respondents’ Key Sustainability Considerations
in Interior Design Projects
e respondents registered an average score
(MIS=3.5942) as overall consideration levels of
the sustainable construction benets in interior
design projects (Table 3 ). ese ndings were
contrary to SC understanding levels which ranked
the three dimensions of sustainability as economic,
social and environment in decreasing order of
understanding levels. is indicates a mismatch
between SC literacy levels and SC considerations
for the 3 dimensions of sustainability.
Impact of Sustainability Literacy Avenues on
Sustainability Literacy Levels
e respondents attributed their current
sustainability awareness and practice levels from
TABLE 2: Respondents' sustainability literacy levels
Sustainable Construction Learning Channels/
Avenues
Mean Item
Scores (MIP)
Standard
Deviation
(SD)
Rank
Economic related practices such as ensuring
lifecycle cost eciency
3.7609 0.8215 1
Social related practices such as ensuring fair labor
practices and access by the physically challenged
3.6957 0.8912 2
Environmental related practices such as ensuring
reduction of project related emissions and
minimizing waste
3.6739 1.0552 3
Grand Mean 3.7102
Source: Field survey 2019
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TABLE 3: Respondents’ key sustainability concerns in interior design projects
Sustainable Construction Learning Channels/
Avenues
Mean Item
Scores (MIP)
Standard
Deviation
(SD)
Rank
Social related practices such as ensuring fair labor
practices and access by the physically challenged
3.8043 0.9573 1
Environmental related practices such as ensuring
reduction of project related emissions and
minimizing waste
3.7391 0.9985 2
Economic related practices such as ensuring
lifecycle cost eciency
3.2391 1.0788 3
Grand Mean 3.5942
Source: Field survey 2019
the various sustainable construction avenues, as
a whole as an average (MIS=3.1332). Informal
learning as a sustainable construction learning
avenue ranked rst, whereas construction trade
associations inuence ranked sixth. is is
summarized in Tabl e 4.
As shown in Tab l e 4 , only standard sustainability
approaches, sustainability related legislation
and policies and inuence of construction trade
associations had a mean of below 3 (average).
It can thus be argued that informal learning,
professional construction associations’ inuence,
collaboration amongst rms and formal learning
TABLE 4: Impact of sustainability literacy avenues on sustainability literacy levels
Sustainability Learning Avenue Mean Item
Scores (MIP)
Standard
Deviation
(SD)
Rank
Informal learning as apprenticeship, industrial
attachment and online sources
3.9130 1.0714 1
Construction professionals’ associations
inuence
3.4783 1.1302 2
Collaboration amongst rms 3.4783 1.2778 2
Formal learning (formal curriculum-based
education)
3.2609 1.1630 3
Standard sustainability approaches such as
BREEAM
2.9783 1.3248 4
Sustainability related legislation such as EMCA
(1999) for environmental considerations and
Employment Act (2007) for social considerations –
Laws of Kenya
2.7609 1.2505 5
Sustainability related policies 2.7609 1.3197 5
Construction trade associations inuence such
through contractor’s engagement forums
2.4348 1.1861 6
Grand Mean 3.1332
Source: Field survey 2019
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are key sustainable construction literacy avenues as
postulated by Gleeson & omson (2012); Murray
& Cotgrave (2007); Sommerville & McCarney
(2003); Higham & omson (2015).
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
e study sought to establish sustainability literacy
levels in the Kenyan construction industry. From
the ndings, the respondents registered an average
level of understanding of sustainable construction
practices (economic, environmental and social).
However, individually, the three sustainable
construction dimensions ranked as economic,
social and environmental in a descending order of
understanding levels.
Secondly, the respondents’ key sustainable
considerations were social, environment and
economic benets in a decreasing order of
consideration. is indicates a mismatch
between the sustainable construction practice
understanding/literacy levels and key sustainable
construction considerations in interior design
projects. As such, this study suggests the need
to have sustainable construction literacy drives
ne tuned to t the peculiarities of the various
construction industry market segments. is shall
ensure that such drives are comparatively eective
in informing practice.
Additionally, it was observed that the respondents
attributed their current SC literacy levels mainly
to informal learning, construction professional
associations inuence, collaboration amongst
rms and formal learning. Additionally, they
ranked the contribution to their current SC
literacy levels, standard SC approaches, legislation,
policies and construction trade associations as
below average. is study thus suggests that these
avenues, with specic reference to the ones that
were rated as having a below average impact, be
leveraged for improved sustainable construction
literacy levels.
With the negative economic, environmental
and social impacts of conventional construction
processes and activities being very clear, there
is an implied call to action to all involved
stakeholders. is implied call to action is both
at individual and collective levels. With up to
date and industry segment specic SC skills and
knowledge, the stakeholders can stimulate uptake
of sustainable construction approaches in the
construction industry. is is by incorporating in
their respective roles economic, environmental
and social impact considerations of the various
processes and/or activities they are involved in.
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